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THE GUARDIAN ANGEL. 



Nature's Secrets Revealed 

SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE OF 

The Laws of SexLife and Heredity 

OR 

EUGENICS 

Vital Information for the Married and Marriageable of All Ages$ 

a Word at the Right Time to the Boy, Girl, Young Man, 

Young Woman, Husband, Wife, Father and Mother; 

Also, Timely Help, Counsel and Instruction 

for Every Member of Every Home 



TOGETHER WITH IMPORTANT HINTS ON 

SOCIAL PURITY, HEREDITY, 
PHYSICAL MANHOOD AND WOMANHOOD 

BY NOTED SPECIALISTS 

Embracing a Department on Ethics of the Unmarried 

by 
PROFESSOR T. W. SHANNON, A. M. 

International Lecturer; Editor Eugenics Department, Uplift Magazine; President Single 

Standard Eugenic Movement; Author of Self-Knowledge, Perfect Manhood, 

Perfect Womanhood, Heredity Explained, Guide to Sex Instruction, etc. 



INTRODUCED BY 

BISHOP SAMUEL FALLOWS, D. D., LL. D. 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT BY 

W. J. TRUITT, M.D. 

formerly Associate Professor of Obstetrics, National Medical College, Chicago, 
Assisted by Celebrated Specialists 



PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE S. A. MULLIKIN COMPANY 

MULLIKIN BUILDING 

MARIETTA, - - - OHIO 
I9I0 



Copyright, 1916, by 
THE S. A. MULLIKIN COMPANY 

All rights reserved 




Copyright, 1915, by 
The S. A. Mullikin Company 



Copyright, 1914, by 
The S. A. Mullikin Company 



Copyright. 1911, by 
The S. A. Mullikin Company 

Copyright. 1904, by 
Hertel, Jenkins & Co. 



Zl/37 

fooket 



PUBLISHER'S NOTE 



Near the close of a life devoted to the study and solution 
of the problems of intemperance, Frances E. Willard said, 
"We will never solve the problems of intemperance until 
children are better born." She could have added with equal 
emphasis, "We will never solve the problems of crime, feeble- 
mindedness, and the social evil until children are better born/' 
We will never empty the jails, reformatories, penitentiaries 
and insane asylums by legislation. 

The nation is at last aroused to the fact that human life, 
the most sacred of all life, depends upon the proper teaching 
of sex life and the science of eugenics. 

"The spirit of society in the past and the attitude of our 
government," observes Prof. Shannon, the noted author who 
contributes an important department to this volume, has 
been "To protect our forests, inspect our swine and neglect 
our children." This attitude to the inherent right of chil- 
dren to be well born, is largely responsible for nearly half of 
the states being compelled to double the capacity of the penal 
and feebleminded institutions in comparative recent years. 

Physical, mental and moral degenerates are increasing out 
of proportion to the increase of normal classes. Crime 
among children is increasing two and one-half times faster 
than among adults. 

The universal demand of the day is to raise the standard 
of human life; to develop wise parenthood; and to fit young 
people for the duties and responsibilities of raising the 
standard of life in future generations. 

Children should be taught at an early age the sacredness 
of the human body. Ignorance is largely responsible for 
immorality and the double standard of morals. The evils of 
ignorance in the marriage relation are so great that to en- 
courage or even allow young people to marry without in- 
struction is criminal. These sacred and vital truths need 
to be presented as a part of the general education of every 
child. 



To properly inaugurate the true standard of social purity, 
we must first recognize that "The truth and facts about sex 
laws and hygiene are the foundation upon which this nation 
must build for the future." 

This volume has been prepared to meet the demands of 
the hour. It is an answer to the call of the times; a book 
with a purpose. It is first of all a guide to parents to a 
proper knowledge of themselves, that they may in turn be 
prepared to instruct the younger generation intelligently" 
also the right word at the right time to all ages along lines 
of eugenics, sex hygiene, purity, health, character building 
and success. 

This volume is sent forth on its mission of usefulness to 
the human race with implicit faith that it means intelligent 
guidance to the married and marriageable, the safeguarding 
of youth, wherever it goes and that thousands of homes will 
be made happier and brighter and the world a better place 
to live because of the enlightenment, help, counsel, advice 9 
earning and instruction received from its pages. 

Marietta, Ohio, April 10, 1915, The Publishers 



INTRODUCTION 

BY 
BISHOP SAMUEL FALLOWS. D. D.. LL. D. 



"'Know thyself" was the famous saying of the 
Athenian sage. "Manners maketh the man" was the 
scarcely less pregnant utterance of the great English 
writer and warrior. Self-knowledge, self-control and 
self-development with right conduct toward others are 
the foundation principles of this book. Its editors 
and compilers have gathered from the best sources the 
valuable information and instruction which crowd its 
pages. The most thoughtful men and women, who 
are recognized as authorities in physiology, psychol- 
ogy, sociology, education and the healing art, have 
their ripest views herein set forth. 

This is a work intended primarily for the home, the 
true unit of human society. "God setteth the solitary 
in families." The husband is the "house band," the 
earthly giver of life, uniting the divine with the human 
in the supreme function of fatherhood. The wife is 
"the weaver," shaping and coloring in the prenatal 
and postnatal influences of sacred motherhood the des- 
tinies of her offspring. 

To this book father and mother can go, as to a rich 
treasure-house for wealth of knowledge and wisdom to 
guide and direct their children. While the work itself 
may be kept from tender youth, the questions which 
will be asked by them, as the mysteries of being irre- 
sistibly rouse and stimulate their innocent thoughts, 
can be sufficiently answered from its contents by these 
heaven-appointed teachers of purity and truth. _ And 
just as soon as the years of maturity come, no parent 
can confer a greater boon upon son and daughter than 
to place it in their hands. "Public sentiment has 
heretofore decreed what shall be whispered in secret 
and what proclaimed from the market-tower, ' f But 

a 



4 INTRODUCTION 

an enlightened public sentiment is now demanding 
that, as the destinies of the future race are held by the 
young men and women of to-day they shall not con- 
tinue in ignorance of the most fundamental facts of 
life, as were their fathers and mothers in the days past. 
Many of these parents now clearly see the shortcom- 
ings in their home training on the part of their fore- 
bears and do not intend to perpetuate them in the 
treatment of their own families. Would that the 
number of such parents were mightily increased! 
Would that the false modesty or thoughtlessness or 
indifference in this direction might come to a perpet- 
ual end! 

Mrs. Mary E. Teats, the national evangelist of 
purity of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, 
forcibly and justly says: "The subject is as pure as 
God is pure." And with her, Marion Harland and a 
great and increasing host of noble men and women, 
in all ranks of society, heartily agree. We have 
learned as sociologists and penologists that ignorance 
is the mother of superstition, of vice, of crime, of dis- 
ease and of every species of impurity. "My people 
perish for lack of knowledge," said Jehovah in the 
Old Testament. Our jails and penitentiaries and 
reformatories and insane asylums and institutions 
for the feeble-minded are filled with inmates who 
began the course thither because of their dense 
ignorance of the laws of their physical organisms. 
Untold wretchedness and misery have been entailed 
upon countless thousands of human beings from the 
same cause. 

I wish in closing to impress anew the thought that 
no true knowledge of the human frame, so fearfully 
and wonderfully made — the masterpiece of creative 
wisdom, power and love — can ever lead to indelicacy 
of thought or action. 

I again earnestly commend this volume as a brave, 
reverent, exhaustive and practical compendium upon 
the profound and far-reaching questions with which it 
dealso Samuel Fallows 



AUTHORS CONSULTED 

IN THE PREPARATION OF THIS WORK 



Wm. Acton, M. D., M. R. C. S. 
Mary Wood Allen, M. D. 

E. D. Babbitt, M. D., LL. D. 

F. Barker, M. D. 

D. C. Black, M. D., L. E. R. C. S. 

A. H. Bradford, M. D. 

L. D. Bulkley, M. D. 

C. B. Chaddock, M. D. 

J. S. Christison, M. D. 

W. C. Clark, M. D. 

John Cowan, M. D. 

Edward Cox, M. D. 

J. D. Craig, M. D. 

J. M. DaCosta, M. D., LL. D. 

Prof. Henry Drummond. 

R. S. Dugdale(The Juke Family). 

S. B. Elliott, M. D. 

Dr. Foote. 



Prof. O. S. Fowler. 
Chas. A. Hoff, M. D. 
Victor Hugo. 
O. W. Holmes, M. D. 
H. A. Kelley, M. D. 
Dio Lewis, M. D. 
F. A. MacNicholls, M. D, 
Geo. H. Napheys, M. D« 
A. E. Newton. 
Prof. N. N. Riddell. 
Mrs. P. B. Sauer, M. D. 
James F. Scott, M. D. 
Lyman B. Sperry, M. D. 
Rev. Sylvanus Stall. 
Alice B. Stockham, M. D* 
F. A. Sturgis, M. D. 
F. C. Valentine, M, D, 
So R. Wells. 




TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 

LIFE AND ITS INFLUENCES 

PAGE 

The Beginning of Life 11 

Value of Character 14 

Influence of Associates 17 

Self-Control 20 

Habits 22 

The Home and School in Relation to Crime 24 

CHAPTER II 
MOTHER— HOME 

Mother 25 

Home 32 

The Young Woman 37 

CHAPTER III 
ETIQUETTE 

General Hints and Helps 41 

Etiquette of Calls ,. 42 

Etiquette of Visiting 43 

Good Breeding 43 

Lessons in Conversation 48 

Etiquette of Manners 49 

Etiquette at the Table 53 

CHAPTER IV 
HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 

Beauty 55 

Exercise and Health 61 

The Toilet 63 

Aids to Physical Beauty 65 

Hygienic Bathing 77 

Dress 81 

CHAPTER V 
LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 

Love 87 

Temperaments 103 

Courtship 108 

CHAPTER VI 
ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 

Dangers of Ignorance 112 

Education the Remedy „ 127 

CHAPTER VII 
MARRIAGE 

What Everybody Should Know 132 

Ethics of Marriage „ 138 

CHAPTER VIII 
AFTER MARRIAGE 

The Consummation of Marriage 149 

Chastity in the Married Relation 158 

6 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 

CHAPTER IX 

HUSBAND AND WIFE 

PAGE 

The Marriage Bed 161 

The Reproductive Organs 165 

CHAPTER X 
CHILD BEARING 

Pregnancy 167 

Painless Pregnancy and Childbirth 175 

Confinement 181 

Mother and Child 188 

CHAPTER XI 

THE FAMILY 

Limitation of Offspring 197 

The Unwelcome Child 205 

CHAPTER XII 
CHILDREN 

Puberty 209 

Origin of Life 215 

Prenatal Influences 216 

Heredity 224 

Prenatal Culture 238 

CHAPTER XIII 
THE YOUNG MAN 

The Road to Success 244 

Self-Restraint 248 

CHAPTER XIV 
CHASTITY AND UNCHASTITY 253 

CHAPTER XV 
SELF-POLLUTION 257 

CHAPTER XVI 
DISEASES PECULIAR TO MEN 

Spermatorrhea 264 

Secret Diseases 267 

CHAPTER XVII 
THE SOCIAL EVIL 375 

CHAPTER XVIII 
CLIMACTERIC PERIOD 285 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT 

CHAPTER XIX 
DIETETICS 

Foods 289 

Dieting 294 

Peptonized Foods 302 



8 TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XX 

CARE OF CHILDREN 

PAGB 

Foods and Feeding • 307 

Diseases of Infants.... 311 

Diseases Peculiar to Childhood 315 

CHAPTER XXI 
DISEASES PECULIAR TO "WOMEN • 332 

CHAPTER XXII 
DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 340, 

CHAPTER XXIII 
DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF CIRCULATION 359 

CHAPTER XXIV 
DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 370 

CHAPTER XXV 
DISEASES OF THE URINARY ORGANS ■ 391 

CHAPTER XXVI 
DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 399 

CHAPTER XXVII 
DISEASES OF ORGANS OF LOCOMOTION 408 

CHAPTER XXVIII 
SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 415 

CHAPTER XXIX 
TREATMENT OF VENEREAL DISEASES 442 

CHAPTER XXX 

MISCELLANEOUS 
_^ TWILIGHT SLEEP 452 

CHAPTER XXXI 
Prescriptions 468 

CHAPTER XXXII 

Glossary 514 

Index , 569 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



COLORED PLATES 

1. The Guardian Angel Frontispiece 

2. What Will His Future Be? Facing page 11 

3. What Will Her Future Be? " 257 

4. He That Is Without Sin Among You 275 

5. Organs of Circulation , " 341 

6. Heart, Lungs and Liver 385 

7. Stomach and Kidneys 391 

8. Skin Diseases and Fevers 415 

HALFTONES 

Page 

Off for School 12 

Evening Prayer 13 

Chums 16 

Influence of Associates 18 

Home Influences 19 

Imitating Father 21 

Responsibilities of Motherhood 26 

Mother — Eternities Can Not Outweigh Her Influence 31 

Queen Louise and Her Sons 33 

A Happy Home 34 

This Pig Went to Market 36 

"Will He No' Come Back Again"? 38 

The Sweet Girl Graduate 44 

Friendship 46 

Gossip . , 47 

Chums in the Home 50 

Health and Beauty 55 

First Gliimpse of the Woods 57 

Contented and Happy 59 

Healthful Exercise 62 

Enjoying Her Vacation 64 

Purity 74 

Ready for a Frolic 76 

Apollo Belvedere 79 

Court Dress of the Sixteenth Century 82 

An Early Morning Outing 84 

Romeo and Juliet - 88 

Proper Relations of Children 90 

Harmony 92 

The Same Sweet, Old Story 93 

Where Nature Adds Her Charm 94 

A Bashful Beau 96 

Dreaming of the Future 106 

Love's Missive 109 

Father and Daughter 110 

A Serious Consideration 112 

Looking into the Distance 113 

The Wedding Procession 133 

The Bride 135 

Can It Be He Is Untrue? 139 

Welcoming Daddy Home - 143 

True Bliss 151 

The Christening 152 



Motherhood . . . . 157 

Results of Conception when the Father Was Intoxicated... 160 

Neglected . t 161 

A Healthy Mother' and ' Child! . . ... 173 

Coming- to Earthly Home 180 

Mother and Child 185 

The First-Born 187 

A Thriving Little Fellow 189 

Writing to Papa 193 

A Happy Mother 198 

The Sunshine of the Home 200 

A Mother's . Love 202 

No Home Complete Without Them 204 

An Uninvited Guest 206 

An Unexpected Meeting 210 

Asleep on Duty 212 

Loved and Protected 230 

Abused and Neglected 231 

A Fortunate Youngster 234 

"Time To Get Up" 237 

The Motherly Instinct of Girlhood 239 

The Center of Attraction — Back on Furlough 245 

A Father's Advice to His Son 246 

A Fine Prospect 249 

David — A Noble Young Man of Long Ago 251 

Innocent Childhood 260 

Honored and Respected 265 

Refinement 277 

Homeless and Friendless 281 

Somebody's Darlings 283 

Playing at Doctor 303 

He Has His Troubles, Too 308 

Baby 312 

Worn Out 315 

His Morning Stroll 321 

Meditation 324 

Friends 328 

Troubles of His Own 360 

The Doctor Called Out 427 

A "Twilight Sleep" Balby and Mother of Pennsylvania 453 

"Twilight Sleep" Babies, at a New York City Hospital 464 

EXPLANATORY CUTS 

Correct Form and Proportions of Male and Female 60 

Semen Highly Magnified 164 

The Bladder and Urethra 165 

Female Organs of Generation 168 

The Pelvis 176 

Nature versus Corsets 177 

Ovum of Six Months' Age 208 

Embryo of Twelve and Twenty-one Days 215 

Head of Human Embryo at End of Second Month 216 

Embryo of Thirty Days 217 

Embryo of Forty-five Days 217 

Fetal Side of Placenta 217 

Maternal Side of Placenta 217 

Fourth Position of Vertex 218 

Twin Embryos 220 

Lateral Section of the Female Pelvis, with Its Contents 223 

Diagrams Showing Positions of Twins in Utero 226 

The Muscles, Anterior and Posterior Views 274 

Arteries and Veins of the Head and Neck 450 

The Vessels of the Head and Neck 451 

10 



WHAT 
WILL HIS 





At 21 
Tmpurity ind drunkenness. 




Vice and crim 





*T»HOUSANDS of bQJS 
such as the above 
illustration represents are 
growing up in this fair 
country of ours. Bright, 
manly little fellows. How 
many of them through 
ignorance and improper 
training will take the 
course pictured on the left, 
wrecking their lives and 
breaking mothers' hearts. 
Will yours be one of them? 

At sixteen playing tru- 
ant and smoking cigar- 
ettes; at twenty-one impure 
in thought and deed anu a 
saloon loafer; at thirty a 
thug and desperate char- 
acter; and at forty-five a 
confirmed criminal and 
physical wreck. 

Or through Christian 
influence and mothers' 
prayers how many will be 
at sixteen possessed of 
clean habits, and studious; 
at twenty possessed of 
manly purity, and indus- 
trious ; at thirty rewarded 
with success and man- 
hood's best gifts; and at 
seventy looking back over 
an honorable and useful 
career. 



FUTURE 
BE? 




At 16 
Clean and studio 




At 21 




Manliness and success. 




Jail-bird and degenerate. 



At 70 
Honored and respected. 



THE WIDE AND THE NARROW WAY. 



CHAPTER I 
LIFE AND ITS INFLUENCES 



SECTION ONE— THE BEGINNING OF LIFE 

Aim of this Work. — The aim of this work is to make people 
happier through knowledge. All people will not act, though 
they may know what is best and right to do. But we have a 
buoyant faith that many will act on learning what is best to do; 
not perfectly, perhaps, but sufficiently to largely improve the 
habits of life, and to give more peace, joy and pleasure to 
humanity. 

Let in the Light. — The past few years have been rich in 
scientific discoveries, especially so in facts relating to the physi- 
ology of man and woman, and the diseases peculiar to the sexes. 
This information should not be kept under lock and key. The 
better plan is to educate the old and the young alike upon the 
subject of health. This should be done not only in relation to 
the general hygiene of life, but especially in regard to the rela- 
tions of the two sexes, and the diseases and dangers which 
spring therefrom. 

Knowledge is Safety.— If the amount of suffering, inher- 
ited and not inherited, could be fully known, thoughtful parents 
would be startled into activity, and would seek, as best they 
could, by proper study, to give the coming generation, so far as 
health and morals can do it, a happier lot. 

The Step from Boyhood to Man's Estate.— One author 
says that it matters not whether a man lives to middle life or to 
old age, the first twenty years is the greater half of his life on 
earth. Perhaps if we take into consideration the effects of this 
young life as projected into the future, this may be true. Old 
people well know that the memories of these twenty years fasten 
themselves on the mind more firmly than do the memories of 
any or all of the future years. 

Hitherto the life has been a sucker from the parent growth. 
The shoot which has been nourished under the shelter of the 
parent stem, and bent according to its inclination, is now to be 
transferred to the open world of opportunity, where it must take 
root and grow into its own strength. 

Ignorance not the Mother of Pnrity.— A large, intelligent 
and respectable class in every community insist that no ta- 
ll 




OFF FOR SCHOOL. 



LIFE AND ITS INFLUENCES 



13 



ing relating exclusively to either sex should become a subject of 
popular medical instruction. These people are not prudes — that 
is, not all of them — but it is a manifestation of the spirit of 
prudery. Ignorance is no more the mother of purity than it is 
of religion. Intelligence can never work injury to him who is 
looking for the truth. 

Ignorance, Source of Crime. — Were people generally in- 
formed of the dangers surrounding the relation of the sexes, 
of the dreadful results of the violation of sexual laws, of the 




EVENING PRAYER. 

Who can estimate the power and influence, either for good or bad, 
that may be wrapped up in an innocent child! 

( The familiar prayer, "Now I lay me down to sleep," taught at moth- 
er's knee, has been the means of bringing home many a prodigal son and 
daughter 

fertile sources of crimes springing therefrom, one of the greatest 
blessings would come to poor, suffering humanity. 

Ignorance is, directly or indirectly, the source of most crimes 
and of most physical and mental suffering. The ignorance may 
not all be in the young bandit or the poor sufferer. Some of it» 
perhaps most of it, may have resided in the parents. 



14 LIFE AND ITS INFLUENCES 

Millions of people are to-day sufferers, mentally, physically 
or morally, because of the ignorance or vicious conduct of their 
parents. 

Beginnings, Fair and Fatal. — "Well begun is half com- 
pleted," is the old proverb. A good beginning is a promise of 
success. We say a "promise," not an absolute assurance. 
Neither is a poor beginning a positive forerunner of a bad end- 
ing. But the beginning, good or bad, has a tremendous influ- 
ence on the future life of a young man or woman. 

Life is a Battle.— No question about that in the minds of 
those who have lived to ripe old age. Before the battle is won, 
many will say with the poet: 

" The day is long and the day is hard, 
We are tired of the march and of keeping guard; 
Tired of the sense of a fight to be won, 
Of days to live through and of work to be done; 
Tired of ourselves and of being alone. 
Yet all the while, did we only see, 
We walk in the Lord's own company. 
We fight, but 'tis He who nerves our arm; 
He turns the arrows that else might harm. 
And out of the storm He brings a calm; 
And the work that we count so hard to do, 
He makes it easy, for He works, too; 
And the days that seem long to live are His, 
A bit of His bright eternities; and close to our need His 
helping is." 

Health a Duty. — Man is not only responsible for his own 
health, but also for the health of his offspring. Disease, moral 
and physical, is entailed by disobedience to nature's laws. 
Evils, physical and moral, are inflicted on the descendants by 
the parents. Our own generation is suffering because of the 
bad living and conduct of preceding generations. Purity of 
thought and body must be taught in the home. Parents should 
wake up to the importance of this subject. 



SECTION TWO—VALUE OF CHARACTER 

Reputation and Character. — Reputation is what others think 
of us; character is what we are. The word character, in its pri- 
mary meaning, signifies a stamp, an engraved mark. Character 
is the stamp of our nature, or that which marks our very being. 
Reputation usually flows from character, but not always. 
Character is fundamental; a part of us. Reputation is tran- 
sitory, and may be false or true. 

A good character, then, is the first object of interest to every* 
one who desires a good name. 



LIFE AND ITS INFLUENCES 15 

A Good Name. — Who can measure the value of a good name, 
based on a noble character? Who shall repair it, if injured? 
Who can redeem it, if lost? Without it, gold has no value; birth, 
no distinction; station, no dignity; beauty, no charm; age, no 
reverence. Without it, wealth impoverishes; grace deforms; 
dignity degrades. 

The legacy of a good name is beyond value. Rich is the 
inheritance it leaves; precious is the hope it inspires. 

My Good Name. — "A good name is rather to be chosen than 
great riches, and loving favor rather than silver and gold." — 
Prov. 22:1. He who robs me of my property, takes what can be 
repaired by time and opportunity; but who can repair the ruin 
of a good name? He who maims my body, injures that which 
may be healed; but what or who can heal the wounds of slan- 
der? He who ridicules my poverty, upbraids me with that which 
industry may retrieve; what wealth can redeem the bankrupt 
character? 

The Basis of a Good Name. — A business man who always 
meets his financial obligations is said to have a good name, and 
yet his character may be corrupt. A good name, when used in 
a moral sense, is based upon character. A man with a perfect 
character, may not, for a time at least, have a good name among 
his fellows. But such cases are exceptions, and come about 
through some misunderstanding. A good name and a pure 
character are two halves of the same thing. To have a good 
name that will stand the test when worlds are on fire, one must 
have an uncorrupted nature — a pure, noble character. To seek 
a good name without building upon character is to build upon 
the sand. Character first, reputation second 

Fame. — "Fame is an undertaker that pays but little atten- 
tion to the living, but he furnishes out their funerals and follows 
them to the grave." 

The meaning of the word fame may be seen from its opposite, 
*«famous. That is, one may be utterly without fame. If fame 
implies only notoriety, then infamous would imply only one with- 
out notoriety. But infamous means having an odious reputa- 
tion — a positive, not a negative meaning. 

Socrates said: "Fame is a perfume of heroic deeds." Shake- 
speare's words are: "He lives in fame who died in virtue's 
cause." 

The Making of Character. — All life is a season of character- 
growing. We are left in this world, not so much for what we 
may do here, for the things we may make, as that we ourselves 
may grow into the beauty of God's thought for us. In the midst 
of all our occupations and struggles, all our doing of tasks, all 
our longings and desires, all our experiences of every kind, there 
is a work going on in us which is quite as important as anything 
we are doing with our mind or with our hands. 

In the school the boy has his tasks and lessons. According 



16 



LIFE AND ITS INFLUENCES 



as he is diligent or indolent is his progress in his studies. Ic 
ten years, if he is faithful, he masters many things and stands 
high in his class. Or, if he is indifferent and careless, he gets 
only a smattering of knowledge, with so many links missing that 
his education is of little practical use to him. But meanwhile 
there has been going on in him another education — a growth or 



" 






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w 

mi 

.'■' "'■■■ 
4J ^ 




: : 

jigs 


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CHUMS. 



development of character. The mind grows by exercise, just as 
the body does. Each lesson learned adds its new fact to the 
measure of knowledge; but there is, besides, an effect produced 
upon the mind itself by the effort to learn. It grows by exercise. 
fetter far, form than reform character. 



LIFE AND ITS INFLUENCES 17 

Quit singing, "Oh, to be nothing," and try to be something, 
somebody. 

A man who is undergirded by the arms of the Almighty can 
not be crushed. 



SECTION THREE— INFLUENCE OF ASSOCIATES 

Character and Companionships.— General Garfield said: "I 
feel a profounder reverence for a boy than for a man. I never 
meet a ragged boy on the streets without feeling that I owe him 
a salute, for I know not what possibilities may be buttoned up 
under his shabby coat." 

These words embody a truth felt instinctively by many per- 
sons of less note than President Garfield. 

The Two Paths. — Oh, the possibilities wrapped up in young 
manhood or womanhood! Possibilities for good as high as the 
heavens; possibilities for evil as deep as demons can make them. 
Two young persons may start out on life's journey with abso- 
lutely the same or equal chances; that is, so far as outward 
appearances can tell us. Yet the journey's end may be as far 
asunder as the east is from the west. 

All this difference may rest — and in many cases, does so rest 
— in the companionships selected by either. True, the choice 
of companions may, and possibly does, have its origin in the 
inner character of the individual. 

Love the Culpable and Die with the Criminal. — "A man is 

known by the company he keeps," is an old adage. "Persons 
who walk much with the lame, learn instinctively to walk with 
a hitch or limp like their lame friends." 

One may be ever so pure, if he associate with bad companions 
he will fall into bad odor. Listen! He who loves to laugh at 
folly, is himself a fool. 

If one would rather take the lowest seat among the good 
than the highest seat among the profane and vulgar, he has 
already started on the high road to virtue and success. 

Choice of Friends. — Be careful in choosing associates and 
slow to change them, if of the right character. Friends should 
not be like old clothes, which, when we have worn threadbare, 
we cast off and call for new. One who often changes his 
friendships never has any warm friends. 

Without Wax. — Many people who subscribe themselves in 
their letters "your sincere friend," are not acquainted with what 
may seem the odd derivation of the adjective sincere. It is from 
two Latin words, sine, without, and cera, wax. What such a 
derivation can have to do with the virtue of sincerity is rather 
puzzling when we first think of it, but after reflecting that one 
of the meanings of sincerity is purity and that honey from 
which all the wax has been strained is called pure honey, we 



18 



LIFE AND ITS INFLUENCES 



seem to have rather more light on the subject. A friend whose 
regard for us is pure, or, to use a more suitable word, is genuine, 
is a friend who may be trusted. Such friends make no profes- 
sions that they do not mean. 

Bad Books.— One-half of the youth in our prisons and houses 
of correction started on their evil careers by reading bad books, 
or at best, worthless novels. These books are the nicotine and 




INFLUENCE OF ASSOCIATES, 



alcohol of literature; they poison, and burn, and blast the head 
and heart as surely as their cousins do the stomach. 

Perhaps we have all heard the story of Garfield when a boy* 
By reading The Pirates' Own Book, he was, for a time, deter- 
mined to go to sea. It took all the power of will of his good 
mother to persuade the fatherless boy to stay on land. But 




HOME INFLUENCES. 



20 LIFE AND ITS INFLUENCES 

many another lad, who had no good mother to direct his path, 
read that same book, or others like it, and went to ruin. 

Ruined by Bad Books.— An eighteen-year-old girl living in 
Elgin, 111., suspected of being the writer of threatening letters 
received by David C. Cook, the Sunday-school literature pub- 
lisher, and other persons of that city, on being arrested and 
tried, confessed that it had been the reading of bad books that 
led her into crime, and that she herself was alone responsible 
for the threats to blow up people and property if money was not 
forthcoming. No one can estimate the amount of crime and 
lawlessness that is directly traceable to the dime novel and 
other pernicious literature. 

Bad Pictures.— Bad reading burns deeper than does filthy 
conversation, and bad pictures, perhaps, make deeper scars 
than do bad books. Both burn very deeply into the souls of 
boys and girls, young men and young women. 

Dr. Leonard, a leading divine in the United States, tells of 
the dreadful effects of foul pictures shown him by a German 
shoemaker, when a boy. Dr. Leonard, like thousands of other 
pure men, would give his good right arm if these vile pictures 
could be forgotten. 



SECTION FOUR— SELF-CONTROL 

Virtue has its roots in the ability and disposition to govern 
one's self. In the absence of self-control, we have the drunk- 
ard, the libertine, the debased. The loftiest freedom is the 
result of perfect self-control; passions and impulses unbridled 
bind with the strongest chains. 

Words that Sting. — James says: "If any man offend not in 
word, the same is a perfect man, and able also to bridle the 
whole body." Also, "The tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity, 
* * * and setteth on fire the course of nature; and is set on fire 
of hell." 

These are the words of another: "Heaven, keep us from the 
destroying power of words! There are words that sever hearts 
more than do sharp swords; there are words the point of which 
sting the heart through the course of a whole life." 

Strong Drink.— Through the testimony of an English writer, 
we learn that a large per cent, of the noted English writers of 
the sixteenth and sevente'enth centuries were bound by the 
chains of intemperance. 

Some of the noblest men of our own America have been 
wrecked in character, fortune and fame by the awful power of 
strong drink. 

Lack of Self-Control. — The habit of strong drink arises from 
the lack of self-control. The lack of power to control one's self 
may not lie in the original character of the individual. That is 




IMITATING FATHER. 



m LIFE AND ITS INFLUENCES 

to say, it may not be an inherent weakness of the character. 
But those nerves of ours may be so trained, humored, abused 
or injured by the use of narcotics in the form of alcohol or 
opiates, that it is not in the power of the will to control them in 
their demands. 

Where the Real Danger Lies. — All men may easily control 
themselves, if they have complete command of their nerve 
powers. The danger, then, lies in the loss of control of the 
nervous system, which, of course, includes the brain fiber. 

To put it in another way. A child that is permitted to have 
Its own way; that is, not held in restraint, in time becomes mas- 
ter over his parents. 

The nerve forces of the body are to be controlled. It is pos- 
sible, as millions of drunkards and opium eaters can testify, for 
the nerves to become uncontrollable. 

Total Abstinence. — Herein lies the wisdom of total absti- 
nence from all narcotic poisons. We may be strong in our 
young manhood, and fear no evil. But is there any prophet 
that can foretell which shall ultimately be the master, the indi- 
vidual will or the appetities made fierce through self indulgence? 

Sexual Passions. — All that has been said in the preceding 
paragraphs holds good also in the other passions of the body. 
Which shall be master? If the passions have been indulged, if 
the nerve fiber has been wasted by improper use, the pas- 
sions can not properly be controlled. 



SECTION FIVE— HABITS 

Nerve Centers of the Brain.— It is well known to physiolo- 
gists that the brain has departments. Each department has its 
specific work to do. Each faculty of the mind and organ of the 
body has its own nerve center in the brain. 

Carefully remove the cerebellum, without injury to the cere- 
brum, from a live bird, and it can still see, think, hear and move 
its head and body, but can neither fly nor walk. It has lost its 
power of locomotion. 

Remove the cerebrum without disturbing the cerebellum, 
and the bird can walk and fly, but knows no more of what is 
going on around it than does a tree. 

Injured Brain. — If any part of the brain of man be injured 
or removed, the mental or physical powers having their nerve 
centers in the injured part will be affected. 

The cause of loss or gain of power over special organs lies in 
the injury or growth of the brain-cells governing these parts. 

Brain Development. — Another law is that if any organ of the 
brain or body be used properly, it will grow in vitality and 
power; if not used, it will lose what power it had. 



LIFE AND ITS INFLUENCES 2J 

The Law of Habit. — The preacher can easily prepare and 
deliver his sermon; the lawyer, his brief and plea. Reverse the 
order. Each will find it many fold more difficult, were the law- 
yer to prepare t nd deliver the sermon, the preacher the plea to 
the jury 

1 start for the post-office; I have the choice of two routes. I 
have been in the habit of going one way; circumstances make it 
necessary for me to go by the other route. It requires an effort 
of the will for me to do so. Each time habit persistently pulls 
me the other way. That is to say, habit has a physiological 
and a psychological basis. 

Force of Habit. — Habit may make such a well-beaten path 
that it may become almost impossible tor the will to change a 
course of action or life. This is the fundamental reason why 
old people seldom change their politics, religion and method of 
life. The very nerve fiber of their bodies has been wrought 
into their mental and moral being. 

Whether the road of habit leads upward or downward, it 
makes no difference; the law of habit works the same. 

Carlyle says: "Habit is the deepest law of human nature, 
It is our supreme strength, if also, in certain circumstances, our 
miserablest weakness. Let me go once, scanning my way with 
any earnestness of outlook and successfully arriving, my foot 
steps are an invitation to me to go the second time the same 
way; it is easier than any other way. Habit is our primal f und= 
amental law — habit and imitation ; there is nothing more peren^ 
nial in us than those two. They are the source of all working 
and all apprenticeship, of all practice and all learning in the 
world." 

Habits Formed in Early Life.— Our real strength in life 
depends upon habits formed in early life. The young man who 
sows his wild oats and indulges in the social cup, is fastening 
chains upon himself that never can be broken. The innocent 
youth by solitary practice of self-abuse will fasten upon himsel: 
a habit which will wreck his physical constitution and bring 
suffering and misery and ruin. Young man and young woman, 
beware of bad habits formed in early life. 

Good Habits. — How essential to live a well-regulated life and 
cultivate the best qualities ! "There, that's the thing to do; go 
and do it." Punctuality: without which much time is lost and 
others are disappointed. Accuracy: without this great and 
serious mistakes are made which prove most hurtful and injuri- 
ous to society. Steadiness: without this things are hurried over 
and nothing is done properly. Pro7nptitude: without this oppor- 
tunities of great importance are lost, which can never be recalled. 
Habits are the very life-blood of our existence. We may remove 
many things; we can cast off old clothes, leave an unhealthy 
house or neighborhood and forsake a disagreeable companion, 
but we can not so easily cast off old habits. They c?ing to us 
through life and affect our state in another world. 



14 LIFE AND ITS INFLUENCES 

SECTION SIX— THE HOME AND SCHOOL IN 
RELATION TO CRIME 

A German Author on educational subjects has recently col- 
lected and studied thirty German writers on pedagogical sub- 
jects since Pestalozzi's time, and has catalogued all the words 
they used in describing the faults of children. There were the 
astounding number of nine hundred and fourteen, far more than 
their virtues. 

These were classified as "native and of external origin, acute 
and chronic, egoistic and altruistic, perverted honor, self-will, lazi- 
ness, frivolity, distraction, precocity, timidity, envy and male- 
volence, ingratitude, quarrelsomeness, cruelty and superstition." 

Causes of Crime. — We may condense the causes of crime 
among adolescents in the following enumeration: Heredity, bad 
antenatal conditions, unhealthy infancy and childhood, over- 
crowded slums, promiscuous herding together — in a word, bad 
homes. The statistics of every reformatory and industrial school 
for delinquent children show that the great majority of inmates 
come from this class of homes. 

The Public School Defended. — Unjust aspersions have been 
cast upon our common-school system by the charge that they 
foster crime through the education imparted and from the want 
of moral training. But it is easy to see how the work of the 
teacher is hindered, when pupils, however well they may be 
trained in school, are subjected continually to the malign influ- 
ences of evil home surroundings. It must be remembered that 
the average school attendance, the country through, is scarcely 
live years. 

A Boy's School Life. — Probably the average attendance of 
each boy in the rural and city schools is not more than 6 
months in the year. The entire schooling of the average boy 
would be comprised, therefore, within 30 months or 120 weeks, or 
about 600 school days. Reckoning 6 hours for a school day, 
the boy would be under direct school influence 3,600 hours. 
Now, during that period he is within the influence of the home, 
directly or indirectly, 60 months, or 1,800 days, or 43,200 hours. 
Deducting the 3,600 hours the boy is at school, leaves 39,600 
hours. The school ratio, therefore, to the home is 1 to 11. 
Then take the multiplied thousands of hours for which the home 
is responsible outside the school years mentioned, and we see 
the tremendous responsibility which rests upon the guardians of 
the household. When the inmates of the reformatories and 
industrial schools are considered with relation to the number of 
actual days or hours in attendance upon school, as evidenced 
by the low grade they have attained before entrance into these 
institutions, the ratio of their school hours to the home hours 
will be 1 to 22; that is, for 1,800 hours spent in school, 39,600 
will be the hours for which the home is responsible. 

The French Educator Bonjean forcibly says: "We caa not 
sterilize the bouillon of culture of the microbes of vice and crime 
except by wholesome parental correction." 



CHAPTER II 

MOTHER— HOME 



SECTION ONE— MOTHER 

Mother, "the divinity of infancy." 

Mother, "the angel spirit of home." 

Mother, "both the evening and the morning star of life." 

Blessed Mothers. — Know you what especially impels me to 
industry? My mother. I shall endeavor to sweeten a part of 
her life that otherwise has been so unfortunate and lessen by my 
help and sympathy the great sorrows she has suffered. To her 
alone I owe the foundation of my mind and heart.— Jean Paul 
Richter. 

George Herbert said: "One good mother is worth a hundred 
schoolmasters. In the home she is a loadstone to all hearts and 
loadstar to all eyes." 

De Maistre, in his writings, speaks of his mother with im- 
mense love and reverence. He described her as his "sublime 
mother," "an angel, to whom God had lent a body for a brief 
season." To her he attributed the bent of his character and 
her precepts were the ruling influence of his life. 

One charming feature in the character of Samuel Johnson 
(notwithstanding his rough exterior) was the tenderness with 
which he invariably spoke of his mother, who implanted in his 
mind his first impressions of religion. In the time of his great- 
est difficulties he contributed out of his slender means to her 
comfort. 

Cromwell's mother was a woman of spirit and energy equal 
to her mildness and patience, whose pride was honesty and 
whose passion was love and whose only care, amidst all her 
splendor, was for the safety of her son in his dangerous emi- 
nence. 

Curran speaks with great affection of his mother, to whose 
counsel, piety and ambition he attributed his success in life. 
He used to say, "If I possess anything more valuable than face 
or person or wealth, it is that a dear parent gave her child a 
portion from the treasure of her mind." 

It was Ary Scheffer's mother, whose beautiful features the 
painter so loved to reproduce in his pictures, that by great self- 
denial provided him with the means of pursuing the study of 
art. 

Michelet writes: "I lost my mother thirty years ago; nevertho. 

25 




RESPONSIBILITIES OF MOTHERHOOD. 



MOTHER— HOME 21 

less, she follows me from age to age. She suffered with me in 
my poverty and was not allowed to share my better fortune." 

Napoleon Bonaparte was accustomed to say that "the future 
good or bad conduct of a child depended entirely on the mother." 
Nobody had any command over him except his mother, who 
found means, by a mixture of tenderness, severity and justice, 
to make him love, respect and obey her. 

Goethe owed the bias of his mind and character to his mother, 
who possessed in a high degree theart of stimulating young and 
active minds. "She was worthy of life," once said Goethe, and 
when he visited Frankfort he sought out every individual who 
had been kind to her and thanked them all. 

Grandmother's Birthday.— Honor the dear old mother and 
make your love plain to her. Doubtless she is the object of 
much tender love and holy reverence. But have you manifested 
your affection as plainly as you should? You feel a worthy 
pride in her long and useful career. But to her own retrospect, 
life's history is largely a record of failure; of efforts defeated 
and anticipations unfulfilled. She needs encouragement. Let 
her hear the praise that you feel she deserves. It will not make 
her vain, but may give her needed comfort. Let her have all 
the help of all sorts that love can bring her. 

A lady who spent some time among the peasants of the 
Tyrol, writes the following: 

"The morning after our arrival we were awakened by the 
sound of a violin and flutes under the window, and hurrying 
down found the little house adorned as for a feast — garlands 
over the door and wreathing a high chair which was set in state. 
The table was already covered with gifts, brought by the young 
people whose music we had heard. The whole neighborhood 
were kinsfolk, and these gifts came from uncles and cousins in 
every far-off degree. They were very simple, for the donors are 
poor — knitted gloves, a shawl, baskets of flowers, jars of fruits, 
loaves of bread; but upon all some little message of love was 
pinned. 'Is there a bride in the house?' I asked of my landlord. 
'Oh, no,' he said. 'We do not make such a bother about our 
young people. It is grandmother's birthday.' 

"The grandmother, in her spectacles, white apron and high 
velvet cap, was a heroine all day, sitting in state to receive visits 
and dealing out slices from a sweet loaf to each one who came." 

A Pathetic Incident. — It was at the Grand Central station, 
and we were waiting for a train. Near us, in the waiting-room, 
sat an old lady, dressed in the deepest mourning; a young 
woman sat at her side, who was evidently her companion in the 
journey. 

"Don't you think we had better telegraph Mary that we are 
here?" the old lady asked. "It seems so strange that she hasn't 
come to meet us; maybe she didn't get the letter." 

But just at that moment a lady approached the new comers. 
It was very warm, and from her appearance it was evident that 



28 MOTHER— HOME 

she had made a hurried trip to the station. She was not glad 
to see these travelers, however, for her welcome was anything 
but cordial. 

"We thought maybe you didn't get the letter about our com- 
ing," the old lady said. 

"Yes, I got it this morning, but I've been running all over 
the neighborhood to find you a room, and I'm about sick over it. 
Whatever possessed you to come to the city in this hot weather, 
mother? We haven't a place for you in our flat, and they can't 

possibly have you at 's, with their four children. I don't 

see why you ever let her come here!" This with a glance of dis- 
approval on the young woman. 

"She was determined to come, Mary, and besides, I don't see 
how I can keep her this summer, with all those city boarders." 

"What have you got in all those bundles, mother?" the first 
speaker asked, in an unpleasant tone of voice, as her eye fell on 
several large bundles lying at the old lady's side. 

"Clothes," she answered, in a trembling voice. 

"I'm surprised that you should have allowed her to bring all 
that old truck. Where is she going to put it, I'd like to know!" 
This to the young woman. 

"Well, what could I do about it, Mary? She would bring all 
her things with her." 

They Didn't Want Her.— "Now, I'll tell you, mother, just 
what we think best for you to do. As soon as I got your letter 

I had John telegraph to N to see if they could take you in 

there, and G said they could make room for you for a few 

days, but not any longer. And we all think the very best place 
for you to go is to an old ladies' home somewhere, a real nice 
one, of course, where you could have your own room and every 
comfort. You see you are too old to be running about the coun- 
try, and too old to be of any use now to anybody anywhere. 
Don't you think that is the best thing you can do yourself?" 

By this time the old lady was shaking violently and great 
beads of perspiration stood out on her forehead. The plan had 
been sprung upon her in such an unfeeling manner! 

The station was crowded with people in the vicinity of this 
scene and the faces of the listeners looked horrified. The peo- 
ple who had been obliged to witness this meeting at the station 
were all in sympathy with the poor old mother, their hearts 
went out to her and they looked tenderly toward her. 

It was our train time and we had to go, and do not know 
what was done with "mother," but as we passed we heard the 
old soul timidly ask: "How is John?" and the answer: "Oh, he 
is well, but of course he could not leave his business to come up 
here in the middle of the day to meet you." 

The pitiful, disappointed, distressed look on that poor old 
mother's face has been before us ever since we saw it that day 
in the station. 

A Better Way, — We know nothing of the circumstances of 



MOTHER— HOME 29 

(the case, only as we judged from the conversation we heard. 
But we know that those younger, stronger women, who evidently 
did not wish the burden of the care of their own mother, or their 
husband's mother, did a most cruel wrong in the manner they 
treated the one who had done her work in life and by reason of 
age and feebleness could not be of use to them longer. Oh, the 
pity of it all! 

Passing to the outgoing train with a dear child at hand to see 
that mother got off all right and had all the comforts necessary 
for the journey, we thought how thankful mothers ought to be 
for good, thoughtful, loving children, children who do not feel 
that they have no room for mother, but who are always glad to 
have her come to them, and always sorry to have her go away. 

Mother's Leisure. — The following little picture, as painted 
by Emma A. Lente, has many things in common with our own 
dear home. Let us all learn the lesson herein given before it is 
too late. 

The members of the family, from youngest to oldest, would 
have been astonished had anyone suggested that they were 
cruel or even hard to mother. They loved her dearly, of 
course; they loved her better than anyone else in all the world. 

Who but mother could know the place and the time and the 
how of everything, wait on everybody in health as well as in 
sickness, and keep all the intricate machinery of the household 
in smoothly running order? 

The busy father trusted all domestic matters to her; he even 
brought her some of his business worries. The grown daugh- 
ters dusted the parlors, watered the plants and fed the canary. 
Then perhaps some of the girls happened in, or there was some- 
thing to go to, and they hurried away, oblivious of the fact that 
the dressmaker was in the house, or that there were visitors; 
whatever extra burdens came in the way were allowed to fall 
upon mother's shoulders as a matter of course. 

The big boys — loving, thoughtless fellows — had not lost their 
dependence on her, and zealously she looked after their comfort, 
their studies, their play and their friends. Often they had 
their own invited company in the house. 

Leagues and clubs and guilds called the young people here 
and there, until there seemed hardly time enough for everything. 
But always there was one at home to attend to the fires and 
lights, rearrange the littered rooms, prepare luncheon, and set 
all matters in order for the night and early morning. That one 
was mother. 

The smaller children came to her, as a matter of course, with 
everything that interested them — questions, disagreements, 
problems, requests and hurts. She had wisdom to solve and 
to guide, patience for the endless questions, puzzles and hard 
knots, and arnica, court-plaster and kisses to heal the hurts 
and dry the tears. 

She was willing to do all this— how willing! But as time 
went on she grew ve^y tired — tired in body and brain and soul c 



30 MOTHER— HOME 

A Sad Change. — Finally, a morning came when mother had 
nothing to do. There was breakfast, and after that the dishes; 
the children to get off to school, the house to be put to rights^ 
and the dinner to plan and cook; but she was as far removed 
from the care and anxiety and labor of it as if she were removed 
to another world. 

"Complete collapse! Worked and worried to death!" said 
the indignant old doctor. 

"But she will live! O doctor, say that she will live!" 

"Can't say! Shouldn't think she'd want to! But we'll fight 
for her life to the last breath; you may be very sure of that!" 

The members of the family, shocked and stunned, gazed 
wildly at each other. As soon expect the clock to go without its 
mainspring as that household to go on without its caretaker, its 
burden-bearer, its manager and chief. 

They wandered about with helpless hands and questioning 
hearts, pondering and resenting the old doctor's impatient 
words; but as days and nights went by, and one or another was 
forced to take up the details and cares of daily existence, they 
came to understand what heavy burdens had been laid upon the 
frail, shadowy being who lay upstairs in that darkened room, 
where a footfall, or even a whispered word, set all the unstrung 
nerves a-quiver. 

At last, slowly, the tide of life swung backward; each day 
there was a little gain. With the first strength came the ques- 
tion: "How do you get along without me? Oh, I must hurry to 
get well." 

"She must go away," said the doctor. "Only in a sanitarium 
will she have a chance to get well." 

And in that refuge, where leisure was the only occupation, 
and where only faint echoes of the busy world of toil and care 
could come, the mother became well again. During the long 
months of waiting she and her family had time for meditation. 
She discovered that she, too, had erred; but it was through the 
intense love that thought no sacrifice too great if she could but 
serve her loved ones. She had fairly merged her own personal- 
ity into theirs, had given up her rights to uphold their least 
desire. And they, who loved her most, had allowed her to do it 
year after year. 

A Happy Return* — When she returned, it was like a queen 
coming into her kingdom, with loyal subjects to do her honor and 
bid her welcome. And such a bright, orderly house she found! 
Her own room was newly decorated and furnished. Heretofore, 
when new furniture was bought it went into the girls' room or 
the guest chamber, and mother took the old articles. 

But here was a new easy-chair beside a pleasant window, a 
table with books, magazines and flowers, and many voices 
assuring her of leisure in which to enjoy her new lease of life 
and love. 

It was not a vain promise. Mother has time now to read, to 
pick out her half -forgotten music, and even to see a morning 



MOTHER— HOME 



31 



©aller. And the household machinery does not stop, for several 
heads and several pairs of hands are planning and doing; and 
siothing in that house is so jealously guarded as mother's hours 
of leisure. 

We Remember Mother. — "There is no velvet so soft as a 
mother's lap, no rose so lovely as her smile, no path so fiowerj 




mother: eternities can .not outweigh her influence. 



as that imprinted with her footsteps." These words spoken b> 
Bishop Thompson, express the feeling of universal human 
nature. Men and women frequently forget each other, but 
everybody remembers mother. 

Nature has set the mother upon such a pinnacle, that 0112 



32 MOTHER— HOME 

infant eyes and arms are first uplifted to it; we cling to it in 
manhood; we almost worship it in old age. 

The Divinity of Infancy. — The mother takes man's whole 
nature under her control. She is the "Divinity of Infancy." 
Her smile is the sunshine, her words the mildest law of child- 
hood, until sin and the world have steeled the heart. 

Mother's Influence. — So intense is the power of motherhood, 
that the mere remembrance of a praying mother's hand laid on 
the head of infancy, has held back many a son from guilty acts 
when passion had grown strong. 

The Hand that Bocks the Cradle Rules the World.— Every 

woman in becoming a mother takes a higher place in the scale 
of being. A most important work is allotted her in the economy 
of nations. Mothers constitute the only universal agent of civ- 
ilization. Nature has placed in her hands both infancy and 
youth. The vital interests of America hang largely upon the 
influence of mothers. We say "largely," because we would 
not fail to give proper credit to other influences. The public 
schools are the great assimilative force of the nation. But even 
back of the public schools is the mother's influence. 

Mothers of Great Men. — It seems to be nearly a universal 
rule that great men had mothers superior in character and 
intellect. 

Sir Walter Scoffs mother was not only a superior woman (1 
but a great lover of poetry and painting. 

Byron's mother was talented, but proud and ill-tempered. 

Napoleon's mother was noted for her beauty and energy. 

John Wesley's mother was a remarkable woman. She is 
known as the "Mother of Methodism." 

The mother of Washington exercised a commanding influ- 
ence in moulding the character of that great man. The world 
still delights to honor the name of "Mary, the mother of Wash= 
ington." 



SECTION TWO— HOME 

Definitions of Home. — A prize was offered recently by the 
London Tit- Bits for the best answer to the question, "What is 
home?" Here are a few of the answers which were received: 
"A world of strife shut out, a world of love shut in." 
"Home is the blossom, of which heaven is the fruit." 
"The golden setting, in which the-brightest jewel is 'mother.' n 
"The father's kingdom, the children's paradise, the mother's 
world." 

"The center of our affections, around which our heart's best 
wishes twine." 

"The jewel-casket, containing the most precious of all jewels 
— domestic happiness." 




QUEEN LOUISE AND HER SONS. 



34 



MOTHER— HOME 



"A little hollow scooped out of the windy hill of the world, 
where we can be shielded from its cares and annoyances." 

"The central telegraph office of human love, into which run 
innumerable wires of affection, many of them extending thou- 




A HAPPY HOME. 

sands of miles, but never disconnected from the one great ter- 
minus." 

"The only place on earth where the faults and failings of 
humanity are hidden beneath a mantle of charity." 

"The place where one is treated best and grumbles most." 



MOTHER— HOME .35 

Home Hints. — As the boys grow up make companions of 
them, then they will not seek companionship elsewhere. 

Let the children make a noise sometimes; their happiness is 
as important as your nerves. 

Respect their little secrets; if they have concealments, worry- 
ing them will never make them tell and patience will probably 
do the work. 

Allow them, as they grow older, to have opinions of their 
own; make them individuals, not mere echoes. 

Remember that without physical health mental attainment 
is worthless; let them lead free, happy lives, which will 
strengthen both mind and body. 

Bear in mind that you are largely responsible for your 
child's inherited character and have patience with faults and 
failings. 

Talk hopefully to your children of life and its possibilities; 
you have no right to depress them because you have suffered. 

If you have lost a child, remember that for the one that is 
gone there is no more to do; for those remaining, everything; 
hide your grief for their sakes. 

Impress upon them from early infancy that actions r have re- 
sults and that they can not escape consequences even by being 
s<3rry when they have acted wrongly. 

Teach boys and girls the actual faults of life, as soon as they 
are old enough to understand them, and give them the sense 
of responsibility without saddening them. 

Home, Mother's Empire.— The queen that sits upon the 
throne of home, crowned and sceptered as none other ever can 
be, is — mother. Her enthronement is complete, her reign un- 
rivaled, and the moral issues of her empire are eternal. "Her 
children rise up, and call her blessed." 

Rebellious at times, as the subjects of her government may 
be, she rules them with marvelous patience, winning tenderness 
and undying love. She so presents and exemplifies divine 
truth, that it reproduces itself in the happiest development of 
childhood — character and life. 

Her memory is sacred while she lives, and becomes a per- 
petual inspiration, even when the bright flowers bloom above 
her sleeping dust. She is the incarnation of goodness to the 
child, and hence her unlimited power. Scotland, with her well- 
known reverence for motherhood, insists that "an ounce of 
mother is worth more than a pound of clergy." 

Napoleon cherished a high conception of a mother's power, 
and believed that the mothers of the land could shape the des- 
tinies of his beloved France. Hence he said in his sententious, 
laconic style, "The great need of France is mothers." 

Memories of Home. — There is one vision that never fades 
from the soul, and that is the vision of mother and of home. 
No man in all his weary wanderings ever goes out beyond the 
overshadowing arch of home. 



36 



MOTHER— HOME 



Let him stand on the surf -beaten coast of the Atlantic, or 
roam over Western wilds, and every dash of wave and murmur 
of the breeze will whisper, home, sweet home. 

Set him down amid the glaciers of the North, and even there 
thoughts of home, too warm to be chilled by the eternal frosts, 
will float in upon him. , 




THIS PIG WENT TO MARKET. 

Let him rove through the green, waving groves, and over the 
sunny slopes of the South, and in the smile of the soft skies, 
and in the kiss of the balmy breeze, home will live again. 

A Heavenly Home.— Fathers, mothers, let the home go with 



MOTHER— HOME 37 

your children to Jesus — let it go with them at every step, to 
cheer them in every struggle, until from the very crest of the 
cold wave that bears them from you forever, they shout back 
their joy over a home on earth, that helped them to rise to a 
home in Heaven. — Rev. H. H. Birkins. 

Home and Hope. — If a young man be faithless to his mother, 
he will, doubtless, have but little respect for his wife and chil- 
dren. 

Young men and young women whose love entwines itself 
around home and mother, can be safely trusted under adverse 
circumstances. 

When young people, going out into the labors, trials and 
anxieties of life, still turn to their home and mother for consola- 
tion, it is evident that the sweet aroma of home influences still 
lingers about them. 

Home Defined.— 

Home's not merely four square walls, 

Though with pictures hung and gilded: 
Home is where affection calls, 

Filled with shrines the heart hath builded! 
Home! go watch the faithful dove, 

Sailing 'neath the heaven above us; 
Home is where there's one to love! 

Home is where there's one to love us! 

Home's not merely roof and room, 

It needs something to endear it; 
Home is where the heart can bloom, 

Where there's some kind lip to cheer it! 
What is home with none to meet, 

None to welcome, not to greet us? 
Home is sweet — and only sweet — 

When there's one we love to meet us! 



SECTION THREE— THE YOUNG WOMAN 

A Young Woman's Influence.— Has she any? She has, fof 
good or evil, and it reaches far. No angel in heaven can influ- 
ence man as woman can. 

Influence depends on many things— the subtle magnetism of 
kindness, the persuasive force of a soft and gentle voice, the 
witchery of smile and song and laugh and the thousand name- 
less things that speak the lady. These are possible to all. In 
thinking of your influence, worry not over the powers God for- 
got to give, but use His gifts. Find your sphere. The lichen 
loves the rock, the trillium the woods, the fern the mossy, shady 
nook; each has her sphere. So, sister, God meant thee for some 
special nook. Find it. 

Some girls have no influence with girls, because they keep 




WILL HE NO' COME BACK AGAIN? 



MOTHER— HOME 39 

all their smiles and kind words for men. Don' t forget your 
sisters; they need you. Your influence should reach both men 
and women. 

Don't be too pliable. Duty never bends. It seems natural 
for womanhood to yield, and difficulty may often be evaded by 
surrender, but only at the cost of influence; for men have no 
respect for a human eel. 

Speak kindly. A censorious tongue is a perpetual scourge, 
but kind words heal wounds. Goodness is greater than smart- 
ness. 

In your work for God you will often blunder. Don't worry 
too much over your blunders, but learn from them. Be cheerful. 
Brightness attracts. Even the fish follows the gleam of bright 
metal. Solemnity is no sign of godliness. The owl is no better 
than the robin. 

Don't try to please everyone. It seems hard for sixty to sym- 
pathize with sixteen, and you will have some critics. Be your- 
self — natural, modest, kind, earnest, godly. Some will dub you 
slow, some declare you fast; but you have only one Master; 
please Him. 

Try to forget yourself and. remember others. Be not anxious 
to know many people, but to help those you do know. Try not 
so much to extend your influence as to strengthen it. 

Shun questionable company. Remember, wealth is no surety 
for character. Gilded sin is not holiness, and the world knows 
it. Keep good company or none. 

Be sincere. Do not say all you mean, but mean all you say. 
Perfection may be impossible to men, but we can at least be 
true. 

Let dress and speech, song and prayer, clasp of hand and 
glance of eye be all expressions of your sincere desire to please 
your God and serve your brother. 

Sam Jones Asks a Question. — Sam Jones asks this pertinent 
question: "Do you know that boys are more particular whom 
they go with than girls? You may think it a strange statement, 
but it is so. A girl will go on the streets in open day with a 
boy that gets drunk, but the minute a boy finds out that a girl 
gets drunk he won't go with her. I wish our girls would be a» 
particular with whom they go as the boys are." 

Beautiful Things.— 

Beautiful faces are those that wear — 
It matters little if dark or fair — 
Whole-souled honesty printed there. 

Beautiful eyes are those that show, 
Like crystal panes where heart-fires glow, 
Beautiful thoughts that burn below. 

Beautiful lips are those whose words 
Leap from the heart like songs of birds, 
* Yet whose utterance prudence girds. 



40 MOTHER— HOME 

Beautiful hands are those that do 
Work that is earnest and brave and true, 
Moment by moment the long day through. 

Beautiful feet are those that go 
On kindly ministries to and fro — 
Down lowliest ways, if God wills it so. 

Beautiful shoulders are those that bear 
Ceaseless burdens of homely care 
With patient grace and daily prayer. 

Beautiful lives are those that bless — 

Silent rivers of happiness, 

Whose hidden fountains but few may guess. 

College Bred Women.— Anna R. Brown, in discussing tne 
subject of college-bred women, has this to say: "Very few lives 
are free — free to go and come, travel, read, study, write, think, 
paint, sing, at will. In the lives of most women these gifts are 
an aside in life, as it were, an underbreath. Most of us are 
beset with loving calls of toil, care, responsibility and quiet 
duties, which we must recognize, heed, obey. 

■'We must love our mothers more than Greek dialects. If the 
instinct of daughter, sister, wife or mother dies out of a college- 
bred woman, even in the course of a most brilliant career other- 
wise, the world will forget to love her; it will scorn her, and 
justly. If she does not make her surroundings homelike wher- 
ever she is, whether she be teacher, artist, musician, doctor, 
writer, daughter at home, or a mother in her household, and if 
she herself is not cheery and loving, dainty in dress, gentle in 
manner, and beautiful in soul as every true woman ought to be, 
the world will feel that the one thing needful is lacking — vivid, 
tender womanliness, for which no knowledge of asymptotes or 
linguistics can ever compensate. It is better for a woman to fill 
a simple human part lovingly, better for her to be sympathetic 
in trouble and to whisper a comforting message into but one 
grieving ear, than that she should make a path to Egypt and 
'lecture to thousands on ancient Thebes. 



CHAPTER III 
ETIQUETTE 



SECTION ONE— GENERAL HINTS AND HELPS 

Be sure to send a note of thanks for a gift received, at the 
earliest possible moment. Write it before your ardor cools. 
Make it hearty, spontaneous, enthusiastic. You need not be 
insincere. Even if you do not like the gift, you must like the 
spirit that prompted it. Never defer writing with the idea that 
you will thank the giver in person. You may do that as well 
when opportunity offers, but do not risk delay. Nothing is 
more discourteous than belated thanks. 

It is never the proper thing to ask the loan of costly volumes, 
or of books which belong to sets, but you may request a friend's 
permission to look at them in her house. 

Nothing so jars upon all one's instincts of propriety and so 
shocks one's sensibilities as to see or hear a g* 1 show a lack of 
respect and deference to her mother — except when the affront is 
offered to her father. Those who so err should be made to feel 
the smart of general disapprobation. 

Nothing is lovelier than the sweet, simple life of a home 
daughter. You need no wider career than you have, my dear 
girl. 

It is a question to be decided for individual cases whether or 
not one is privileged to attend a church wedding uninvited. If, 
beyond question, it be ascertained that no presentation cards 
have been inclosed with the invitations, if there will probably 
be plenty of room in the church, and one has a personal interest 
in the bride, there may be no objection to entering the church, 
taking an inconspicuous seat and following the service with 
reverent observance. 

Unmarried ladies are presented to married ladies. 

When two ladies are introduced they shake hands. 

Young ladies simply bow when they are introduced to 
unmarried men. 

A lady may present another lady at the house of a friend, but 
it is better to allow the hostess to do it. 

Ladies may pass without recognition a. gentleman acquaintance 
on the street, but it should be carefully done, and never without 
good cause. 

41 



42 ETIQUETTE 

SECTION TWO— ETIQUETTE OF CALLS 

In recognition of a wedding invitation, if unable to attend the 
reception, one sends cards to the bride's parents — they being the 
hosts — and calls within a month after the marriage upon the 
mother of the bride, and upon the bride herself when it is known 
where she may be found. A wedding announcement is sent but 
to acquaint one with the fact of the marriage, and the only 
acknowledgment required is a call upon the bride and her mother 
during the season. 

There is sometimes a little embarrassment about who shall 
make the first calls. Residents call first upon those newly arrived. 
Brides are always shown the attention of a call before they are 
expected to pay any visits, as are also persons of note and prom- 
inence and those in delicate health. First calls should be 
returned, when possible, within a month at farthest. 

When calling upon a friend, and others come also to see the 
hostess, do not rise at once to make your adieux. Wait a few 
moments and then rise while you are the speaker, taking leave 
first of your hostess and then of her friends. You should shake 
hands with the former, but merely bow with graciousness to the 
others. But the caller who arrives first should leave first. 

A call or card must be returned for every call or card received. 

A call must be made after every invitation to a dinner, or 
other formal entertainment. 

After a visit of ceremony, a return call should be made within 
ten days. 

If the person called on is not at home, a card should be left 
with the address and day at home of the caller. 

Men and women of note, or people in poor health, should 
receive the first call. 

The hours of calling are from three to six for people who 
have no special day for receiving. 

Ladies, in paying calls, should leave their cards. It is wrong 
to leave or give name verbally to servants, as they are liable to 
make a mistake in repeating it. 

When calling on a person in a hotel or a boarding-house, it is 
customary to stop in the parlor and to send your card to the room. 

If the room seems crowded, do not prolong your stay. 

Use cards having nothing on them but the name and address 
of the caller. 

Ladies should appear in simple dress. 

The time should be brief, say from ten to twenty minutes. 

Ladies are not expected to remove bonnet or wraps. 

The hostess^ should not keep callers waiting. It is better to see 
them in morning dress than to make elaborate toilet while they 
are waiting. 

Do not resume your seat after rising to depart. 

Do not walk about the room, while waiting for your hostess.: 
examining books, pictures and furniture. 

Do not prolong your stay until meal time. 



Do no , 
in the room 



ETIQUETTE 43 

>t place your chair so as to turn your back toward anyone 
om. 



SECTION THREE— ETIQUETTE OF VISITING 

Never pay visits on a general invitation. Wait for something 
Oiore specific. Should one person really desire a visit from 
another, she will extend an unmistakable invitation. 

When a visit is contemplated, it is best to inform friends in 
advance of the precise time of your arrival, and not attempt a 
surprise. 

When friends are coming" to visit you, relieve them of all care 
about their baggage on their arrival, by taking charge of 
checks, etc. 

The hostess should share the meals of a guest, however 
irregular; but a polite guest will conform, as closely as possible, 
to the customary meal hours. When staying with friends, study 
to disturb their domestic arrangements as little as possible. 

It is a correct thing-, after breakfast, to leave visitors largely* 
to their own devices, unless some special arrangement has been 
made. But the hostess should introduce her visitors to the piano, 
portfolios, library — any devices for passing the time pleasantly. 
And the visitors should accept this hint and leave their hostess* 
morning hours for imperative domestic duties. 

When visitors have other friends in the city it is a kindly 
courtesy to inform these of their presence in your house, and 
invite them to call, or dine, or take tea, during the visit. 

It is grossly impertinent and rude to question a child or 
servant about family affairs. 

Never entertain visitors with an account of your servants' 
shortcomings. 

It is extremely rnde to make invidious comparisons between 
the house in which you are visiting and other homes with which 
you may be acquainted. 

Do not trespass on the good nature of your friends by tak- 
ing children with you uninvited. 

When so unfortunate as to break or injure any article of 
furniture when visiting a friend, have it repaired or replaced at 
once at your own expense. 

Do not invite yonr friends who call to remain for meals, but 
leave that wholly to the discretion of your hostess. 



SECTION FOUR— GOOD BREEDING 

The Charm of Conversation.— In conversation, be considerate 
of others- Have courage to ask questions, courage to expose 




w 




THE SWEET GIRL GRADUATE. 



ETIQUETTE 40 

your own ignorance. This is the instruction given by Prof. J. 
P. Bates. The great gain is, not to shine, not to conquer your 
companion — then you learn nothing but conceit — but to find a 
companion who knows what you do not; to tilt with him and be 
overthrown, horse and foot, with utter destruction of all your 
logic and learning. There is defeat that is victory. 

The Law of the Table is a respect to the common soul of all the 
guests. Everything is unseasonable which is private to two or 
three or any portion of the company. Tact never violates for a 
moment this law, never intrudes the orders of the house, the 
vices of the absent, or a tariff of expenses, or professional 
privacies; as we say, we never "talk shop" before company. 

The Law of the Parlor. — Lovers abstain from caresses and 
haters from insults, while they sit in one parlor with common 
friends. Let conversation be adapted skilfully to the company 
engaging in it. Some men make a point of talking common- 
places to all ladies alike, as if a woman could only be a trifler. 
Others, on the contrary, seem to forget in what respects the 
education of a lady differs from that of a gentleman. You can 
not pay a finer compliment to a woman of refinement and esprit 
than by leading the conversation into such a channel as may 
mark your appreciation of her peculiar attainments. 

Other People's Business.— Remember that people take more 
interest in their own affairs than in anything else which you 
can name. If you wish your conversation to be thoroughly 
agreeable, lead a mother to talk of her children, a young lady of 
her particular talent, an author of his forthcoming book, or an 
artist of his exhibition picture. Having furnished a subject, 
you need only listen, and you are sure to be thought not only 
agreeable, but thoroughly sensible and well-informed. 

Tone of Voice. — There is a certain distinct but subdued tone 
of voice which is peculiar to only well-bred persons. A loud 
voice is both disagreeable and vulgar. It is better to err by the 
use of too low than too loud a tone. One can always tell a lady 
by her voice and laugh — neither of which will ever be loud or 
coarse, but soft, low and nicely modulated. 

Slang'. — Remember that "slang" is vulgar. It is unfortu- 
nately prevalent. It lowers the tone of society and the standard 
of thought. It is a great mistake to suppose that slang is in 
any way, a substitute for wit. 

Long Arguments and Anecdotes. — Long arguments in gen- 
eral company, however entertaining to the disputants, are tire- 
some to the last degree to all others. You should always en- 
deavor to prevent the conversation from dwelling too long upon 
one topic. 

Those who introduce anecdotes into their conversation are 
warned that these should invariably be "short, witty, eloquent, 
aew and not far-fetched." 




Friendship. 



ETIQUETTE 



17 



Personal Remarks. — Endeavor to cultivate the habit of talk- 
ing well about trifles. Be careful never to make personal 
remarks to a stranger on any of the guests present; it is possible, 
nay, probable, that they may be relatives, or at least friends. 

Profanity. — A gentleman should never permit any phrase 
that approaches to an oath to escape his lips. If any man 
employs a profane expression in the drawing-room, his preten- 
sions to good-breeding are gone forever. The same reason 
extends to the society of men advanced in life; and he would be 
singularly defective in good taste who should swear before old 
persons, however irreligious their own habits might be. 




GOSSIP. 



Listening, Good Breeding. — Listening is not only a point of 
good breeding and the best kind of flattery, but is a method of 
acquiring information which no man of judgment will neglect. 
"This is a common vice in conversation," says Montaigne, 
"that instead of gathering observations from others we make it 
our whole business to lay ourselves open to them, and are more 
concerned how to expose and set out our own commodities than 
how to increase our stock by acquiring new. Silence, therefore, 
and modesty are very advantageous qualities in conversation." 

Interjections. — The interjection of such phrases as "You 
know," "You see," "Don't you see?" "Do you understand?" and 



48 ETIQUETTE 

similar ones that stimulate the attention and demand an answer, 
ought to be avoided. Make your observations in a calm and 
sedate way, which your companion may attend to or not, as he 
pleases, and let them go for what they are worth. 

The Key to Good Behavior. — To avoid wounding the feelings 
of another is the key to almost every problem of manners that 
can be proposed, and he who will always regulate his sayings 
and doings by that principle may chance to break some conven- 
tional rule, but will rarely violate any of the essentials of good 
breeding. 

Use of Familiar Terms. — When in company one should leave 
behind all peculiarities of mind and manners. That, indeed, 
constituted Dr. Johnson's notion of a gentleman, and as far as 
negatives go, the notion was correct. It is in bad taste, partic- 
ularly, to employ technical or professional terms in general con- 
versation. Young physicians and lawyers often commit that 
error. The most eminent members of those occupations are the 
most free from it, for the reason, that the most eminent have the 
most sense. 

Conclusion of the Whole Matter. — The foregoing rules are 
not simply intended as good advice. They are strict laws of 
etiquette, to violate any one of which justly subjects a person 
to "the imputation of being ill-bred. But they should not be 
studied as mere arbitrary rules. The heart should be cultivated 
in the right manner until the acts of the individual spontane- 
ously flow in the right channels. 



SECTION FIVE -LESSONS IN CONVERSATION 

Avoid satire and sarcasm. 

Avoid exaggeration. 

Avoid repeating a brilliant or clever saying. 

Avoid giving the impression of one filled with "suppressed 
egotism" 

Avoid oddity. Eccentricity is shallow vanity. 

Never give advice unasked. 

Never discourse upon your ailments. 

Never repeat a word that was not intended for repetition. 

Never use words of the meaning or pronunciation of which 
you are uncertain. 

Never tell a coarse story. No wit or preface can make it 
excusable. 

Never treat anyone as if you simply wanted him to tell stories. 
People laugh and despise such a one. 

Never take liberties by staring, or by any rudeness. 

Never infringe upon any established regulations among 
strangers. 

Never prompt a slow speaker^ as if you had all the ability. 



ETIQUETTE 49 

In conversing with a foreigner who may be learning our lan« 
guage, it is excusable to help him in some delicate way. 

Never mention your own peculiarities; for culture destroys 
vanity. 

Never utter an uncomplimentary word against anyone. 

Do not manifest impatience. 

D 3 not interrupt another when speaking. 

Do not find faulty though you may gently criticise. 

Do not appear to notice inaccuracies of speech in others. 

Do not always commence a conversation by allusion to the 
weather. 

Do uot be too positive. 

Do not try to lead in conversation^ looking around to enforce 
silence. 

Do not talk of yourself q>t of your friends or your deeds. 

Do not become a distributer of the small talk of a community. 
The smiles of your auditors do not mean respect. 

Do not always prove yourself to be the one in the right. 
The right will appear. You need only give it a chance. 

Do not say anything unpleasant when it can be avoided. 

Do not give any sign that you appreciate your own merits. 

Do not tell a story \ unless it be used as an illustration; then 
tell it accurately. 

Be modest. 

Be what you wish to seem. 

Repeating kind expressions is proper. 

It is half of conversation to listen well. 

Listen to others patiently, especially the poor. 

§harp sayings are an evidence of low breeding. 

Shun faultfindings and faultfinders. 

The manner and tone are important parts of a compliment. 

Compliments delicately expressed and sincerely intended 
are a grace in conversation. 

Be careful in asking questions for the purpose of starting 
conversation or drawing out a person, not to be rude or intrusive. 

Cultivate the wisdom which consists less in saying what 
ought to be said than in not saying what ought not to be said. 



SECTION SIX— ETIQUETTE OF MANNERS 

Graceful Manners. — Graceful manners, says Longfellow, are 
the outward form #/" refinement in the mind and good affections 
in the heart. 

Good manners, says Archbishop Whately y are a part of good 
morals and kind courtesy. 

Manners, says Emerson, are the happy ways of doing things; 
each one a stroke of genius or of love, now repeated and har- 
dened into usage, they form at last a rich varnish with which 
the routine of life is washed and its details adorned. If they 
are on the surface, so are the dewdrops which give such a depth 
to the morning meadows. 
4 



ETIQUETTE 61 

Manners, says Burke, are of more importance than laws. 
Upon them in a great measure the laws depend. The law can 
touch us here and there, now and then. Manners are what vex 
or soothe, corrupt or purify, exalt or debase, barbarize or refine 
by a constant, steady, uniform, insensible operation, like that 
of the air we breathe in; they give their whole form and color 
to our lives; according to their quality they aid morals, they 
supply them or they totally destroy them. 

Good Manners at Home.— How much pain and misunder- 
standing would be avoided if girls would only be natural! The 
girl one meets away from her own home is so frequently a purely 
artificial creature, to all appearance so sweet-tempered, bright 
and unselfish, full of spirit and energy, laughter and fun. But 
frequently in her own home, where these qualities would be so 
greatly appreciated and do so much good, what do we find? 
That she possesses an unlimited faculty for making home 
miserable. She is selfish and ill-tempered and will see her own 
mother overburdened by work or anxiety, but will not hold out 
the helping hand she gives to strangers. 

Girls at Home. — How can the girl who is not genuine expect 
to possess the desire of all girls — a happy home of her own? 
She imposes upon a man for a time, but when the mantle of airs 
and graces slips from her and he has been treated to one or two 
domestic scenes, what bitter disappointment follows! 

Kind Hearts More than Coronets.— Girls, don't put on your 
smiles with your visiting costumes, but let them be for home 
wear and they will become part of yourself. Don't make those 
who love you unhappy, but cultivate a willing, cheerful disposi- 
tion and a determined spirit to make the best of things. You are 
not only making those who love you suffer, but are laying up for 
yourselves a store of misery. You can avoid this if you wish it; 
every girl can become what she should be — the sunshine of her 
home. Begin to-day by wearing^ your company manners at 
home; exert yourself to be pleasing, agreeable and obliging, 
especially in small things, and you will soon be quite content to 
let the world see your real, true self. The girl who possesses a 
kind heart and a perfectly natural manner is one of the happiest 
creatures in existence. "Kind hearts are more than coronets;" 
they are welcome guests at every board and a universal blessing. 

Don't contradict people, even if you're sure you are right. 
Don't be inquisitive about the affairs of even your most inti= 
mate friend. 

Don't underrate anything because you don't possess it. 
Don't repeat gossip, even if «it does interest a crowd. 
Don't go untidy on the plea that everybody knows you c 
Don't be rude to your inferiors in social position. 
Don't overdress or underdress. 
Don't jeer at anybody's religious belief. 



52 ETIQUETTE 

Don't be vulgar, but don't show that you are trying hard not 
to be vulgar. 

Don't expect too much from other people, but encourage other 
people to expect a great deal from you. 

Don't scold and snarl, as it is exceedingly ill-bred to do so. 

Don't lends, borrowed book, unless by permission of the owner. 

Don't try, when in company, to attract the attention of some- 
one by signals, a cough or a nudge. 

Don't vent your irritation on anybody. 

Don't use hair dye, hair oil or pomades. 

Don't cleanse your ears, or your nose, nor trim and clean 
your finger-nails in public. 

Don't walk with a slovenly gait. 

Don't carry your hands in your pockets. 

Don't chew or fumble your toothpick in public. 

Don't chew tobacco. 

Don't expectorate. 

Don't laugh boisterously. 

Don't have the habit of "grinning." A smile or laugh is 
proper in its place. 

Don't use a forced, light laugh while in conversation. 

Don't gape in company. 

Don't keep pulling your whiskers, adjusting your hair, or 
otherwise using your hands around the face or head. 

Don't be over-familiar. 

Don't look over a person's shoulder when he is reading or 
writing. 

Don't beat the devil's tattoo with foot or fingers. 

Don't be servile toward superiors, or overbearing toward 
inferiors. 

Don't drink any alcoholic liquors of any kind whatever. It 
may be good etiquette to do so under certain conditions, but is 
not wise. 

Don't touch people when addressing them. 

Don't whisper in company. 

Don't talk about yourself or about your business or your 
family unless requested by others. 

Don't show repugnance even to one who is not pleasing to 
you. 

Don't fail to notice elderly people. 

Don't read to yourself in company. 

Don't look at your watch in company, unless requested to 
do so. 

Don't forget good manners in anything or in all places. 

Do keep to the right in walking on the streets. 

Do apologize if you tread upon or stumble against anyone. 

Do raise your hat, gentleman, to every lady with whom you 
are acquainted, that you meet on the streets. 

Do be careful about asking questions of strangers. Young 
women run risks by so doing. Public officials, as policemen and 
conductors, are the proper persons to answer questions. 



ETIQUETTE 53 

Do address a young lady by her surname. Don't say "Miss 
Annie." 

A lady should first recognize a gentleman. 

Anyone should conduct himself or herself on the street in 
such a manner as not to attract attention. 

A gentleman should always recognize a lady when she salute* 
him. 

All should arrive in time for any public entertainment. 

A gentleman should not smoke while in the presence of a 
lady. 

Ladies or gentlemen should not wear too many rings. 

Ladies should not use an excess of cosmetics or of perfumery. 
A gentleman should use neither. 

A lady should always have an escort after nightfall, for 
safety and as a matter of etiquette. 

In a public conveyance, as a street car and the like, no lady 
will accept a seat vacated by a gentleman for her convenience, 
without a smile, a bow or thanks. 



SECTION SEVEN— ETIQUETTE AT THE TABLE 

Invited guests should not be late at dinner. 

Seat yourself only after all the ladies are seated, or until the 
host or hostess gives the signal. 

The napkin should not be tucked under the chin, nor spread 
out upon the breast. 

All the ladies should be served first, including those of the 
household. 

Eat soup from the side of the spoon, not from the end. 

Break off your bread; do not bite it. 

Convey food to the mouth with the fork or spoon, not with the 
knife. 

Take plenty of time to eat; haste is vulgar. 

Eat quietly and easily. It is vulgar to fill the mouth too full. 

Keep your elbows close to your side. 

Eat nothing with the spoon that can be eaten with the fork. 

One should not stretch across another's plate in order to 
reach anything. 

If a waiter or servant is at hand, do not ask your neighbor 
to pass anything. 

It is not in good taste to play with one's napkin, goblet, fork 
and the like. 

The napkin is for the mouth only; do not use it to wipe the 
face, hands or beard. 

The lady sitting beside a gentleman at table should receive 
his first attention. 

Be careful about talking with food in your mouth. 

Accidents will happen; but let all mishaps pass without com- 
ment or embarrassment. 

It is not well to use the toothpick at the table. 



54 ETIQUETTE 

A guest should not be worried with constant importunities to 
eat more, or to have food of different kinds pressed upon him. 

When the meal is over, place the napkin loosely on the 
table; do not fold it. 

Express pleasure, if you will, when you depart, but not for 
your dinner. 

Ladies and gentlemen should be properly dressed at meals. 
Curl papers for the woman and shirt-sleeves for the man are 
vulgar. 

Drink from the cup, not the saucer. 

The teaspoon should not be carried in the cup. 

Never pour gravy on a plate without permission. If you 
are requested to help anyone to sauce or gravy, do not pour it 
over the meat or vegetables, but on one side of them. 

Do not touch the bones with your fingers while eating game 
and the like. It is not elegant to take a bone in the fingers for 
the purpose of picking it. 

Fingers of the left hand should be used to remove or to con- 
vey anything from or to the mouth. 

Keep your mouth shut when masticating your food. 

If one is asked by the carver to make a choice of a certain 
part of a fowl it is polite to do so, but one should not express a 
preference uninvited. In America we think it more considerate 
to others not to begin eating until all or nearly all are helped. 
In England they think it unnecessary to wait. When asked to 
pass a certain dish to another it would indeed be very rude to 
serve one's self before offering it to the ono who asked you for 
it. 

Bread only may be placed on the tablecloth. 

Always lift and pass food to others courteously; never shove 
it across the table. 

To use one's knife, spoon or fingers instead of the butter-knife, 
sugar- tongs or salt-spoons, conveys an impression of ignorance 
of polite usage. 

If compelled to use one's handkerchief it should be done 
quietly, with the head turned from the table. 

It is not polite to soak up gravy with bread from the dish. 



CHAPTER IV 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 




HEALTH AND BEAUTY. 

SECTION ONE— BEAUTY 

Beauty in man or woman, but especially in woman, is & 
power and a possession not to be despised. It is a positive good 
when not abused. If women could look into the hearts of men 
they would discover that much of the dissatisfaction witb 

55 



66 HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 

wives, much of the disagreeable in the homes, results from the 
indifference of women to their personal appearance. Often 
domestic duties, maternity and its cares and anxiety — always a 
strain on the nerves, and a trial to strength and ambition — 
exclude them from society until they lose all interest and become 
indifferent to its demands. This is followed by inattention to 
the person and dress. They come to think, in time, that all 
attempts to adorn themselves or to make themselves attractive 
at home are a waste of time and energy. 

Woman should cultivate beauty and its appointments in 
order to endear herself to her husband and children. She 
should seek to preserve the charms which God has given her, 
with proper attention to higher duties and aims. It is a laud- 
able ambition in woman to desire to be attractive, provided such 
ambition does not exclude worthier objects. 

What Constitutes Beauty ?— Beauty will vary according to 
age, place, taste and prejudice. 

"No rule of beauty would satisfy the opinions of all people. 
In youth it is the plump damsel, pulsating with budding woman- 
hood, fresh and lovely in her innocence, with waxen complex- 
ion, carnation lips shaped like Cupid's bow, laughing eyes, 
white teeth and shapely arms, that we admire. 

"In after years it is the matured, self -poised woman, quiet 
in repose, with charms defined and pronounced, majestic in air 
and carriage, serene and dignified in deportment, that com- 
mands our admiration." 

Highest Type of Beauty!— It has been said that the highest 
type of beauty to be found in nature pertains to the human 
form, as animated and lighted up by the intelligence within. It 
is the soul within that constitutes this superior beauty. Good- 
ness of heart and purity of life stamp an impress upon the 
countenance which makes it good to look upon. 

The face reports very quickly that which is going on within, 
whether good or bad, and homely features may be lighted up 
with the beauty born of a joy kindled by unseen forces. 

Love a Beautifler! — "Love has the power to transfigure face 
and form. Homely, indeed, must be the face which is not 
made pleasing by love's enchanting influence. It gives round- 
ness to the form, grace to the movements, light to the eye, 
sweetness to the mouth, color to the cheek and animation to the 
whole figure. Every organ of the body seems imbued by it with 
new life, and every function is rendered more efficient. To the 
face of many a pale-cheeked girl have three sweet words 
brought the rosy hue of health and beauty." 

The betrothed in an old Irish song says: 
"Light is my heart since the day we were plighted, 
Red is my cheek that they told me was blighted." 

Love also makes a man twice a man, and equal to anything 




FIRST GLIMPSE OF THE WOODS. 



58 HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 

that man may do or dare. It makes him strong and brave, aa 
well as gentle and tender, gives firmness to his form, grace to 
his carriage, aDd character to his face. 

Beauty Increased and Preserved! — Real enduring beauty oi 
face or person must come from within and not from external 
applications. 

"The blush will fade, 
The light grow dim which the blue eyes wear, 
The gloss will vanish from curl and braid, 
And the sunbeam die in the waving hair. 
Turn from the mirror and strive to win 

Treasures of loveliness which will last; 
Gather earth's glory and bloom within, 
That the soul may be young, when youth is past." 

Health and Beauty. — Good health, proper diet, regular 
exercise, habits and dress, all have more or less to do with 
beauty but the main source is in the mind and heart. 

To be truly beautiful both body and mind must be in har- 
mony with God's laws. The law of spiritual life is love. Love, 
then, my girls, if you are going to be perfect spiritually, if you 
are going to be beautiful and sweet-tempered in the home. 

It is said of Frances E. Willard that nothing ever ruffled her 
temper or provoked her to a frown. She seemed to be love 
itself. 

Source of Beauty. — Every girl wants to be beautiful. It is a 
part of nature to love everything that is beautiful. 

But what is beauty? Many girls who have handsome 
features are far from being beautiful. Some people with very 
plain features are beautiful. 

Real beauty depends upon three things: good health, good 
temper and good manners. 

Physical Goodness. — Health (or physical goodness) and 
beauty will always be found to bear a strict relation to each 
other. A lack of beauty in any part of the body indicates a 
lack of health in that member. 

Deformity of limb clearly shows a lack of vitality in that 
limb; a bad complexion indicates something wrong in the vital 
system; a malformation of the brain is a sure sign of want in 
the mental system. 

Proportions of a Perfect Human Figure.— The proportions 
of a perfect human figure are strictly mathematical. 

The whole figure is six times the length of the foot. 

The face, from the highest point of the forehead (where the 
hair begins) to the end of the chin, is one-tenth of the whole 
stature. 

The hand, from the wrist to the end of the middle finger, 
Is one-tenth of the whole stature. 




CONTENTED AND HAPPY. 



90 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 



The chest is one-fourth of the whole stature. 

From the nipples to the top of the head, one-fourth of 
etature. 

From the top of the chest to the highest point of the forehead 
is one-seventh. 

If the length of the face, from the root of the hair to the 
chin, be divided into three equal parts, the first division is the 





CORRECT FORM AND PROPORTIONS OF MALE AND FEMALE. 

point where the eyebrows meet, and the second under the 
nostrils. 

The navel is the central point of the body. Were a man to 
lie on his back with his legs extended and arms stretched above 
his head, the circumference of a circle whose center is at the 
navel, may be made to touch the ends of his hands and feet. 

The height from the feet to the top of the head is the same 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 81 

as the distance from the extremity of one hand to the extremity 
of the other when the arms are extended. 

These conditions are thus in the perfectly symmetrical 
human body. 

Beauty of Figure — Man, Woman. — Beauty in the figure of a 
man and beauty in the figure of a woman has each its own and 
a separate standard. He is broader at the shoulders than any- 
where else, tapering from the shoulders to the feet. 

A well-proportioned, finely-developed woman will have a full 
bust and abdomen, and shoulders not as wide in proportion as 
the man. A woman is broad at the hips, from which she 
tapers each way. A woman does not really have a smaller 
waist, it only appears to be small because near the larger 
parts. Science says: "Give us the small waist by contrast — 
large breasts and abdomen." Fashion says: "If you have 
small breasts and abdomen, make believe you have large ones 
by squeezing up the waist." 

Beauty Desired by All Women. — All women desire to be beau- 
tiful. True beauty of form and face is more to be desired than 
houses and lands, silver or gold. We say "true beauty," a 
beauty based upon soundness of body, purity of mind and 
nobleness of character. 



SECTION TWO— EXERCISE AND HEALTH 

From the human standpoint there is no edifice so beautiful as 
that earthly temple which enshrines the soul. — Dr. Cyrus Edson, 

Better to hunt in fields for health unbought 
Than fee the doctor for a nauseous draught. 
The wise for cure on exercise depend; 
God never made his work for man to mend. 

— Dryden. 

Health is the vital principle of bliss, and exercise of health.— 
Thompson. 

The Development of the Muscles.— The general size of the 
Ibody depends on the development of the muscles. 

The same bony frame that to-day tips the scale at an even 
hundred weight may, a year from now, round out into curves of 
beauty and count the pounds of added muscle to one hundred 
and fifty. 

The muscles are like the various parts of machiuery which 
go to make up a steam engine. In doing their work they pro- 
duce heat and motion. The fuel which supplies this force is 
the food taken into the body. It is prepared for use in the 
intestinal canal, and from there carried by the blood to be stored 
up in the muscles and tissues as latent force. Through the 
Circulation of the blood the whole body is heated by muscular 



32 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 



exercise. Continual exercise of a certain kind will develop cef = 
tain muscles. The muscle that grows when used within certain 
limits will waste away when deprived of its accustomed exercise, 

Physical Culture.— The object of physical culture is the 
systematic development of all of the muscles, not some at the 
expense of others. 

Open-Air Exercise. — The value of daily exercise in the open 
air can not be too strongly impressed upon those who would be 
healthy and beautiful. No other factor plays such an important 
part in maintaining the proper operations of both mind and 
body. 




HEALTHFUL EXERCISE. 



Too Violent Exercise !— Exercise imprudently taken is ag 
bad as no exercise. Some will mount a bicycle, take a long ride 
in the country, and return completely exhausted, with every 
muscle in a state of tremor. The same exercise if extended 
over a week would have proven exhilarating, but crowded into 
a few hours overtaxes the muscles, and is a source of discomfort 
for days. Such exercise lowers the general vitality instead of 
raising it. 

Vigorous Exercise. — But exercise should be vigorous enough 
to cause a rapid circulation of the blood before the point oi 
fatigue is reached- Violent exercise i? especially harmfsl] 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 63 

immediately after a meal. The habit of many people who take 
an after-dinner nap is an excellent one. Animals, if left to fol- 
low their own inclinations, lie down to rest after eating. 

4ction of the Blood. — When all the muscles of the body are 
called into action the blood flows uniformly throughout the 
whole system, but if only one organ is exercised the blood will 
be most abundant in that organ. Long mental activity causes 
the brain to become overcharged with blood, and the lower 
limbs are apt to be cold. After a hearty meal the stomach 
becomes active and the blood rushes there to do extra work in 
the digestion of food. The withdrawal of the blood from the 
head to assist in digestion often causes drowsiness, hence the 
tendency to seek a restful chair or couch and forget the ills of 
life in sleep. 

Headache. — If one suffers from headache after prolonged 
mental effort, exercise in the fresh air will often cause it to take 
a speedy departure. No form of exercise is better than a brisk 
walk with a pleasant companion. If company can not be had, 
what needs one better than his own thoughts — if pure and 
righteous — and the creatures of the sky and air. 

Exercise and Clothing 1 . — When taking exercise tb? clothing 
should be loose, and as scanty as consistent with modesty and 
warmth. 

In the Gymnasium. — The principal requisites in a gymnasium 
costume are that it be as light as may be consistent with the 
protection of the person, and so fashioned as to allow perfect 
freedom of movement. The more beautiful and becoming it 
may be made, the better, provided these points be not sacri- 
ficed. The prettiest ladies' costume for the gymnasium that we 
have seen is composed of a short dress or frock reaching to the 
knee, made with a yoke and belt, and pretty full; and trousers 
of the common pantaloon form. The sleeves of the dress may 
be short for summer wear, and gathered into a band and 
buttoned at the wrist for winter. A sack or basque of a different 
color from the skirt has a fine effect as a part of this costume. 
Such a dress as this, or some other appropriate exercising cos- 
tume, should form a part of every woman's wardrobe, and should 
be worn a portion of every day. 



SECTION THREE— THE TOILET 

Cleanliness of the Person.— Dr. Galopin remarks that "Love 
begins at the nose." An unpleasant odor always shows itself 
about the person of those who neglect the bath. Bad smells 
lead to aversion. Bad smelling persons are exceedingly dis- 
agreeable companions. 

If the husband wishes to be held in pleasurable esteem by a 
sensitive and refined wife, or, if the wife hopes to retain the 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 



affection of a refined husband, each should avoid offending ta© 
olfactory nerves of the other. 

The Bath. — A bath should be taken at least once a week, and 
!& possible, every morning. 




ENJOYING HER VACATION. 

If the feet are offensive, as they are in many cases, they 
should be bathed several times a week. In addition to the bath- 
Ing, the stockings should be changed each day. 

Dirt and Duty. — Not infrequently young people are seeu 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 65 

with dirty ears and neck. A dirty neck and smiling face are 
not in harmony. Every lady owes it to herself to be fas- 
cinating; every gentleman is bound, for his own sake, to be pre- 
sentable; but beyond this there is an obligation to society, to 
one's friends, and to those with whom we may be brought in 
contact. 

"Habitual fllthiness," says Riddell, "is not only unhealthy, 
but demoralizing. No man who is uncleanly need expect to 
have a pure mind, nor to give a decent inheritance to a child. 
The weekly or semi-weekly warm bath should be a part of 
every person's religion. The morning sponge-bath, followed by 
a little brisk rubbing with the palms of the hands, is a luxury 
that should be enjoyed by all, save the extremely feeble or 
delicate." 

The Skin an Organ. — It will be remembered that the skin i9 
an organ. Its main purpose is to throw off worn-out matter. 
In the skin are myriads of pores through which the effete matter 
of the body is removed. If these minute pores be closed by 
anything, the work of the skin can not be properly done. 
Hence the necessity of keeping the skin clean. 

A Caution to Young Women. — It is well known that, at cer- 
tain periods, women from fifteen to forty-five, are, in the lan- 
guage of the Mosaic law, "unclean;" that is, at their monthly 
periods. Unless great care is taken, at these times, women 
may, and sometimes do, give off a very unpleasant odor. This 
can be avoided by giving heed to the dictates of cleanliness. 
Let the changes and baths be often, very often. 

Cleanliness and Clothing.— The matter of cleanliness extends 
to all articles of clothing, underwear as well as the outer cloth- 
ing. Cleanliness is a mark of true utility. The clothes need 
not necessarily be of a rich and expensive quality, but th ry can 
all be kept clean. Some persons have an odor about them that 
is very offensive, simply on account of their underclothing being 
worn too long without washing. This odor, of course, can not be 
detected by the person who wears the soiled garments, but other 
persons easily detect it and are offended by it. 

The finger-nails should be kept cut and clean. 

A clean shirt, a clean collar and cuffs greatly improve the 
appearance of a man, young or old. 

Clothes should be kept clean and well brushed. Even the 
slightest spots should be carefully removed. 



SECTION FOUR— AIDS TO PHYSICAL BEAUTY 

In order to preserve and enhance beauty, it is necessary to 
observe the rules of health as related to habits, exercise and at- 
tention to the toilet. 



66 HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 

In a few general suggestions we shall now speak of these 
subjects and discuss their relation to physical beauty. 

THE SKIN 

The Real Value of Massage.— The cutaneous vessels will 
hold a good half of the whole volume of blood in the body, 
which, unless actively moving, must become impure, and lose a 
part of its vitality, leading to the development of various skin 
diseases. By the time the blood-stream reaches the capillaries 
of the skin, it has lost the impelling force of the heart's beat, 
and depends largely on external influences to keep the current 
moving. 

The blood-vessels of the skin are under the control of deli- 
cate nerve fibers running along their walls, and these nerves are 
influenced by atmosphere and climatic conditions, bath and 
electricity, but especially do they respond to hand friction and 
massage. 

Friction appears to increase the positive electrical energy of 
the body by generating electric currents, which use the nerves 
as conductors. The application of hand friction charges or 
magnetizes a man, in addition to its purely mechanical action in 
stimulating circulation. 

Prevention of Skin Diseases. — Among the most common dis- 
eases of the skin are acne and eczema, one of which is known 
to be, and the other probably is, the result of the presence of a 
microbe on or in the skin. This microbe is a vegetable growth, 
although a very minute one, and, like other noxious weeds, 
when once it has been planted and has begun to grow it is often 
extremely difficult to dislodge it. 

Every farmer knows that it is easier to keep a field clean by 
constant care than to clear it after it has once been overgrown 
with weeds. It is the same with the skin. It is easier to keep 
the skin in health and to arrest a commencing disease than to 
cure a disease once it has become firmly established. 

If it were generally understood that the presence of a few 
pimples constitutes a true skin disease, which if neglected will 
probably grow worse, fewer persons would suffer from the dis- 
figurement of acne. 

The skin is much like the system in general — if it is in good 
condition it will repel the assaults of disease, but if neglected it 
becomes less resistant, and soon offers a favorable soil for the 
growth of noxious germs. 

The skin is one of the so-called excretory organs, and if the 
other organs of similar function— the kidneys and the bowels- 
do not perform their work properly, an undue proportion of the 
waste products of the body must be got rid of through the pores 
of the skin. This throws work upon the integument which it is 
not accustomed to perform, and it soon becomes diseased in 
consequence. 

The first thing necessary to keep the skin well is to maintain 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM #7 

the health of the body by exercise, cleanliness, fresh ai~ day 
and night, good food properly cooked, a sufficient amount of 
sleep and suitable clothing. In addition to these general meas- 
ures, the skin itself should receive special attention in the way 
of a daily bath, followed by vigorous rubbing with a coarse towel 
or flesh brush. 

Blackheads. — Some persons have naturally clear skins, while 
others appear to have a special predisposition to blackheads 
and pimples. The fortunate ones must see to it that they do 
not mar what nature has given them by an unhygienic mode of 
life; but the others need not despair, for their tendency to 
eruptions may often be overcome by scrupulous care both of the 
body and of the skin itself, after the manner above indicated and 
in such other ways as the physicians may direct. 

Skin blemishes on the face may come either from within or 
without. Keep the system from being clogged and the pores of 
the face will be in a healthy condition. Use a salt-and-water 
bath for the face at night, then wash thoroughly with pure soap 
and warm water, followed by cold water in the morning. After 
bathing the face rub it perfectly dry. 

Dry skin on the face may be put in a healthy condition by 
the use of proper massage — the roller preferred — and by the 
use of the purest creams, those containing only vegetable oils. 

In case of sunburn, bathe the skin in a weak solution of soda. 
Use a little soda in the daily bath. 

If, after a day on the water, you feel that your face is burned 
to the point of tenderness, do not apply water, but use a heal- 
ing toilet preparation immediately — cold cream and almond 
paste or a preparation of glycerine and lemon, as follows: Citric 
acid (lemon), three drams; hot water, eleven ounces; borax, two 
drams; red rose petals, one ounce; glycerine, one ounce. Dis- 
solve the acid and borax in the water; infuse the petals for an 
hour; strain through a jelly bag; after twenty-four hours decant 
the clear portion and add the glycerine. 

Complexion tablets and so-called blood purifiers are, as a 
rule, injurious. Exercise in the open air, plain, wholesome 
food, daily baths, and well-ventilated living and sleeping rooms 
are the best remedies for an unhealthy condition of the blood, 
which is the cause of almost all poor complexions. 

A Few Don'ts. — Don't use soap on the face of tener than once 
a day. Night is the best time for a thorough cleansing. 

Don't use cold water when giving the face a cosmetic scrub 
Warm water, followed by a dashi of cold water, is better. 

Don't try to put cold cream on a cold skin, or the absorption 
will not be thorough. 

Don't forget that vinegar will eradicate yellow stains from the 
face. Bathe the bruise at once with vinegar and discoloration 
will be prevented. 



68 HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 

Don't have a shiny nose and forehead, because it is warm 
weather. Use a little cologne or spirits of camphor in the water 
when bathing the face. 

Don't wash your face in cold water the moment you reach a 
washstand if you have been traveling. Remove traces of dust 
and smoke with cold cream and wipe off with a soft towel. 

Don't be afraid of the flesh brush or glove. Friction rouses 
the circulation and restores tone and color to the skin. 

Don't expect to cure an eruption on the face by external 
applications only. A hot foot-bath, containing washing soda ? 
will often cure this trouble. 

CARE OF THE HANDS 

Few people attach enough importance to the care of the 
hands. When it is remembered that the hand is offered in 
salutation to our friends, that it performs numbers of the most 
delicate offices at every moment of the day, that it touches 
many objects through which it may convey the germs of infec- 
tion — when all these are considered, some idea of the importance 
that should attach to the care of them is realized. 

A lady desires to know a method of caring for her hands. 
She says she has worked faithfully with them, but all to no 
purpose; that they are rough, hard and dry, and that she really 
suffers with them. She can not do fancy work and they annoy 
her all the time. 

I have studied along this line, have had the best of manicures 
in New York city and other cities, so as to be able to help my 
sister women, if possible, in the care of them at home. In this 
case I would advise if possible that the young girl go to a first- 
class manicure. One treatment would work wonders in her 
case, I think. Perfect cleanliness is the greatest adjunct to 
beauty and health of hands, but, for all that, do not wash your 
hands too often. Washed seldom but thoroughly, they will keep 
in a far nicer condition. 

First of all, hard water is fatal to a good skin; if you can not 
get cistern water or rain water, get five cents' worth of borax, 
keep on your washstand and put a pinch in the water every time 
you wash your hands or face. It will not hurt a particle, is per- 
fectly safe and it whitens and softens the skin as well as the 
water. Try not to wash your hands but once or twice a day. 
Wear loose gloves at night, but be very careful that they are 
clean inside and outside; otherwise the dirt and grease are 
absorbed by the heated glands. 

A great beautifier for hands is equal parts of lemon and gly- 
cerine and a small quantity of borax; sweeten with violet. 

The hands should be thoroughly washed at night before 
going to bed. The pores are thus left free and unclogged and 
the health of the hand is preserved; but, above all, the ends of 
the fingers should be so well washed and cared for that the skin 
remains entirely unbroken. Then the contamination of the day 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 69 

will be powerless to effect harm, as these dangers only come 
through the breaking of the skin about the nails. 

Polishing the nails may serve for the occupation of idle peo- 
ple, but the busy woman will find these simple rules of washing 
the finger-ends will result in nails that will bear comparison with 
the much-manicured hand of the woman of leisure. At night, 
after washing them, use whatever oil or cream agrees with your 
skin. 

Care of the Finger-Nails.— Hands need not be repulsive if 
they are used to hard work, and hands are not always attractive 
if the nails are highly polished and daintily curved. Even shell- 
like nails will not conceal the bad character that some hands 
reveal, neither will toil-worn fingers condemn the truly fine 
hand. 

Cleanliness comes first, and therefore soap and warm water, 
a crash wash-cloth for rubbing the hands, or a nail brush, are 
the first requisites. By the time the hands have been soaked 
and rubbed till clean, the cuticle around the nail is sufficiently 
loosened to be easily pushed back at the sides and root of the 
nail, either by the pressure of the fingers alone, or using the wet 
cloth. In drying the hands use the soft bath towel the same 
way as when drying the fingers; the habit once formed of touch- 
ing each nail, with this backward movement when bathing and 
drying the hands, one almost unconsciously gives their nails 
"massage treatment" not less than three times a day, and as 
many more as the nature of their employment demands. The 
housekeeper, who is a worker, may have occasion to "wash her 
hands twenty times a day," but the deftness which she may 
acquire in pushing back the cuticle around her nails will not 
delay her an appreciable number of seconds. 

Roughness of the Hands. — If your hands become roughened 
from housework, whenever you wash them rub on some corn- 
meal, as well as soap, and rinse in clear water; at night apply a 
lotion made of glycerine, two ounces; rosewater, one-half ounce, 
and acetic acid, one dram. 

When sweeping and dusting wear loose-fitting gloves. Have 
a pair of rubber gloves for use when it is necessary to have the 
hands in water a great deal. Grease spoils rubber, therefore 
the gloves must be washed perfectly clean as soon as the work 
is finished. 

To Soften Toilet-Water. — An easy way to soften hard water 
delightfully is to throw orange peel into it just before the water 
is used. The peel will not only prove agreeable to the skin, but 
will give out a fragrance like that which follows the use of toilet- 
water. 

For softening water for bathing purposes nothing is better 
than oatmeal. Place a small quantity in a cheesecloth or muslin 
bag, place in the water for a minute or two, then squeeze and 
remove. The oatmeal must be renewed every few days. 



70 HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 

A helpful hint offered by the professional woman is the use 
of witch hazel in the bath water. This is an invaluable remedy 
for prickly heat and all skin irritations peculiar to hot weather, 
and acts as a tonic to flesh and nerves. Lemon juice is infinitely 
better for the skin in summer than complexion lotions, and soap 
should be used with care. The skin is particularly sensitive in 
summer, and highly colored perfumed soaps are more than ordi- 
narily dangerous at this time. 

CARE OF THE EYE 

Eye Don'ts.— Don't read, study or sew lying down. 

Don't have the light fall on your work or book from the 
front; have it slightly back and from the side, preferably the 
left. 

Don't go where there is a glare of either sunlight or electric 
light more than you can help. The green of the country and 
of the grass and trees is restful for the ej^es. 

Don't despise the day of little things. The whole system 
needs to be in good condition to keep each organ right. So 
keep your body strong; for when the body weakens the eyes 
weaken. This is the reason of failing sight in old age. 

Don't go to an optician to get glasses without first being 
examined and treated by a good oculist. Much harm is often 
done in this way, and your eyes are not things to run any risks 
with. 

Don't use the eyes when very tired or weak from sickness; 
they are the most sensitive of our organs and tire as the rest of 
us tires, and use, after a certain point of fatigue or weakness 
has been reached, is injurious to any part of our body. 

Don't forget that hot water is most efficacious in case of 
inflammations or tiredness. Bathing for about ten minutes with 
water as hot as you can bear your elbow in is almost a sure relief. 
A boric acid solution, which can be obtained at any drug store, 
also is excellent. 

Don't neglect or strain your eyes; they are the most precious 
and useful of our senses. Take as good care of them as is in 
your power in the first place; but if they are not as they should 
be, have them attended to at once. Remember, if they are once 
injured they are never quite so good as they were before. 

Rest the Eyes. — Occasionally when sewing or writing for any 
length of time one begins to feel the eyes smart and ache. The 
readiest relief in my own case is to take a saucer of cold water 
in which a pinch of salt has been dissolved and into it wink my 
eyes half a dozen times. In this way wash the eyes thoroughly, 
then dry with a soft napkin and give them ten minutes' rest, 
keeping them tight shut. 

Smooth, glossy eyebrows and long, dark lashes add wonder- 
fully to the beauty of a face, and women should care for these 
necessary adjuncts to their good looks. If the brows are thin 
and ill-formed rub pure grease or vaseline on them at' night, 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 71 

bathing them carefully in cold water in the morning and then 
putting on a little petroleum. Never brush nor rub the brows 
the wrong way. Brush them daily with a small eyebrow brush, 
and you will find an improvement. 

Brushing the eyebrows and eyelashes every morning with a 
solution of green tea improves them. There is no better lotion 
for the eyes than salt water. 

An excellent/wash for red, tired eyelids is composed of a small 
quantity of sulphate of zinc dissolved in a quart of water. The 
eyes should be bathed in a little of this twice daily and gently 
dried with a soft rag. I have known this wash to cure obstinate 
cases of weak eyes. 

Foreign Substances in the Eye. — A natural instinct impels a 
person who feels pain or irritation to rub the affected spot. 
When some trifling object gets under the eyelid, one is tempted 
to rub the exterior of the lid, and thus unconsciously imbed the 
object in the inner surface, thus rendering its ultimate removal 
more difficult. Another almost irresistible impulse prompts 
one to wink. This operation is apt to have the same effect. If 
the lid is promptly turned inside out, though, danger from both 
of these causes will be avoided and the discovery of the mischief- 
making particle may be" promoted. It is better to have some- 
one else do the hunting, but if a looking-glass is at hand, perhaps 
the victim can see well enough with the other eye to find the 
object in question. A correspondent of the Scientific A?nerican 
makes these suggestions: 

Gently hold the eye open with the fingers and thumb of one 
hand, while with the other hand dash light handfuls of water in 
and across it, so as to produce a current of water flowing over 
all the surface of the eye, and the under side of the lids. The 
effect of this almost invariably is to push the intruding object 
from the eye. 

The eye should not be rubbed or one lid drawn over the other, 
or a silk handkerchief drawn across the affected part, but the 
eye should be kept from winking as much as possible, while 
prompt action is being taken to cause a current of water to pass 
over the surface of the ball. 

If a cinder gets in the eye, wet a flaxseed, and put it in one 

corner of the eyelid. Close the lid and the seed will attract the 
cinder and bring it out. Closing the eye and anointing the 
edges of the lid with vaseline is another way of accomplishing 
the same end without irritating the delicate organ. 

To Cure a Stye. — Make a poultice of lukewarm tea leaves. 
Put the smallest quantity of water over a half spoonful of 
black tea and allow it to steep. Take it in ten minutes and 
fold into a tiny piece of thin muslin. Lay it on the eyelid and 
keep the eyes shut for half an hour. As it dries moisten in the 
cold tea. This cure is only of avail before the stye has come to 
at iead: the poultice must be applied as soon as the first prick- 



72 HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 

ling pain in the eyelid announces the coming of the disagreeable 
inflammation. 

To relieve a stye, wet a compress of old linen with boiling 
water and lay on the stye. Repeat every few minutes several 
times and do this once an hour as long as may be necessary. 

CARE OF THE EAR 

Never meddle with the ear if a foreign body, such as a bead, 
button or seed enters it; leave it absolutely alone, but have a 
physician attend to it. More damage has been done by injudi- 
cious attempts at the extraction of a foreign body than could 
ever come from its presence in the ear. 

Never wear cotton in the ears if they are discharging pus. 

Never apply a poultice to the inside of the canal of the ear. 

Never drop anything into the ear unless it has been previ- 
ously warmed. 

Never use anything but a syringe and warm water for clean- 
ing the ears from pus. 

Never strike or box a child's ears; this has been known to 
rupture the drumhead and cause incurable deafness. 

Never scratch the ears with anything but the finger if they 
itch. Do not use the head of a pin, hairpins, pencil tips or any- 
thing of that nature. 

To Cure Earache. — Put a live coal from the fire in a cup and 
pour a teaspoonful of granulated sugar over it. Be careful not 
to let it blaze, and at once insert a small funnel over it, holding 
the tip of the funnel in the ear. The smoke gives instant relief. 

CARE OF THE TEETH 

The teeth should have proper and constant attention. All 
foreign matter must be removed or decay will come sure as 
fate. The sooner one becomes used to a moderately stiff brush 
as a daily companion the better for the teeth. See that the 
brush, as well as your teeth, is kept scrupulously clean. Use 
tepid water for washing the teeth as often as you eat. 

Occasionally you may use a little lemon juice on the teeth to 
remove the yellow stain and tartar. 

A little common table salt is also good for the teeth occasion- 
ally. 

An offensive breath may be removed permanently only by 
removing the cause, which may be either from the teeth, nostrils, 
throat or lungs, not from the stomach. If from the teeth, seek 
a dentist; if from any other cause, take internal baths. 

CARE OF THE FEET 

Most people take pride in a well-shaped foot, and all people 
take comfort when they forget they have feet. But who can 
portray the agony incased in one little corn! And who can 
describe the discomfort of tender, aching feet! 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 73 

Ill-Fitting Shoes.— Have you ever suffered torment from an 
ill-fitting shoe, tight in one spot? If so, apply sweet oil to the 
stocking where the shoe rubs. It is better than to put it on the 
shoe, because it softens the inside of the shoe where it is 
needed, instead of the outside. 

Tender Feet. — Frequent change of shoes is not only better for 
those having tender feet, but also for those who wish to avoid 
having them. It is not only hygienic but economical as well to 
change one's shoes often. Two pairs of shoes used alternate- 
ly will last as long as three pairs used successively. 

For tender feet, soak in cold water, to which an ounce of 
powdered borax is added, and rub dry with a towel. 

For Tired Feet.— When the feet are tired and tender after 
much walking or standing during the day, there is nothing that 
will afford them so much relief as a good warm foot-bath. Take 
as warm water as can be borne and throw into it a handful of 
sea salt. Bathe the feet and legs with this for from five to eight 
minutes, and then rub briskly with a dry towel. The effect is 
most refreshing. It is a useful thing to know, too, that bathing 
the feet in this way before retiring is an excellent remedy for 
insomnia. 

CARE OF THE HAIR 

At night before retiring brush the hair carefully and braid it 
loosely in a number of strands. Avoid wetting the hair too often 
to make it glossy, as the wetting has a tendency to make the hair 
coarse. Avoid putting the hair up in kids at night to wave it. 
They are more harmful than even the much abused curling- 
iron, as the hair is twisted about the kid so tightly that it 
actually wears it out, and a bald spot is apt in time to be the 
result. 

Beware of bleaches and of coloring matters that are guaran- 
teed to restore hair to its original color. The presence of sul- 
phur in almost all of these bleaches causes the hair to turn an 
ugly yellow. Do not try to improve upon Nature. Use only 
Nature's remedies — food, air, water.and exercise. 

The Hair. — The hair should be given much attention in sum- 
mer, as heat, perspiration and the fine dust which fills the air in 
hot weather all conspire against woman's crown of glory. Hair 
culturists — and be it known that a hair culturist is not a hair 
dresser — claim that summer is their best friend, sending them 
innumerable patients when cool weather betrays the ravages 
which heat and perspiration have worked in once fluffy locks. 

The hair should be shampooed at least once a week in sum- 
mer and dried thoroughly in the sunlight. The practice fol- 
lowed by some ill-advised women of washing their hair at night 
and letting it hang over the pillow to dry, is reprehensible. 
Sunlight is a wonderful tonic for the hair, as for the entire 



u 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 



human system. If the hair is oily, borax may be used to cut 
the oil. A shampoo prepared by boiling together borax, pure 
Soap and rain water is excellent. Soap should never be rubbed 
on the hair, and it should be dried at first by patting with soft 
towels. Turkish toweling literally tears the wet hair from the 
scalp. 




PURITY. 



Preventing the Hair from Falling Ont.— To a pint of hot 
water add a tablespoonful of borax, which will quickly dissolve; 
then add one drachm of salts of tartar and one ounce of almond 
oil; shake well, and perfume with a few drops each of bergamot, 
lemon, lavender and clove essential oils. A beautiful cream 
will be produced, which, shaken well before using, will impart 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 75 

a healthy gloss to the hair, purify the scalp, and act as a deter- 
rent to the falling out of weak and thin-grown hair. 

To Remove Dandruff.— Take two ounces of rosemary herb 
with roots, and break it up into small pieces; add two table- 
spoonfuls of borax; place in a jug and pour over it a pint of boil- 
ing water; cover and let the contents steam near the fire for 
three hours, stirring occasionally. When cold press out, pour 
off, and bottle the clear liquor, to which add one ounce of glyc- 
erine, shaking well together. This makes an excellent prepara- 
tion, removing scurf and dandruff, and keeping the scalp healthy 
and thus preventing baldness. If perfume be desired add half 
a drachm each of bergamot, lemon, grass and lavender. 

Helps and Hindrances to Its Growth.— Very often a good 
rubbing of the skin of the head serves to stimulate the growth of 
the hair. This ought to be repeated twice a week, and the fric- 
tion should be so vigorous as to make the skin become red and 
glowing. Thin hair often becomes thick and long after this 
mode of treatment is applied. Another useful treatment for 
the hair is that of being allowed to float freely about for an hour 
or so, that the air may circulate through it. 

Wearing false hair injures the natural growth by keeping the 
skin of the head too hot. Excessive use of the curling-tongs is 
very injurious to the hair. 

Massaging the Scalp. — The first movement in massaging the 
scalp is "pinching the scalp." Take the scalp between the 
thumb and the four fingers, covering a comfortable space, then 
bring them together without letting them quite touch. The hair 
should never be pulled or dragged in doing this. The object of 
this pinching is to arouse activity in the pores and glands. It 
should not last more than ten minutes. Another important one 
consists in tapping the scalp. This should be done with the 
ends of the four fingers, which should fall methodically, but not 
violently, all over the scalp for not more than five minutes. 
This movement should invigorate the scalp, bring the blood to 
the surface and promote circulation. After this should come 
the movement called "pressure." This pressure should be done 
with the palm of the hand lightly, moving from place to place 
for about ten minutes, and always with a lingering movement, 
as though you wished to detach something. All this massage 
should be done without the aid of any grease or lotion. 

Hints About Hair-brushes.— A specialist says that hair 
brushes should be washed once a week, and if used on hair in 
which there is much dandruff twice a week is not too often. The 
brushes should be washed in cold, not hot, water to which cloudy 
ammonia has been added in the proportion of a scant table- 
spoonful to a quart of water. Care should be taken not to wet 
the backs of the brushes, and when washed and rinsed — a good 
way to rinse them properly is to use a shower spray on them — 
they should be put on edge in the air to dry. Dressing combs, 



?6 HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 

too, should be frequently cleaned, a comb cleaner being used 
for the purpose. 

Dry Hair.— In the spring of the year the hair, with the rest of 
the system, gets very tired and in many cases requires a stimu- 




READY FOR A FROLIC. 

lant. In hot weather, too, the hair is apt to get dry and to feel 
the want of oil and nourishment. Dryness is one of the worst 
foes the hair has to contend with and it gives the hair a tired, 
faded appearance. The condition of one's health has a curious 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 77 

effect on the hair and one may be sure that the limp locks that 
refuse to wave belong to a person suffering from debility. 

When the hair is dry and breaks easily, rub a little olive oil 
into the scalp every night. This will give nutriment to the hair 
glands and strengthen and increase the growth. 

Baldness. — All hats should be well ventilated and worn as 
little as possible. If we went bareheaded, there would be no 
baldness. You never heard of a bald Indian. Heat and mois- 
ture are absolutely essential to the development of the microbes 
and the modern hat furnishes both of them. I have experi- 
mented on animals — inoculated them with the microbes and 
kept them in a warm, moist atmosphere. The microbes spread 
like fire and attacked the hair ravenously; but when the animals 
were put in dry, cool air the microbes died. 

Women keep their hair better than men. In the first place, 
there is more of it and their scalps are better protected; but 
they wear their hats so much less than men and the hats, when 
they are worn, do not fit the head so tightly and create such a 
heat and moisture, generating poison, as the man's hat does. 

A leather hatband should be changed frequently. It gets 
soiled, and decomposition of leather is a wonderful microbe 
promoter. Decay of animal fiber is responsible for these 
microbes. Experiment has proved that men working with 
leather and fur have more scalp trouble than any other class. 
Silk-factories are hard on the scalp, too. 

There has been a popular belief that baldness is hereditary. 
Patients have a way of saying: "Oh, it runs in our family. My 
father was bald early and my mother's hair has almost all come 
out." That is all nonsense. Scalp trouble is not hereditary, 
but it is contagious, and it is very likely to run through a whole 
family. 

Hat-pins ought to be cleaned often. So ought hair-pins. 
Cleanliness is the great baldness preventive; but when the dis- 
ease has once started nothing but energetic scientific treatment 
will stop it. 



SECTION FIVE— HYGIENIC BATHING 

The Bath, — The bath, as a hygienic measure, probably stands 
second to no other within the knowledge of man. It is not only 
conducive to cleanliness, but is a most powerful promoter of 
health, both by its immediate and remote effects upon the 
system. 

Precautions. — Under certain conditions, nothing is so invigor- 
ating as a plunge into cold water in the morning. It keeps the 
blood bounding through its channels all day, exhilarating the 
mind and invigorating the body. There are, however, certain 
indications to be noticed and certain precautions to be observed. 
The first shock or chill on entering the bath should be followed 



18 HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 

by a glow of warmth, in a healthy person. Let the form of the 
bath be what it may, the condition known as that of reaction 
should always follow. This is a point upon which the bather 
can not be too guarded. Reaction is recognized by redness of 
the skin over the whole surface of the body, by the glow, the 
sensation of comfort and invigoration, by the accelerated circu- 
lation, and by the feeling of increased warmth which pervades 
the whole system. 

Reaction.— By such a reaction, all the internal organs are 
affected by a sense of relief from oppression: the breathing is 
easier, the heart beats stronger and more steadily, the mind 
becomes clear and active, muscular strength is increased, the 
appetite is sharpened, and the whole system, in fact, is reju- 
venated. 

How Often?— In order that the desired end may be attained, 
the bath should be taken at regular intervals. These, on an 
average, should be every second or third day, though there are 
many individuals representing the very finest types of physical 
manhood, who look upon their bath as an altogether indis= 
ensable operation of every*day life. 

When Taken.— In order that it may be beneficial, the bath 
should not be taken at a time when any of the important organs 
of the body are engaged in the performance of their functions. 
The vital "forces should be at their highest, and the general 
system should be entirely free from exhaustion. It shouldnot 
therefore, too closely precede or follow a meal; nor should it be 
taken at a ime when the mind is engaged in some perplexing or 
exhausting labor. The reaction is far less certain to follow when 
the internal organs are active or exhausted, than when they are 
in a state of rest or repose* 

Curative Effects of Bath Kot Appreciated.— In many dis= 
orders of the internal organs, and in diseases of the skin, it 
sxerts a more decided influence than medicine. 

When to Bathe.— Persons who bathe very frequently, with 
brisk rubbing, should use less soap than when only weekly ablu= 
tions are practiced. An excessive use of so much alkali pro- 
duces a dry, chapped, unnatural condition of the skin. 

The water used for bathing purposes can be of any tempera- 
fure between the two extremes of heat and cold, and the bath 
may be partial or general. But great care must be used as to 
cold baths directly after hearty eating. Many deaths have 
been reported from this cause, the shock to the system and 
check of the process of digestion being the probable explana- 
tion. 

Kinds of Baths.— The most simple, and that best suited to very 
ieeble invalids, is the (1) sponge bath, by which a small portion of 
the whole surface of the body may be gone over at a time c 
Each part should be sponged, then wiped thoroughly dry with 




APOLLO BELVEDERE 

IN THE BELVEDERE OF THE VATICAN 



80 HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 

a soft towel, followed by friction with a coarse or rough towel? 
the portion of the surface bathed can be again covered with the 
clothing as soon as it is rubbed dry, and then there is no possi- 
bility of catching cold from undue exposure of any large area of 

nil T*f Ji C*& 

Another method is the (2) sitz bath, or that of sitting in any 
conveniently shallow vessel of water, and also receiving water 
squeezed from a sponge held over the shoulder or any other part 
of the body. Afterward the surface should be quickly dried, 
and attention given to getting up a glow of reaction. 

The third form is by the (3) shower bath. Various methods 
are in use to produce the affusion of water upon the body in a 
manner both pleasant and beneficial. The concussion of the 
skin by the fall of water distinguishes this form of bath from 
all others. The degree of concussion is modified by the size of 
the openings through which the water issues, and by the height 
of the reservoir. The shower bath, in fact, admits of modifica- 
tion, adapting it to the most delicate as well as the most robust. 
The size of the openings, the extent of fall, the quantity and 
temperature of the water, may be regulated at will and pleas- 
ure. The shower bath, when judiciously used, is probably the 
most valuable of all forms of baths; it is well to commence with 
warm or tepid water, for which, by a gradual process, cold 
water may be substituted. 

(4) The Turkish or hot-air bath is a remedy of special value in 
gout, chronic rheumatism, malaria, neuralgia^ various skis 
diseases, obesity, and a long list of chronic affections. 

Turkish bath may be conceived from the following descrip= 
tion: "The bather, wrapped only in a soft sheet, reclines on a 
lounge in the sweating-room, where the intense perspiration 
induced by a dry heat, varying from 120 to 140 degrees, is con- 
tinued for a sufficient time to flush every channel of the skin c 
and expel from the body every particle of obstructed perspira= 
tion. The bather is then subjected to a process of elaborate 
shampooing, a kind of kneading of the muscles of the entire 
body by the hands of the assistant, by which means every 
particle of impurity is effectually worked out of the skin, which 
is then scraped and washed. The bather is then wrapped in a 
dry sheet and conducted to an agreeable divan, where he 
remains for a sufficient time to very gradually cool off and 
recover from fatigue." 

Baths the Best Preservative of Female Health.— One of thfr 
best preservatives of female health is a plentiful use of cool or 
tepid water, both on the surface of the body and by vaginal 
injections. It is believed that this part of the feminine toilet is 
too much neglected, and in consequence of that neglect, many 
distressing and serious evils arise. Inflammations and adhesions 
arising from a want of habitual bathing of the private parts $ 
may be cured by the bath. Also, among young persons, these 
physical neglects frequently lead to moral evils. 

The most scrupulous cleanliness should be observed, both 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 81 

by male and female, old and young, married and single; as 
there is no doubt but that a neglect of it, in the male, results 
in numerous skin diseases, together with disorders of the internal 
organs; while in the female, in addition to these, there is danger 
of such affections resulting as leucorrhcea, pruritus, vulvitis; 
vaginitis, prolapsus and many other evils. 

Bathing" Neglected. — "Thousands of persons," said a doctor 
the other day, "do not pay proper attention to the rules that 
should govern the bath. Many persons bathe too much; others 
too little. 

"The most* important rule, and the one most often violated; 
is that of rubbing down after indulging in exercise. Every day 
thousands go cycling or take other exercise, after which they 
neglect to remove their underclothes and take a vigorous rub 
down with a coarse towel. 

"More than half the pleasure in exercise lies in the feeling 
of new life obtained from this dry bath, for when you replace 
your damp underwear with that which is dry you feel like a 
new person, so invigorated and refreshed have you become 
Catching cold, or, rather, catching heat, often comes from the 
neglect to properly care for yourself after exercisingc" 



SECTION SIX— DRESS 

The Uses of Dress. — Dress has primarily two functions— tc 
siothe and to ornament; but use and beauty, in this as in othei 
cases, so far from requiring any sacrifice for combination, are 
found, each in the highest degree, where both are most fully 
obtained — the fittest or most comfortable dress being that which 
is most graceful or becoming. Fitness is the primary demand 
and the dress that appears uncomfortable is untasteful. 

One's dress should not be the most important part of a 
person, and yet we can not deny that dress is important. 

If a man's necktie or a woman's jewelry attract the first 
notice of a newly made acquaintance, then there is a radical 
defect in the dress of that man or woman. 

The greatest compliment that can be paid to anyone is to for- 
get the dress in admiration of the person who adorns the dress. 

Dress an Art. — To dress well is an art, and not all people are 
artists, but all may learn to dress appropriately. 

There must be fitness in form, material and color to the 
wearer, and to the conditions of time, place and occasion on 
which the various articles of dress are worn. 

A person of refinement would rather follow than lead a fash- 
ion. 

Dress should accord with one's pecuniary means and social 
position. 

One's costume should be suited also to one's work. Flounces 
and drapery are as out of place in the kitchen as would be the 



82 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 



long gingham apron in the parlor. Trailing skirts, graceful as 
they may be in the drawing-room, are not appropriate for the 
street and office, besides being a menace to health and clean* 
liness. 

No two persons can dress exactly alike unless two can be 
found who are just alike in physical and mental character. 

What we need is to get rid of the absurd tyranny of fashion 9 
so that what is becoming to each person, whether man of 
woman, may be worn without social outlawry or unfavorable 
comment. 




COURT DRESS OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 

Fashion's Tyranny. — Fashion has many things to answer for. 
More evil is wrought by want of thought than in almost any 
other way and what is called "fashion" has suffered this. 

No matter how absurd a thing is so long as it is the fashion. 
What the "trusts" are in the commercial world, "fashion" is in 
the social world. It stands in the way of social and economic 
reform. 

Of tight lacing Miss Willard said that the amount of force 
exerted at a given moment to compress the waists of women by 
artificial methods would, if aggregated, turn all the mills 
between Minneapolis and the Merrimac. Let us hope her state- 
ment an exaggerated one. 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 83 

However that may be, public sentiment is awakened on this 
subject and our girls are becoming enlightened as to the use 
and abuse of the corset. 

The Corset in Disfavor. — The corset and kindred abomina* 
tions are on the wane. Our school girls are learning that beauty 
in the body is that which was found there in original creation, 
as God made it. Henceforth for them the muscles which God 
made for support will be allowed to perform their duty and not 
be pressed out of place. An aroused intelligence can prepare 
the way for a rational dress, and such a dress need not be 
devoid of grace and beauty. 

Things to be Avoided. — Were flimsy slippers, low-necked 
dresses and shoulder sleeves discarded, sickness and colds 
would be out of fashion. 

But the signs of promise are Increasing. The schools and 
colleges with their gymnasiums and physical culture classes are 
the leaven that is working. 

A girl who has discarded the corset and the high-heeled shoe ; 
and who has donned the bicycle or gymnasium suits will 
scarcely return to her former discomforts* She is learning thai 
beauty and utility may be combined. 

"What man of sense wants to marry a dressmaker's lay- 
figure, or a bundle of aches and pains wrapped up in fancy 
dry-goods?" is the way a sensible young man puts it c 

Injurious Results. — One of the greatest injuries that come 
from wearing tightly-laced corsets is the compression of the 
ribs. The unyielding steel and bones will not permit a variation 
in the waist measure as a deep breath is inhaled or expelled. 

The healthful corset, or waist as I should call it, is one that 
expands or contracts with each respiration of the wearer. 
Such a waist may have a stiffly corded front if desired, and 
elastic bands on either side. With an increased breathing 
capacity the lungs and chest are sure of development if proper 
attention be given them. 

Woolen underwear, hygienically speaking, is not so good for 
aU-around purposes as cotton or linen, the latter, if meshed, 
being preferable. < If one perspires readily he will chill as 
readily when wearing woolen underwear, as it holds the mois- 
ture, thus keeping the surface of the body damp. 

High collars, besides interfering with the proper pose of the 
head and the lines of the neck, are harmful from a health point 
of view. The neck muscles are strained, and, incidentally, 
the cords of the neck and shoulders. If too high in front they 
impede circulation and are said to account for much of the 
unpaired eyesight now so prevalent. Tight collars will often 
cause headache. 

All clothing should be so adjusted to the body as to give 
perfect freedom to every organ. All parts of the body should 




AN EARLY MORNING OUTING. 



HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 85 

be kept equally warm, and the clothing should be carried with 
the least possible effort. 

The Outer Dress. — In color, unity of tint gives repose — if 
somber, gravity, but if light and clear, then a joyous serenity, 
Variety of tint gives vivacity, and if contrasted, brilliancy. 

Hat trimmings or colors worn near the face, change its color 
To trace the change clearly we must know the cast of the com- 
plexion. 

Blonde and Brunette. — We recognize two general divisions, 
light and dark, which are known as blonde and brunette. 

In the blonde the skin is light with variable tinges of red, 
the color of the hair is a mixture of red, yellow and brown, 
The eyes of blue are complementary to the orange-brown hair. 

In brunettes the hair and eyes are black, and the skin dark, 
or of an orange tint. The red of a brunette is deeper than that 
of her blonde sister. The same color would affect these two 
styles of complexion very differently. 

Harmony of Color. — A green setting in bonnet or dress 
throws its complement of red upon the face. If the complexion 
be pale and deficient in ruddy freshness, or admits of having its 
rose-tint a little heightened, the green will improve it, though it 
should be delicate in order to preserve harmony of tone. But 
green changes the orange hue of the brunette into a disagree- 
able brick-red. If any green at all be used, in such case it 
should be dark. For the orange complexion of brunette the 
best color is yellow. Its complementary, violet, neutralizes 
the yellow of the orange and leaves the red, thus increasing the 
freshness of the complexion. If the skin be more yellow than 
orange, the complementary violet falling upon it changes it to a 
dull pallid whit3. Blue imparts its complementary orange, 
which improves the yellow hair of the blondes, and enriches 
white complexions and light flesh tints. 

Blue is therefore the standard color for a blonde, as yellow 
is for a brunette. But blue injures the brunette by deepening 
the orange, which was before too deep. Violet yellows the skin 
and is inadmissible except where its tone is so deep as to whiten 
the complexion by contrast. Rose-red, by throwing green upon 
the complexion, impairs its freshness. Red is objectionable, 
unless it be sufficiently dark to whiten the face by contrast of 
tone. Orange makes light complexions blue, yellow ones green, 
and whitens the brunette. White, if without luster, has a 
pleasant effect with light complexions; but dark or bad com- 
plexions are made worse by its strong contrast. Fluted laces 
are not liable to this objection, for they reflect the light in 
such a way as to produce the same effect as gray. Black 
adjacent to the countenance makes it lighter. 

Becoming Colors.— Women with sallow complexions should 
wear such shades as dark red, pink, light yellow and cream. If 
pale as well as sallow, deeper tones of similar colors are most 



£€ HEALTH AND GOOD FORM 

becoming. If rosy and clear, almost any" shade may be worn, 
Navy blue brings out all the lines on a face, but toned up with 
cardinal or deep rose pink the trying effect of the blue is offset 

Form and Size. — Light colors are more suitable to small 
persons than to large ones, as they increase the apparent size. 

Tall women should not wear dresses with longitudinal 
stripes, as they will make them appear taller than they really 
are. Flounces and stripes running around the dress have an 
opposite effect, and should be avoided by short persons. 
Simplicity and long, unbroken lines give dignity, while compli- 
cated and short lines express vivacity. Curves, particularly if 
,ong and sweeping, give grace, while straight lines and angles 
ndieate power and strength. 

Ornaments. — Aside from the dress itself, ornaments should 
3e very sparingly used — at any rate, the danger lies in overload* 
ag oneself, and not in using too few. A young girl, and espe* 
lially one of a light and any style of beauty 5 should never we&r 
!gms-. Simplicity is her charra 5 



CHAPTER V 
LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 

SECTION ONE— LOVE 

"As unto the bow the cord is, 
So unto the man is woman; 
Though she bends him, she obeys him : 
Though draws him, yet she follows; 
Useless each without the other!" 

Thus the youthful Hiawatha 
Said within himself and pondered; 
Much perplexed by various feelings* 
Listless, longing, hoping, fearing, 
Dreaming still of Minnehaha, 
Of the lovely Laughing Water, 
In the land of the Dacotahs. 

"Wed a maiden of your people," 
Warning said the old Nokomis; 
u Go not eastward, go not westward, 
For a stranger, whom we know not'. 
Like a fire upon the hearth-stone 
Is a neighbor's homely daughter, 
Like the starlight or the moonlight 
is the handsomest of strangers!" 

Thus dissuading spake Nokomis; 
And my Hiawatha answered 
Only this: "Dear old Nokomis, 
Very pleasant is the firelight, 
But / like the starlight better, 
Better do I like the moonlight!" 

— Longfellow, 

Love Is Sunshine.— Men and women have been repeating 
itory of Hiawatha and Minnehaha and learning that 
"Love is sunshine, hate is shadow, 
Life is checkered shade and sunshine." 
And fond parents with tearful eyes stand in the doorway of the 
old home, murmuring as did the ancient arrow-maker whom ouf 
own tuneful Longfellow makes to say: 

''Thus it is our daughters leave us, 
Those we love and those who love us! 
Just when they have learned to help us= 
When we're old and lean upon them, 
Comes a youth with flaunting feathers t 
With his flute of reeds, a stranger 

8« 



88 



LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 



Wanders piping through the village, 
Beckons to the fairest maiden, 
And she follows where he leads her, 
Leaving all things for the stranger!" 

Nature's Example. — Some observant writer has said: "It is 
just as right and natural for young people to think and talk 
about being married as it is for birds to sing and flowers to 
blossom." Carrying the suggestion still farther, we note that 
the merry songster selects his willing mate and together they 




ROMEO AND JULIET. 

build their Home and raise their birdlings; the flowers bloom, 
pollen seeks pistil and luscious fruit results. So nature acts and 
speaks in both plant and animal kingdoms. In the human 
family love is the basis of such a union. 
"Love is a celestial harmony, 

Of likely hearts composed of star's consent, 
Which join together in sweet sympathy, 
To work each other's joy and true content." 

— Spenser, 



LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 8* 

What is Love? — An eminent physician who has made a 
scientific study of love, says: 

"There is known to man and experienced by some, pure, 
true love; and it is as much above the mere base, brute lust that 
dwells in the loins as heaven is above hell. Love has its seat 
as lust has its seat, in the bodily man, but they are not the 
same. In woman, love the more prevails, and lust in man. To 
bring it about that love shall altogether prevail in both, is to 
bring one of the greatest of blessings to mankind. 

"Love is the sense of the presence of one's harmonial tem- 
peramental mate. The harmony may be only partial, or it may 
be complete and perfect. So the love may be weak and flighty, 
or it may be strong and firm. But whether weak or strong, 
wherever love is, it dwells in the temperament, it lives and moves 
and has its being there; and, throned in the heart, it is appointed 
to full dominion over the loins, the home of lust. If this is so, 
then one of the most precious of the knowledges which a human 
being can gain is to know how to know when true love is awak- 
ened. And this knowledge I will now endeavor to impart. 

"Harmony of the Temperaments in Truo Marriage,— There 

are in mankind, at least in the more highly developed races ; 
three sex centers, one in the loins, one in the 'heart,' and one in 
the brain. The first is the sex center of 'the flesh,' or animal 
man; the second of 'the spirit' or spiritual man, and the third of 
the mind or intellectual man. The chief function of the animal 
sex is the continuance of the race; that of spiritual sex is the 
promotion of love; that of mental sex is the advancement of 
thought. 

"Love dwells primarily in spiritual sex and springs there- 
from. Spiritual sex blends in with and manifests itself through 
temperament, and temperament centers upon the 'heart.* The 
'heart' when spoken of as the seat of love does not mean the 
physical organ of that name, but something quite different. 

"Solar Plexus. — There are in the cavity of the body bunches 
or knots of nerves, through the spontaneous action of which the 
functions of the bodily organs are carried on. The greatest of 
these, and the one upon which the others all unite, lies back of 
the navel, and is called in scientific language the solar plexus. 
This is the great emotional center of man, and is the real organ 
which is meant by the term 'heart' as the seat of love. In the 
Bible phrase, 'His heart melteth in the midst of his bowels,' this 
location which I have pointed out is clearly indicated. In gen- 
eral, also, the whole region from the navel to the breasts is sig- 
nified by this term. As the physical heart is powerfully affected 
by this great nerve center, and as the ancients did not have 
skill enough in anatomy to distinguish the solar plexus, it is easy 
to see how the name of the physical organ came to be applied 
to this emotional center, which is really something quite other. 

"The solar plexus is the throne of love. There this deep 
and tender emotion centers, and from thence it radiates. But 



LOVE, ADAPT A1ION AND COURTSHIP 91 

also temperament centers there. Temperament is the quality 
of the vitality, as mind is its form. Love is not in the brain. 
Love is not in the loins. Love is in the temperament as center- 
ing upon the solar plexus. So 'falling in love' is awaking to the 
consciousness of trie presence of one's temperamental, harmo- 
nial mate. 

"The Mating Period. — In some countries young people are con- 
tinuously guarded by relatives during their mating period. While 
under American methods many young people would resent this 
course, it is the better way to insure their future happiness, and to 
save them from being swept blindly along by love or fancy until 
too late to repair the mischief wrought. 

"Mutual Love. — Sometimes it will come swiftly, in a day or 
even an hour; sometimes slowly, in months or years. There 
is the same hunger in each for the presence of the other one. 
To each the other is their 'sweetheart,' because each :ias 
awakened in the other a honiedness of heart never known be- 
fore. There is the same desire for the other only, to the exclu- 
sion of all others. There is the same deep sense of ecstasy and 
delight in each while with the other, and desire that the two 
remain together through life. 

"Lotc's Influence. — There is the same sense of modesty, so 
that the coarsest and lowest man wishes to behave uprightly to 
'his girl.* And all this abiding, overwhelming, melting sweet- 
ness springs forth from the region I have indicated and radiates 
through the person's whole body, soul and spirit, and gives new 
tone, quality and power to the whole being. In women all this 
is so high, intense and pure that hardly a word need to be writ- 
ten for them. I write for men. How to know one's true mate, 
not so much by scientific reading of the exterior appearance, 
although this has its place, but in great measure by that keen, 
inward sense through which one feels quickened and thrilled to 
the last fiber of life by the presence of one's other half. 

"The Priceless Knowledge. — And this priceless knowledge I 
am now trying to impart to such as are able to receive it. The 
first part is this experience in the 'heart.' 

"The second part of the knowledge is that the more power- 
fully this emotion is felt the more the loins will be subdued and 
in abeyance, and the more the thought of marriage will arise 
rather than the thought of the mere animal union. This victory 
of the heart over the loins is in certain views the greatest vic- 
tory that can be achieved in man. It changes the whole man to 
the jenter of his life. It develops man Into a spiritual being 
from the sex side. The normal woman is already in this state. 
Just in so far as she bears rule in the family relation she 
strengthens the development of this state in man. 

"To sum up. True love is the expression of temperamental 
harmony. Its throne is in 'the heart.' It springs from and 
tends to give the mastery to the spiritual side of man. As it 



92 



LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 



prevails the heart subdues the loins. Its absolute raw is, vir- 
ginity for the unmarried; the woman ruling over the man for the 

married; motherhood 
the supreme duty 
of the wife. Thus 
lived, true love sweet- 
ens the man and the 
woman for life, and 
they grow sweeter 
through to the end. 
Thus a nectar stream 
ever flows in the 
heart, no matter what 
outward troubles 
may assail. 

"Mental Mating.— 
Mental mating cen- 
ters on the brain as 
the other centers on 
s the heart.' This 
gives a harmony, not 
identity of tastes and 
views. The two may 
not think in the same 
way, but they will ar- 
rive at very much 
the same conclu- 
sions. Or if they are 
inclined to differ, 
then they will have 
such intellectual 
sense that the one 
having the sounder 
judgment will prevail. 
The one of less excel- 
lent mind will delight 
in the superiority of 
the other's mind, and 
be pleased to get the 
help of it. Each will 
see where the other 
has mental excel- 
lencies, and will seek 
to call them out, and 
give them full play. 
In large measure they 
will have tastes alike, 
or similar, or counter- 
parts. In their ways 
be co-equal, or co-ordinate. 




HARMONY. 



of working their minds will 
Their hearts are blended into one. 
$v a harmony. " 



Theif minds work togethee 



LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 



93 



Love Begets Love. — If you love truly, wisely and deeply, you 

f)ossess the secret, the charm. Love will express itself in word, 
ook and deed when in the presence of the loved one. Love will 
make itself felt and awake the slumbering love of the other. 
It may be a sudden awakening or a gradual one according to 
temperament. 

Qualities of a Man's Love.— Would you, a man, call out the 
love of a woman, you must first love that woman with an absorb- 
ing love. Your devotion, kindness and steadfastness, coupled 
witn your dignity, bravery and manliness, will win her admira* 




THE SAME SWEET, OLD STORY. 

tion, and such qualities backed by your love for her will most 
likely beget in her the response your whole being so ardently 
desires. 

Qualities of a Woman's Love.— Would you, a womanly 
woman, seek the love of him whose very tones refresh your 
wearied senses? Then with gentle modesty let your intellectual 
graces unfold themselves in features, voice and kindly deeds: 
The azure blue of heaven is less pleasing to man than a modest: 
courteous woman who has sensible ideas and who says them ir 
a sensible way. 



94 



LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 



Her words of sympathy uttered in low, musical tones which 
vibrate with a heart-felt tenderness speak to him in a language 
to which his own heart replies. 

He knows not the charm that so bewitchingly enchants him, 
he can not place it nor name it; he is satisfied in its presence and 
seeks to prolong its stay. Such a love is sweet as the odor of 
flowers, pure as the water of an ever-flowing fountain, and 
stronger than the intertwining branches of the swaying forests,, 

Man's love for woman changes his whole nature to more 
lofty ideals. He becomes more tender to all God's creatures, 
the little child, the blooming plant, the crawling worm is noticed 
with a new interest. 

A lady once remarked of a young man who leaned over the 
cradle to caress her babe: "That fellow is in love, I'm sure. He 
is so gentle and tender with the children." 




WHERE NATURE ADDS HER CHARM. 



Woman's love is her all, her whole existence. In it she lives , 
moves and has her being. It surmounts selfishness, rises above 
misfortune, comforts in sickness and distress, caresses in old 
age, and ministers till death separates. 

Love's Effect.— Love makes people look younger and happier, 
It brings health and vigor to the frail. It makes women indus» 
trious and prudent, more patient and trusting. It makes men 
more economical and careful of means; it brings to the surface 
his strongest points in character; he walks with a firmer tread 
and a lighter heart because of the new-born passion within. 

That life which is devoid of love is not satisfactory because 
incomplete. It fails of its chief end. 






LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 95 

Love and Marriage are the Normal Conditions of Life.— 

Single life is forced upon many of both sexes because of peculiar 
conditions and circumstances, but theirs is not the ideal life. 
There is in store for such as these who are not permitted to 
enjoy the fruits of love a hope for the future which enables them 
to bear with fortitude the present. 

What Men Need Wives For. — It is not to sweep the house 
and make the beds and darn the socks and cook the meals, 
chiefly, that a man wants a wife. If this is all he wants, hired 
servants can do it cheaper than a wife. If this is all, when a 
young man calls to see a lady, send him into the pantry to taste 
the bread and cakes she has made; send him to inspect the 
needlework and bedmaking, or put a broom into her hands and 
send him to witness its use. Such things are important and the 
wise young man will quietly look after them. But what the true 
man most wants of a wife is her companionship, sympathy and 
love. The way of life has many dreary places in it and man 
needs a companion to go with him. 

A Helpmeet. — A man is sometimes overtaken by misfortune; 
he meets with failure and defeat; trials and temptations beset 
hiin and he needs one to stand by him and sympathize. He 
has some stern battles to fight with poverty, with enemies and 
with sin, aDd he needs a woman that, while he puts his arm 
around her and feels that he has something to fight for, will help 
him fight; who will put her lips to his ear and whisper words of 
counsel, and her hand to his heart and impart new inspirations. 
All through life — through storm and through sunshine, conflict 
and victory, through adverse and favorable winds — man needs a 
woman's love. The heart yearns for it. A sister's and a 
mother's love will hardly supply the need. Yet, many seek for 
nothing further than success in housework. Justly enough, half 
of these get nothing more. The other half, surprised above 
measure, obtain more than they sought. Their wives surprise 
them by bringing a nobler idea of marriage and disclosing a 
treasury of courage, sympathy and love. 

Characteristics of Woman.— There is beauty in the helpless- 
ness of woman. The clinging trust which searches for extrane- 
ous support is graceful and touching. Timidity is the attribute 
of her sex; but to herself it is not without its dangers, its incon- 
veniences and its sufferings. Her first effort at comparative 
freedom is bitter enough; for the delicate mind shrinks from 
every unaccustomed contact and the warm and gushing heart 
closes itself, like the blossom of the sensitive plant, at every 
approach. 

Man may at once determine his position and assert his place; 
woman has hers to seek. 

The dependence of woman in the common affairs of life is, 
nevertheless, rather the effect of custom than necessity. We 
have many and brilliant proofs that, where need is, she can be 
sufficient to herself and play her part in the great drama of 



LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 97 

existence with credit, if not with comfort. The yearnings of her 
solitary spirit, the outgushings of her shrinking sensibility, the 
cravings of her alienated heart are indulged only in the quiet 
holiness of her solitude. The world sees not, guesses not, the 
conflict; and in the ignorance of others lies her strength. 

The secret of her weakness is hidden in the depths of her 
own bosom; and she moves on, amid the heat and hurry of exist- 
ence, and with a seal set upon her nature to be broken only by 
fond and loving hands, or dissolved in the tears of recovered 
home affection. 

Each for the Other. — Thus we see that the strong man is 
most secure who has the sympathy of a virtuous, faithful wife, 
and a frail, timid woman needs the strong arm of manhood upon 
which to lean. Each needs the other, and God created them in 
pairs. 

What Eminent Men Say of Marriage. — Benjamin Franklin 
wrote to a young friend upon his marriage: "I am glad you are 
married, and congratulate you most cordially upon it. You are 
now in the way of becoming a useful citizen, and you have 
escaped the unnatural state of celibacy for life — the fate of 
many here who never intended it, but who, having too long 
postponed the change of their condition, find at length that it is 
too late to think of it, and so live all their lives in a situation 
that greatly lessens a man's value. An odd volume of a set of 
books bears not the value of its proportion to the set. What 
think you of the odd half of a pair of scissors? It can't well cut 
anything — it may possibly serve to scrape a trencher!" 

Dr. Johnson says: "Marriage is the best state for man in 
general; and every man is a worse man in proportion as he is 
unfit for the married state." 

Of marriage, Luther observed: "The utmost blessing that 
God can confer on a man is the possession of a good and pious 
wife, with whom he may live in peace and tranquillity, to whom 
he may confide his whole possessions, even his life and welfare." 
And again he said: "To rise betimes and to marry young are 
what no man ever repents of doing." 

Shakespeare would not "admit impediments to the marriage 
of true minds." 

The cares and troubles of married life are many, but are 
those of single life few? The bachelor has no one on whom in 
all cases he can rely. As a rule, his expenses are as great as 
those of a married man, his life less useful, and certainly it is 
less cheerful. 

In more recent times the French statesman, M. Guizot^ says 
in his "Memoires": "What I know to-day, at the end of my race, 
I have felt when it began, and during its continuance. Even in 
the midst of great undertakings domestic affections form the 
basis of life, and the most brilliant career has only superficial 
and incomplete enjoyments if a stranger to the happy ties of 
family and friendship." 



$8 LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 

Not long ago, when speaking of his wife, Prince Bismarck 
said: "She it is who has made me what I am." 

De Tocqueville, in a letter to a friend, says: "I can not 
describe to you the happiness yielded in the long run by the 
habitual society of a woman in whose soul all that is good in 
your own is reflected naturally, and even improved. When I 
say or do a thing which seems to me to be perfectly right, I read 
immediately in Marie's countenance an expression of proud 
satisfaction which elevates me; and so when my conscience 
reproaches me her face instantly clouds over. Although I have 
great power over her mind, I see with pleasure that she awes 
me; and so long as I love her as I do now I am sure that I shall 
never allow myself to be drawn into anything that is wrong." 

Ltither, speaking of his wife, said, "I would not exchange 
my poverty with her for all the riches of Croesus without 
her." 

Celibates. — "It is true that there have been memorable celi- 
bates, but in the main the world's work has been done by the 
married. Fame and reward are powerful incentives, but they 
bear no comparison to the influence exercised by affection. 

"A man's wife and family often compel him to do his best; 
and, when on the point of despairing, they force him to fight 
like a hero, not for himself but for them. Curran confessed 
that when he addressed a court for the first time, if he had not 
felt his wife and children tugging at his gown, he would have 
thrown up his brief and relinquished the profession of a lawyer. 

''Certainly there are some men and women who, without wives 
or husbands, are marriage-made in the sense of having their 
love and powers drawn out by interesting work. They are 
married to some art or utility, or instead of loving one they love 
all. When this last is the case, they go down into the haunts 
of evil, seek out the wretched and spare neither themselves nor 
their money in their Christ-like enthusiasm for humanity. But 
the luxury of doing good is by no means confined to the celi- 
bate. On the contrary, the man with wife and children in 
whose goodness and happiness he rejoices may be much better 
prepared to aid and sympathize with the erring and the suffer- 
ing. The flood-gates of his affections may have been opened, 
and he may have become receptive to influences which had 
upon him beforetime little or no effect,," 

Marriage Does Not Free One from Care and Anxiety.— "Let 

mothers teach their daughters that although a well-assorted 
marriage based upon mutual love and esteem may be the hap- 
piest calling for a woman, yet that marriage brings its peculiar 
trials as well as special joys, and that it is quite possible for a 
woman to be both useful and happy, although youth be fled, 
and the crowning joys of life — wife and motherhood — have 
passed her by or been voluntarily surrendered." 

Those who would avoid care and anxiety must shun the 
world. 



LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 99 

CHOOSING A WIFE 

"Whether a man shall be made or marred by marriage 
greatly depends upon the choice he makes of a wife. Nothing 
is better than a good woman, nor anything worse than a bad 
one." 

A wise marriage leads a man to the noblest, truest, fullest 
and best life. Thousands of men owe all their success and pros- 
perity to their choice of a wife. She has been the good angel of 
destiny. A man wants a wife who will make something of him, 
whose influence will ever inspire him to do his best. What 
kind of a woman should she be? 

For one thing, a man does not want a mere toy wife, some- 
thing too fine, too ethereal for real use. She should be a woman 
who can bear her share of the burdens, who can endure toil 
and sacrifice, and grow all the lovelier meanwhile. 

A Cook. — Again, the wife a man chooses should be a good 
housekeeper. To some romantic young lovers this will seem 
a very prosaic feature to put into the picture. But never mind; 
they will not be many weeks married before they will come down 
out of the clouds to walk on common earth and then, alas! if 
the poor woman does not prove a good housewife! 

There are women who live in sentimental dreams, neglecting 
meanwhile the duties that lie close to their hands. Good break- 
fasts, dinners and suppers, good bread, good coffee — in a word, 
good house-keeping. Far more than any young lovers dream, 
does wedded happiness depend upon just such unromantic 
things as these. 

A Worker. — One of St. Paul's special counsels for young 
women is that they be "keepers at home," as our common 
version renders it, and that is good, too; but in the Revised 
Version it reads "workers at home;" that is, the place of a young 
wife's most sacred duty is in her own home. No doubt women 
have a wide field for Christ-like usefulness in ministering to 
human need and sorrow outside; but in performing such 
ministry, however beautiful and noble, a wife should never 
neglect her divinest duties, which lie within her own doors. 

Disposition. — Another suggestion is that in choosing a wife 
a young man should look for a woman of sweet temper. Noth- 
ing else can take the place of love in a home, nothing else can 
supply its lack. There are many women who have so much of 
the spirit of love and gentleness that they fill their homes as 
with the fragrance of heaven and the calm and peace of God. 

Companionable. — In choosing a wife a wise young man will 
seek for one who will enter with zest into all his life, who will 
stand close beside him in the day of struggle and adversity and 
who will ever inspire him to noble and brave things. 

Godly.— Once more, it needs no argument to prove that a 
young man should choose none but a good woman for his wife. 






100 LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 

A worldly man may imagine that he does not want a pious wife; 
but, if the truth were confessed, even such a man, down deep 
in his heart, would rather have for his wife a woman who reads 
her Bible, prays and lives a godly life, than one who is prayer- 
less, godless and worldly. Religion . adorns and beautifies a 
woman's character, clothing it with tender grace. Even a 
prayerless man feels safer in his home if his wife kneels morn- 
ing and night before God. 

CHOOSING A HUSBAND 

In their haste to be married many women are too easily 
satisfied with the characters of men who may offer themselves 
as husbands. They aim at matrimony in the abstract; not the 
man, but any man. A young woman should be able to find in 
the husband of her choice honor, purity, strength and courage. 
Wise judgment in matters pertaining to business and affairs of 
the world in general, is .also a desirable quality. He should 
have ability to excel in the work he has chosen for life, he 
should be in all things worthy of her respect and confidence. 
Those qualities and principles which a woman would have 
perpetuated in her children, she should find in her chosen 
husband. 

Don't Go It Blind. — A young woman should take pains to 
find out the defects and weaknesses of the man who would 
make her his life companion, for defects he will have, else he is 
not of the earth, earthy. 

One lapse from virtue may taint the life of both, and the 
children that come into their home. Of all things he should 
possess a pure moral character. What is his inheritance in 
this direction? is another question of vital importance. What 
are his ideas of conducting a home? Does he consider his wife 
to be an equal partner in the home-firm or only a subordinate? 
Is he energetic and economical? are other questions which a 
prudent woman will weigh carefully before she commits her 
happiness into his keeping. 

Look Ahead. — A woman should know something of her 
lover's personal habits. Should she find some of them undesir- 
able, she ought to know whether she will be able to possess her 
soul in patience, should she not be able to correct them by 
example and gentle persuasion. 

COMPLETE HARMONY 

Rev. Jesse Jones describes the following as a case of com- 
plete harmony for these two: 

The Wife. — The woman was a pure bilious temperament, and 
as perfect a specimen as I ever saw. By a "pure temperament" I 
mean a case where only the one temperament shows, though the 
others, of course, are rudimentarily present. She was rather 
above medium height, five feet six or seven inches, swarthy 



LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 101 

complexion, black hair and brown eyes, a Roman nose, retreat- 
ing forehead, strong but not very wide jaw, and thoroughly 
muscular. She was a woman with controlling power, of great 
and tireless energy, who never was sick, who went into a 
pioneer's log hut with her first babe in her arms, and Lived to be 
the master woman in society and property in that vicinity. 
She was of sound judgment, high ambition, progressive mind, 
an indefatigable worker, prudent, skilful, all that a farmer's 
housewife could be. If there was any fault in her make-up or 
life I never saw it or heard it told. 

The Husband.— Her husband was about her height; I should 
say not more than an inch taller, wa6 as large around his 
waist as under his arms, was a sturdy pillar of a man, slow, 
plodding, close, ever-working, cautious, saving; who began in 
the woods with nothing, and became a large, forehanded 
farmer. He had blue eyes, and what would have been a 
cannon-ball head, only that it was a little too high for the 
width, a light complexion but not sandy, very thin, fine light 
hair, light but not at all yellow, nose rather short, jaw square, 
and lips firmly set. There was much of the ox and some* 
thing of the mastiff in him. 

A Love Match. — The marriage of these two people was 
strictly a love match. Both were a week's travel away from 
home when they met, and there they were married. No kins- 
folk interfered with the course of true love. Nature had its 
unhindered way. Both lived to a good old age, to three score 
and ten or past, and lived in faithful love. Each ruled with full 
sway in his or her own sphere, and neither ever trenched upon 
the field of the other, but guarded it carefully; and each did 
their full share in their own sphere in full co-ordination with 
the other. Thus mutual love, respect and co-operation were 
complete in them, and went on in their lives unbroken to the 
last. 

The Children. — They raised nine children to mature years. 
Some were of uncommon excellence, and where in one or two 
cases there were physical defects it was because the mother 
was much over-worked before they were born. Five of these 
are now living, and in forty years there has been to my knowl- 
edge few if any sick days. Of the four who have died, three 
died of sudden, violent diseases, one of yellow fever, one of 
bilious fever (both in the South), one of scarlet fever (while with 
child), cases which in nowise count against our teaching. Only 
one died legitimately, and she, after a most active life, died 
when past sixty, worn out because she never had more than 
half a life, from the over- work of her mother before she was 
born. This was an ideal, typical marriage, as perfect in its 
results as the ignorance of those times would allow, and man 
or woman of the type of this woman should seek a mate of the 
type of this man. 



102 LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 

A Defective Case. — The woman is of precisely the same type 
as the woman just described, only she is larger every way, five 
feet nine or ten inches high, and massive in proportion. But 
her husband, though largely lymphatic, is on a bilious founda- 
tion. He is also large boned. Both being large boned, bilious, 
though the non-vital (the lymphatic) in the man is enough so 
that their children have all lived but one, I believe, yet none of 
them is equal to the mother in any respect, and one of them, I 
think, will not live to be fifty, perhaps not forty; while two of 
the daughters in the other case were clearly superior to either 
parent. And now I deduce this rule: For the best children 
partners must always be on opposite vital foundations. 

A Sterile Marriage. — I will describe one more case, in which 
the two parties were perfectly neutral to each other, and there- 
fore sterile and childless. 

A man spoke to me one day and said, "I would like to talk 
with you." He asked me to explain the grounds of my teach- 
ing, which I did as I have done in this article. He then said, 
''How would it be with me in case I should have married a wife 
who was tall and slender, with snapping black eyes?" 

He himself was tall, say five feet eleven inches, large boned, 
square shouldered, spare, black hair, dark but not swarthy 
complexion, light brown eyes, prominent cheek bones, retreat- 
ing forehead — a clear case of pure bilious temperament. We 
had been speaking of Napoleon and Josephine, and why they 
were childless together; and I went on to show him that sub- 
stantially the same conditions existed in his case, that he and 
his wife were so closely alike as to be neutral to each other, and 
therefore sterile and childless. He told me that they had been 
married fourteen years and had never had a child, and that he 
had had no idea why; but now he could see that the case was 
the same with them as with Napoleon and Josephine. It was 
plain to see, looking at him and taking the sense of his wife as 
he described her, that he had married a woman who was him- 
self intensified, idealized and femininized, and so had formed a 
strictly neutral marriage. 

A Strange Question. — Now comes the strangest part of the 
story. "Well," he said, "what kind of a man ought she to have 
married?" Looking down a moment to think out her harmonial 
mate, I saw that, counting mental and physical qualities 
together, he must not be short, but must be tall and large boned, 
and I said, "He should have been tall and large boned, with 
yellow hair and blue eyes." Instantly he replied, "There was 
just such a man after her, but I got her away from him." 
"Well," said I, "you have made three people miserable for 
life." He afterward said, "Well, I married just the woman I 
wanted to anyway." And so, the reason for his childlessness 
being explained, we parted. * * * Here were a man and woman, 
bright, strong, active, healthy, to all human appearance excep- 
tionally fitted to be parents but entirely infertile. I have met 



LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 103 

another case very closely like this, and the following law 
appears clear to me, that identity of temperaments (at least 
when the foundation is bilious, that is, when both parties are 
masculine vital in temperament) tends to sterility. The two 
masculines are neutral to each other. It thus appears that 
regard must be had to spiritual sex or sex in temperament, as 
well as to animal sex or sex in body in order to a complete 
marriage. 

SECTION TWO— TEMPERAMENTS 

In the discussion of love and marriage it is necessary to use 
the term temperaments. We give, therefore, a little attention 
to the meaning of the different temperaments. 

We do not propose to enter into a full discussion, but only to 
give opinions of different men who have made a full study of 
the subject. We first quote from S. R. Wells, author of Wedlock, 

Definition of Temperament.— Prominent among the con- 
ditions affecting the happiness of married couples is tempera- 
ment; and this is one of the first things to be considered by 
those contemplating matrimony. 

We here give a brief description of the three primary tem- 
peraments. 

Temperament is a particular state of the constitution, 
depending upon the relative proportion of its different masses or 
systems of organs. We are accustomed to consider these con- 
stitutional conditions as primarily three in number. 

The JJIotive Temperament. — This is marked by a superior 
development of the bony and muscular systems, forming the 
locomotive apparatus; in the vital temperament, the vital organs, 
the principal seat of which is in the trunk, give the tone to the 
organization; while in the mental temperament, the brain and 
nervous system exert the controlling power. 

In the motive temperament the bones are comparatively 
large and broad rather than long, and the muscles only moder- 
ately full, but dense, firm and tough. The figure is generally 
tall, the face long, the cheek-bones rather high, the neck long, 
the shoulders broad, and the chest moderately full. The com- 
plexion and eyes are generally, but not alwa}'s dark, and the 
hair dark, strong and rather abundant. The features are 
strongly marked, and the expression striking and sometimes 
harsh or rigid. 

The whole system is characterized by strength and capacity 
for endurance as well as for active labor. 

Persons in whom it predominates possess great energy and 
perseverance, and, in other respects, strongly marked charac- 
ters. They are observers rather than thinkers; and are better 
suited to the field than to the council chamber. They are firm, 
self-reliant, constant in love and in friendship, fond of power, 
ambitious, and sometimes stern and severe. 



104 LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 

This temperament in its typical form is not common amon^ 
women, in whom it is modified by a larger proportion of the 
vital element of the constitution. 

The Tital Temperament. — The vital temperament is marked 
by breadth and thickness of body rather than by length. Its 
prevailing characteristic is rotundity. The chest is full, the 
abdomen well developed, the limbs plump and generally taper- 
ing, and the hands and feet relatively small. The neck is short 
and thick, the shoulders broad, the chest full, and the head and 
face inclining to roundness. 

The complexion is generally florid, the eyes and hair light, 
and the expression of the countenance pleasing and mirthful. 

Persons in whom this temperament predominates are both 
physically and mentally active, and love fresh air and exercise 
as well as lively conversation and exciting debate, but are, in 
general, less inclined to close study or hard work than those in 
whom the motive temperament takes the lead. 

They are ardent, impulsive, versatile, and sometimes fickle; 
and possess more diligence than persistence; and more bril- 
liancy than depth. They are frequently passionate and violent, 
but are as easily calmed as excited; they are cheerful, amiable 
and genial in their general disposition. 

Benevolence, hope and mirthfulness are generally well 
developed. 

The Mental Temperament. — This temperament is character- 
ized by a rather slight frame; a head relatively large; an oval 
face; high, pale forehead; delicate and finely cut features; 
bright and expressive eyes; slender neck, and only a moderate 
development of chest. The hair is generally soft and fine, and 
neither abundant nor very dark, the skin soft and fine, and the 
expression of the face varied and animated. 

Sensitiveness, refinement, taste, love of the beautiful in 
nature and art, vividness of conception, and intensity of emo- 
tion mark this temperament in its mental manifestations. The 
thoughts are quick, the senses acute, the imagination lively, 
and the moral sentiments generally active and influential. 

Balance of Temperaments. — Where either of the tempera- 
ments exists in excess, the result is necessarily a departure from 
symmetry and harmony, both of body andjnind, the one always 
affecting the character and action of the other. Perfection of 
constitution consists in a proper balance of temperaments. 

The Law of Conjugal Selection. — With regard to the proper 
combinations of temperament in the marriage relation, physi- 
ologists have differed, one contending that the constitutions of 
the parties should be similar, while others, on the contrary, 
have taught that contrast should be sought. It seems to us that 
neither of these statements expresses fully the true law of 
selection. The end to be aimed at is harmony. There can be 
no harmony without a difference, but there may be difference 
without harmony. 



LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 10? 

Woman Not Like Man.— It is not because a woman is like a 
man that he loves her, but because she is unlike. The qualities 
which he lacks are the ones in her which attract him — the 

Eersonal traits and mental peculiarities which combine to make 
er woma?ily ; and in proportion as she lacks these, or possesses 
masculine characteristics, will a woman repel the opposite sex. 
So a woman admires in man true manli?iess, and is repelled by 
weakness and effeminacy. A womanish man awakens either 
tke pity or the contempt of the fair sex. 

A Harmonious Difference. — This law admits of the widest 
application. The dark-haired, swarthy man is apt to take for 
his mate some azure-eyed blonde; the lean and spare chooses 
the stout and plump; the tall and the short often unite; and 
plain men generally win the fairest of the fair. 

In temperament, as in everything else, what we should seek 
is not likeness, but a harmonious difference. The husband and 
wife are not counterparts of each other, but complements — 
halves which joined together form a rounded symmetrical 
whole. In music, contiguous notes are discordant, but when 
we sound together a first and a third, or a third and a fifth, we 
produce a chord. The same principle pervades all nature. 

Effects of Like Temperaments. — Two persons may be too 
much alike to agree. They crowd each other, for two objects 
can not occupy the same space at the same time. While, 
therefore, we do not wholly agree with those who insist upon the 
union of opposites in the matter of temperament, we believe 
that a close resemblance in the constitution of the body between 
the parties should be avoided, as not only inimical to their har- 
mony and happiness, but detrimental to their offspring. If the 
mental temperament, for instance, be strongly indicated in 
both, their union, instead of having a sedative and healthful 
influence, will tend to intensify the already too great mental 
activity of each, and perhaps in the end produce nervous pros- 
tration; and their children, if, unfortunately, any should result 
from the union, will be likely to inherit in still greater excess 
the constitutional tendencies of the parents. 

The Scales Must Balance.— A preponderance of the vital 
element in one of the parties would tend not only to a greater 
degree of harmony and a more healthful influence, but to a more 
desirable and symmetrical development and complete blending 
of desirable qualities in their offspring. 

A predominance of the vital or of the motive temperament in 
both parties, though perhaps less disastrous in its results, 
favors, in the same way, connubial discord and a lack of 
balance in offspring. 

Where the temperaments are well balanced in both, the 
similarity is less objectionable, and the union, in such case, 
may result favorably, both as respects parents and children. 
But perfect balance in all the elements of temperament is very 
rare; and wherever there is a deficiency in one party, it should, 




DREAMING OF THE FUTURE. 



LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 107 

if possible, be balanced by an ample development in the same 
direction in the other, and vice versa. 

Combination of Temperaments. — The three primary temper- 
aments combining with each other in different proportions, and 
being modified by various causes, form sub-temperaments 
innumerable, presenting differences and resemblances depend- 
ing upon the relative proportions of the primitive elements. 

Dr. Elliot's Definition for Temperament.— Dr. Elliot defines 
temperament as a state of the body with respect to the predom- 
inance of any single quality. He says: "Ir one has a predom- 
inance of the vital organs, he would be classed as of the vital 
temperament; if the brain and nervous svstem predominates, 
he would be of the nervous temperament; if the bone and muscle 
system predominates, he would be of the bony or motive tem- 
perament." 

The physical and mental powers depend as to their devel- 
opment on one or the other of these temperaments. If the brain 
is in excess, that person will be strongest mentally; if the bones 
and muscles are in excess, then the physical powers will be 
most prominent, and so on. 

If all the temperaments are developed, the whole system 
will be strong. 

Nature intended that when two persons unite in marriage, 
they should balance up each other's weaknesses and deficien- 
cies so as to form one perfect whole. 

Sexnal Affinity. — The question to be settled in regard to any 
two persons of opposite sexes contemplating matrimony is, 
"will their characters harmonize?" We can not lay down an 
exact formula for its practical application to the relations of 
men and women, because the gamut of the mental faculties has 
not, like that of music, been fully determined; but we can con- 
fidently assert that affinity between the sexes depends upon 
certain measured differences, and that anyone who will take 
the trouble to become thoroughly acquainted first with himself 
or herself, and then with the person of the other sex with whom 
a union may be contemplated, there will generally be little 
difficulty in deciding the question of adaptation. 

Religions Considerations in the Union of Hearts.— Rev. 

Henry Ward Beecher said: "Jacob's father forbade him to take 
a wife from the daughters of Canaan. Why? Because he knew 
that with the wife he would take the religion; that had he 
brought into his house the fairest and discreetest of wives, he 
would have brought in the cause of a long train of miseries with 
her. It is an old proverb, that a man is what his wife will let 
him be; and old Isaac was a wise man when he said, 'Don't go 
among the Canaanites to get a wife.' Canaan nowadays is 
everywhere. It is every house where there has been no family 
prayer, where mammon is God; wherever there is a godless 
bousehold, there is the land of Canaan. A man that marries a 



108 LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 

good wife has very little more to ask of the Lord till he dies» 
A good wife is a blessing from the Lord, and there are very few 
blessings that he gives now or hereafter that are comparable to 
it. And marriage is a thing not heedlessly to be rushed into, 
but slowly, discreetly. It is anything but a fancy or a calcula- 
tion. It is a matter of moral judgment and duty as high as any 
duty that lifts itself between you and the face of God. * * * 
It is not wise to mix religions. A man who marries a wife of a 
different religion from his own, thinking afterward to bend her 
to his views, has very little idea of timber." 



SECTION THREE— COURTSHIP 

Courtship Delightful.— Courtship is most delightful. That 
is why so many young people court with their eyes shut. But 
they should keep their eyes open. If careful study of each 
other shows a lack of mutual respect, intellectual sympathy, or 
moral and religious harmony, they would better quit at once. 

What the Young Man Should See. — The young man should 
not be so blinded by the young lady's charms that he can not 
study her personal habits closely. She must be perfectly clean 
and sweet about her person. 

Notice her teeth, neck, hair and nails. Her clothes must be 
clean and neat, especially collars and cuffs, and the like. 

She should be orderly in her habits; and the young man is 
wise who discovers, accidentally, of course, how she keeps her 
own room and belongings. If things have a way of roosting 
where they light, she is a very good girl to let alone. Last, but 
not least, she must be a good cook. If she's a cheerful helper 
about the house, good to her mother, and can get up an appetiz* 
ing square meal out of "scraps," she's a jewel worth winning. 

What the Young Lady Should See.— Appearances are often 
deceptive. A young lady should take no chances. Through 
some discreet friend, she should investigate her lover's habits. 
If his record is not clear, better let him go. No man who 
drinks, or swears, or gambles, or associates with lewd persons, 
is fit to become the husband of a pure woman. Any woman 
who marries such a man is selling herself into bondage. 

No self-respecting young woman will be too easily won. She 
will be so thoroughly in earnest, that a young man must prove 
his worth before he can gain her confidence. He will respect 
fler the more, whether he win her or lose her. 

A young lady should promptly resent any attempt at familiar- 
ity. She should not accept presents. Nothing should be 
allowed that she would not have her mother know. 

Practice No Deception.— If either party be doubtful or 
dissatisfied, better quit. Never go so far as to deceive the 
other. When the young man is fully satisfied, and certain of 



LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 



109 



the lady's regard for him, he should not hesitate. In justice to 
the lady, as well as himself, he should settle the matter by a 
manly, straight-forward offer of marriage. 

If he has been courting with his eyes open, he need not fear 
refusal. A worthy young woman will not encourage him to 
this extent, and then refuse him. 




LOVE'S MISSIVE. 

Engagement.— An engagement should be frank and open, 
with the full knowledge and consent of the lady's family. The 
lover ought to present her with a ring, which she should proudly 
wear as notice to her friends. 

The young man should be on the best of terms with the 
family ci his promised wife. He should not intrude in family 




FATHER AND DAUGHTER. 



LOVE, ADAPTATION AND COURTSHIP 111 

affairs, yet he must meet them half way when they are disposed 
to count him in. 

The family of the young man should seek to become 
acquainted with his future wile, and she should meet their 
advances cordially. They may invite her to visit them, and it 
is perfectly proper for her to accept. 

Sensible Courting.— It is natural and right that the young 
people should be together as much as possible. To this end 
they will attend church and places of amusement, and the young 
man should have regular evenings for calling upon her. While 
sentiment will naturally have a good deal to do with their con 
versation, it should not be wholly devoted to "gush." Senti 
ment is an excellent seasoning, but they may get tired of it in 
the forty or fifty years they hope to be together. Talk seEse-~ 
part of the time, 



CHAPTER VI 
ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 



By T. W. Shannon. 

Author of Perfect Manhood, Perfect Womanhood, Heredity 
Explained, Guide to Sex Instruction, etc. 

SECTION ONE— DANGERS OF IGNORANCE 

All normal human beings possess a social nature. No one 
can attain his highest efficiency in life, if the development of 
his social nature is neglected. The social nature receives its 
normal development, when from childhood, the sexes are prop- 
erly associated. This is due to the fact that the social nature 
is very closely related to sex. Then, brothers and sisters should 
play and associate with each other. Where there are only 
boys, or only girls, in a family, they are at a social disadvantage. 
Boys and girls of a community, with the consent of their parents 
and the supervision of a matured and congenial friend, should 
occasionally meet and have their games and plays together. 
Nature would indicate, also, that they be educated together in 
the public schools and colleges. As young people, on appro- 
priate occasions, they should meet as friends in a social way. 
Not isolation, but a sane education of the sexes in regard to 
their social relations and moral obligations, will safeguard their 
virtue in single and married life. If, perchance, in the exercise 
of social friendship, two, with mutual and reciprocal affinities, 
should discover that they are complemental halves of what God 
and nature have planned to be one social unit, friendship will 
become courtship and deepen into love; love will lead to a 
happy marriage and make them one for life. 

It is not the purpose of the author to interfere with nature's 
social order, but to make clear what is not natural. It is not 
his purpose to keep young people from associating with each 
other, but to make their association safe and wholesome. It is 
not his thought to suppress the emotions of love in the hearts 
of lovers, but to aid them in the safe and intelligent exercise 
of this kingliest and queenliest function. It is not his purpose 
to rob young people of momentary pleasures, but to teach them 
how to live in their social relations so that they may enjoy 
lifelong pleasures. 

In this article, the author has endeavored to express each 
proposition and conclusion in the most- non-technical, concise 

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LOOKING INTO THE DISTANCE. 

She: "Those glasses bring things very near." 

He: "1 can even see our wedding day. Can't you ?' 



ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 113 

and chaste language consistent with clearness. Doubtless his 
views will be a surprising revelation to many readers. He will 
not be surprised if a few "boy struck girls" and "girl struck 
boys" are disposed, for personal reasons, to take issue with his 
views. Neither, will he be surprised, if some Pharisaical and 
Puritanic prudes should become hysterical in their pious indig- 
nation. After many years of vital touch with the social prob- 
lems of young men and women, who have by correspondence 
and personal interviews, confided their problems, their temp- 
tations and their defeats to the author, he feels justified in 
presenting his views on this social problem for the sincere and 
thoughtful consideration of teachers, reformers, ministers, 
parents and young men and young women of all lands. 

During a series of lectures on social and reform topics at an 
Eastern Chautauqua, the author used the word "spooning" to 
illustrate a very common social custom among both the engaged 
and the unengaged. A cultured lady, whose likeness he after- 
ward discovered in a group picture of a masquerade ball, 
expressed very great surprise at hearing a Chautauqua lecturer 
use such an unclassical word as "spooning." 

Then he went on a literary expedition among colleges and 
universities in search of a more classical word. In the East 
he found the people using the word "mussing," in the North the 
word "fussing," in the Central States the word "catting." Not 
being able to tell which of these words is the most classical, he 
has decided to be practical rather than classical in his style, and 
will use the word "spooning." 

Importance of Sex Knowledge. — Anglo-Saxon prudery and 
mock modesty, until very recent years, made sex, in its relations 
to social questions, a tabooed subject. Today the subject is 
receiving the attention of the foremost reformers, teachers and 
ministers. Parents, recognizing the importance of the matter, 
are teaching their children, the masses are coming to recognize 
the value and the imperative need of a frank discussion of the 
subject. The modern purity movement has produced a large 
variety of pamphlets and books on the various phases of sex. 
But no one has dealt with the social problem treated in this 
article. 

Difficult Social Problem Illustrated. — The author's attention 
was called, a few months ago, to the social problem of "spoon- 
ing," when he was unexpectedly invited to address a mother's 
meeting. One feature of the program was a recitation by one 
of the members. A few words of apology were offered by this 
member for not having prepared something better; then she 
recited a silly little poem, which gave a little girl's description 
of what she saw, while peeping through the keyhole of the 
parlor door, during the visit of her big sister's beau. In gesture, 
impersonation and language it was a most perfect rendition of 
a model case of modern spooning. The effect of the recitation 



114 ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 

on those mothers was an interesting study. A few clearly dis- 
approved, some approved and fully one-half treated it as a joke. 
These one hundred Christian mothers were intellectual and 
refined. The great masses of humanity have low ideals. This 
is clearly proven by our suggestive post cards, newspapers, books, 
shows and the extent spooning is indulged in by the masses. 
It is almost universally conceded to be an essential part of 
entertainment among young people. # This is not to be explained 
on the ground of viciousness, but it is due to their not having 
been informed as to the function of spooning in relation to sex. 
The facts are, very few people have taken the pains to study out 
the real nature of spooning, its uses and abuses. 

Ignorance Among Unmarried. — Sincerity and honesty are 
essential to knowledge and wisdom. Prejudice possesses the 
strange power of transforming truth into error. It is the 
nature of prejudice to oppose the shedding of light on error. 
Prejudice, the offspring of ignorance, never dies until its mother 
is killed. Truth is the only weapon that has the power to 
destroy ignorance. The author invites a sincere and honest 
reading of this treatise on a hitherto neglected subject. In 
charity we will remember that many good people have made 
mistakes, violated the most sacred laws of life, and some have 
fallen into sin because of ignorance and bad customs. Older 
people should know that young people need kindness, not abuse; 
information, not misinformation. 

Improper Relations of Unmarried. — Spooning is the popular 
name used by modern society for the indiscreet, suggestive and 
sentimental relations too often engaged in by young people. 
"There is a time for all things." Spooning has its rightful place 
in the economy of nature among fish, birds, animals and man. 

Animals Controlled by Instinct — Man by Reason. — The 

lower animals are governed by instinct. From birth they avoid 
fire, poisonous things and places of danger. 

Man is supposed to be guided and controlled by his reason 
and will. These faculties are wholly undeveloped at birth, 
The human young will eat a poison as naturally as a wholesome 
food, swallow glass as readily as water or milk, crawl into the 
fire or other places of danger as readily as into places of safety 
and comfort. In bringing children into the world parents 
assume the responsibility of thinking and deciding for the child 
during the period of infancy, and of safeguarding the child's 
future well-being by properly looking after its physical, mental 
and moral interests. The child gradually assumes personal 
responsibility, as mental and moral development progresses. 

Earlier Ideas of Sex Instruction. — Until recent years, chil- 
dren were taught the correct names and functions .of all of the 
organs of the body, as conscientiously asjf their health, success, 
happiness, character and destiny depended upon this information; 



ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 115 

but teachers were as silent as death when they came to the 
sacred sanctuary of reproduction and the divine function of 
perpetuating the species. Now we are gradually learning that 
more of health, happiness, success, character and destiny depend 
upon a correct knowledge of these organs and their functions, 
than concerning any of the other organs of the body. 

Results of Ignorance in Sex Instruction. — In a recent pub- 
lication, a state health board asserts that if all men and women 
understood the laws of sex, and obeyed them, there would not 
be the need of one doctor in ten. Prince A. Morrow, a sage 
among physicians, states that at least half of all the physical 
ailments of young men is the result of a violation of the laws 
of sex. To those who have not studied the relation of health 
to sex, a statement like this would seem an exaggeration. 

Mental Effect of Sex Ignorance. — In his investigations of the 
asylums of one nation, Dr. Pique claims that he found that 82 
per cent of all cases of insanity among females and 78 per cent 
among males, involved the sexual mechanism, functioning or 
both, and that early sex instruction would have wholly prevented 
many cases and would have postponed the mental breakdown 
in many other cases until later in life. 

Moral Reasons for Sex Instruction. — More people are kept 
from accepting Christ, and more meet with defeats while trying 
to live the Christian life, because of their sex problems, than 
because of all other problems combined. 

Need of Sex Instruction. — These facts prove the necessity 
of proper sex instruction. We know that education is the only 
safeguard for the protection of the child against the dangers of 
fire, poisons, falling and drowning. Is it not surprisingly 
strange that for centuries people could be duped into the incon- 
sistent belief that ignorance of sex is the only safeguard to 
virtue ? 

Wrong Impressions of Origin of Life. — Why do people vio- 
late the laws of sex? Not because they are viciously bad in 
childhood and youth. Ignorance is responsible for the results 
of the broken moral law that is found in youth and middle life. 
The developing mind of a child leads naturally to the questions, 
"Where was I before I was born?" "How did I get into this 
world?" "Where do the babies come from?" In reply to these 
innocent questions, it has been customary for parents to ridicule, 
scold, shame, chastise or to tell the child one of many falsehoods. 
It is at this time and in this way that the child receives his first 
wrong sex impressions. Later, some ignorant and impure 
minded companion or servant will say to the child, "I know 
something that you don't know. You would like to know it too. 
I will tell you, if you will promise not to tell your papa and 
mamma. It is where all of the little babies come from." This 



116 ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 

is just what he wants to know. However good and obedient 
the child may be, his curiosity is so great that he agrees not to 
tell. Why keep this a secret? Because a knowledge of the 
origin of life is held by such an informer to be sinful, and this 
is the impression he has made upon the child. Thus is the 
second wrong impression made upon the child. Such a system 
of teaching is as unnatural as it is false, while it is extremely 
degrading. 

Effects of Improper Sex Teaching. — The wrong person pours 
the story of life in half truths and obscene language, into the 
willing ears of the child. The time is badly chosen. This 
beautiful and sacred knowledge is given as an indecent secret 
and a great mystery. The boy compares the truth, viciously 
lodged in his mind, with the "stork" explanation offered by his 
parents, and discovering a falsehood, he loses confidence. From 
this time on he considers the origin of life as sinful and all 
references to the subject as vulgar. 

Results of Wrong Sex Instruction. — As he grows older, he 
continues to get information of this nature from the ignorant 
and vicious elements of society. The chances are that he will 
be led into the secret vice before he is twelve. By that time 
he hears men and boys frequently boasting of their social sins 
with the opposite sex. He gets the idea that this is a manly 
achievement. Under this kind of training he does not, he can 
not feel himself a girl's protector; he does not, he can not 
appreciate the value of a girl's virtue; he does not, he can not 
comprehend the seriousness of, a girl's fall and the disgrace 
brought upon her home. In his delusion he sees only a manly 
achievement. The moral ideas that come to a boy from such 
training are a conglomeration of misinformation and ignorance 
that result in depravity. Libertinism is the natural and logical 
sequence of such training. 

Parents Responsible for Improper Relations. — Tn their early 
teens nearly all children are teased about sweethearts, and chil- 
dren from different families are encouraged to caress and kiss 
each other. This is a crime against childhood; a perversion 
of their social natures. This is the psychological age in which 
to train girls to enforce the rule "hands off; 5 ' and to teach boys 
to be courteous and gallant — that they are to protect and defend 
girls. If boys and girls are encouraged in the use of familiar- 
ities at this age, the chances are they will have no moral con- 
victions about this custom when they are older. Boys and 
girls would rarely make these mistakes were it not for foolish 
older people. 

Recreations Contribute to Immorality. — The young people of 
today get their ideas from post cards, cheap shows, serial love 
stories and sensational novels. One-third of the pictures exhib- 
ited at the cheap shows and plays at operas and theaters, consist 



ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 117 

in every possible phase of spooning. The bill-boards fairly 
blaze with pictures of enamored couples. In nearly every assort- 
ment of post cards, offered for sale by merchants, can be found 
a large variety of cards containing the "pictures of young men 
and women engaged in the most suggestive positions of spooning. 
Nine times out of ten the sensual artist makes the young man 
to appear innocent and passive and the young woman is made 
the aggressor. The most suggestive sentences on the cards are 
usually from the lips of the young woman. Many of these 
pictures are secured by employing an attractive girl from the 
abodes of vice to pose with one of her male patrons. Such post 
cards are absolute insults to decent womanhood. All good 
women of this nation should resent this form of flagrant insult 
to the dignity and purity of womanhood. 

These cards teach that love making, including personal lib- 
erties, in the parlors, during drives and visits to the park, is a 
universal custom. They also teach that young women solicit 
these attentions and are more eager for these relations than 
are young men. Young women who will receive such post cards 
from men encourage this belief. A supply of suggestive cards 
can be found in many parlors. Boys and girls study these cards 
while together. If this be true, is it not a suggestion to those 
who view the post cards that they engage in similar relations? 
Is it surprising that young people fall? Where is the responsi- 
bility? Can teachers, ministers and parents remain silent and 
indifferent, permitting children and youths to receive their 
information and ideas of social relations from impur.e pictures 
and books, shows and theaters, the ignorant and the vicious 
elements of society and not be held accountable? 

The Mating Season. — What is the nature of spooning? Has 
it a function in the realm of nature? If so, what is its func- 
tion? Naturalists tell us that during the mating season of birds 
and animals, in their communications with each other, they use 
a changed tone of voice. This changed tone of voice is used 
as a sex call. They are reminding each other that the mating 
season is on and that they must engage in perpetuating their 
species. 

The Mating of Fish. — The female fish lays her eggs in shal- 
low water. The male, swimming several feet or yards behind 
the female expells from his body the many sperm cells which 
are to be used in fertilizing, the eggs. It will be observed that 
there is no sexual contact between the male and female fish at 
the time the eggs are fertilized. Several days before this event, 
these fish might have been seen on the riffles, or in deep water, 
swimming along side of against and over each other. Many 
mistake the action of the fish at this period for mating. They 
are not mating, they are love-making. Sexual excitement is 
necessary to the development of the eggs in the ovaries of the 



118 ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 

female, and especially for the generation of thousands of sperm 
cells by the male. From this we see that the function of these 
demonstrations among fish is sexual excitement. 

The Mating of Animals. — At the approach of the _ mating 
season the wild and domestic birds and animals indulge in many 
expressions of caressing and playing with each other. This is 
spooning. With them it is not a violation of law. They never 
indulge in these practices except during the mating season, or 
for any other purpose than for sexual excitement. Sexual 
excitement prepares for mating. 

Dangers in Married Life. — The sex impulse is perfectly nor- 
mal. It is at the basis of our entire social fabric. It is not to 
be suppressed, but perfectly controlled. The love of lovers has 
its origin in sex. The selection of a companion is a sex choice. 
Marriage on any other basis is a farce. 

Perpetuating the species is the supreme purpose of the choice 
of mates among animals and marriage among human beings. 
In relation to this supreme purpose spooning has a natural and 
necessary function, that of sexual excitement. Any social rela- 
tion in the single or married life that leads to sexual excite- 
ment is spooning. Normal animals and human beings are 
susceptible to the influence of spooning. Any state of sexual 
excitement aroused by improper or intemperate social relations, 
in the single or married, is unnatural and may lead to immoral 
thoughts, acts, or marital prodigality. 

Manhood and Womanhood Forfeited. — From these illustra- 
tions of the nature and function of spooning, we are driven to 
the irresistible conclusion that spooning has no place in the 
legitimate social pleasures of the unmarried. If young people 
never engaged in spooning, the forfeiture of the priceless gem 
of manhood's honor and womanhood's virtue would be extremely 
rare. 

Dangers of Personal Familiarities. — Why do boys and men 
seek to hold the hand of a girl, pinch her arm, play with her 
hair, place their arms about her person, kiss her, recline and sit 
in her lap, or have her recline and sit in theirs? Why do some 
girls permit and encourage these relations? They are ignorant 
of the laws of sex and the dangers growing out of the excite- 
ment of the sexual impulse. Not one in fifty understands that 
spooning is purely a sex call. Not one in fifty understands 
that the thrill of pleasure accompanying spooning is an expres- 
sion of sexual excitement. 

Letter from College Student. — That many pure young people 
are wholly ignorant on this subject and of its dangers, will be seen 
readily from the following letter received from a conscientious, 
manly student: 

Dear Prof.^ Shannon- — Since hearing your course of lectures 
at the university, I have been intensely" interested, and worried 

\. 



ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 119 

too, concerning the matter of "spooning." I will greatly appre- 
ciate your kindness if you will explain some things and answer 
some questions. 

I am engaged to a young lady, as pure as God ever made. 
Our engagement is rather a long one, two or three years. I 
see her only two or three times a year and a week or so at a 
time. I love her with a pure love and vice versa. I am a 
manly man and have no habits of vice. When we are together 
I often place my arms around her and kiss her. This is done 
as innocently as I would kiss my sister. However, I will admit 
that there is a thrill of delightful pleasure accompanying these 
relations with my sweetheart that is not experienced when I 
caress my sister. 

Now for my questions. I would like for you to explain again 
the distinction between sexuality and sensuality. What is the 
relation of love to sex? Why does kissing one's sweetheart 
thrill him with so much more pleasure than kissing his sister? 
Do you really think that the limited amount of "spooning" 
indulged in by us would lead to physical, mental or moral injury? 
Is "spooning" a sin in the sight of God? How about dancing? 
In what way does spooning injure a young man? In what way 
does it injure a young woman? 

I am seeking light that I may be able to intelligently judge 
between what is right and what is wrong, in this i matter. If 
I had ever questioned the moral right of lovers to spoon, I 
would never have engaged in it. I would die before I would 
injure her. 

Please answer these questions right away and let me thank 
you now for your kindness and trouble. 

Respectfully, . 

Author's Reply. — My dear friend — Your interesting letter re- 
ceived. I will endeavor to reply in the same sincere, frank and 
manly spirit in which your letter appears to have been written. 

Sexuality and Sensuality. — Sexuality is a normal condition 
of the sex nature. Sensuality is an abnormal condition of the 
sex nature. Sexuality is God-given, God-honored and God- 
blessed, man and woman's pride and glory, not their shame and 
dishonor. Sensuality is the perversion of sexuality, man and 
woman's shame and humiliation, the primal and chief cause of 
human degeneracy. Sensuality is partly inherited, but more 
largely acquired by voluntary sexual excitement, ©ft repeated, 
greatly intensified and long persisted in. Impure thinking, the 
secret vice and spooning are the chief causes of sexual excite- 
ment. Out of sexuality spring the indescribable physical, mental 
and social charms of ideal manhood and womanhood. Sensu- 
ality prevents the proper development of these charms. It should 
be the aim of all intelligent training, in the home, school and 
church, and the personal ambition of everyone to develop and 
maintain a normal sexuality. 



120 ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 

Source of Christian Love. — -All men are made to love and 
be loved. The manifestations, or expressions, of love are called 
forth by a variety of agencies. There is Christian love. It is 
a form' of love belonging to the Christian life. At the time of 
conversion and as one develops in the Christian life, he has an 
unselfish love for both sexes, all ages, all races, rich and poor 
that does not belong to the unconverted life. This love grows 
out of a changed moral relation to man and God. 

Source of Parental Love. — Parental love grows out of sacri- 
fice. Parent fish will eat their own young. No love exists 
between the parent fish and young. This is due to the absence 
of sacrifice. The human mother will die for her child. Her 
love is measured by her sacrifice. The truest father does not 
love his child as much as the true mother. His sacrifice is not 
equal to the mother's, and for this reason, the father can not 
love like the mother. As a rule, the toiling poor love their 
children more than the idle luxurious rich. They sacrifice more. 

Source of Filial Love. — Filial love, the love of children for 
their parents and for each other, grows out of their intimate 
home associations and training, the recognition that they are 
one, blood of their blood, life of their life, being of their being. 

Source of True Sex Love. — Among people, desexed in child- 
hood, filial and Christian love would be possible; parental love 
and the love of lovers would not be possible. That peculiar 
expression of love, which brings the opposite sex of mutual 
affinities together in blissful courtship and happy marriage, 
harmonizes their differences and blends their personalities until 
the two complemental halves are made one, is the child of the 
sex life. A man, made a eunuch in childhood, has no interest 
in children, no concern for a home and no admiration or love 
for a woman. A woman, desexed in childhood, would have no 
interest in children, no concern for being at the head of a home 
and no love for the opposite sex. Dress a eunuch devoid of 
the charms of normal manhood, in broadcloth, with diamond 
ring and much cravated; bring him into the presence of five 
hundred marriageable young women and his presence would not 
stir the voiceless depths of the pure affections in a single woman. 
Instinctively they would recognize the absence of the charms 
of manhood. If a woman, desexed in childhood, were dressed 
in a Paris gown, bedecked with rare and costly jewels and 
brought into the presence of five hundred marriageable young 
men, her presence would not awaken a response from the manly 
affections in a single young man. Instinctively they would 
notice her lack of womanhood. Thus we see that the love 
between lovers, the engaged and the married, is inseparable from 
their normal sex natures. 

Legitimate Methods of Expressing True Love. — The love of 

lovers will express itself. Its expression should be governed 



ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 121 

by a sane knowledge of human nature and moral conviction. 
There are many natural and innocent channels through which 
love can express itself, such as the look of the eye, the flush of 
the face, the tones of the voice, words and phrases, gifts, acts 
of gallantry and courtesy. Love is an inventive genius. It 
never woos and wins twice in the same manner. A whole 
month of courtship may be accomplished in the gift of a rose. 
Love possesses a language peculiarly its own. Its power of 
communication is not confined to vocal expressions or physical 
mediums. If true lovers are separated by months of time and 
a continent of space, ever and anon, love annihilates time and 
space in its swift and mysterious movements, bringing lovers 
blissfully and consciously together. This is love. 

Evils from Ignorance Regarding Love. — It is not surprising 
that young people, ignorant of the conditions of sex excitement, 
should resort to kissing, embracing, caressing and fondling under 
the guise of love. Again, when we understand that spooning is 
nature's method of sexual excitement and that its practice is a 
very common indulgence among young people, we need not be 
surprised that many young people fall. 

Different Motives for Kissing. — Kissing a sister does not 
produce the thrill of pleasure that kissing a sweetheart does, 
for the reason that the love that leads to kissing a sister has no 
relation to the sex nature, while the motive that leads one to 
kiss a sweetheart is the child of the sex nature. The thrill of 
pleasure experienced while spooning with a sweetheart is a sex 
thrill. 

Should the Unmarried Spoon? — In the human family, spoon- 
ing belongs only to the married life. If indulged in by married 
people beyond reasonable limits, it leads to sensuality, physical, 
mental and moral injury. If indulged in, even to a very limited 
extent among the single, it is fraught with gravest temptations. 
True love will find expression. Intelligent love, love guided by 
moral convictions, will find only the channels of expression that 
are safe. If young people would meet each other at the marriage 
altar with unkissed lips, there would be few blighted lives and 
wrecked homes. While a goodbye kiss might be indulged in 
occasionally near the close of an engagement, by pure minded 
young people without any apparent harm, it is not necessary to 
their happiness or a necessary expression of love. 

Causes of Sexual Excitement. — The round dance, waltz and 
tango are to be condemned on the same ground as spooning. 
The best authorities on sex are agreed that the public dance, as 
executed today, has a tendency to complicate the sex problems 
of young people. Spooning creates greater sexual excitement 
than dancing. Of the two the moral hazard in spooning is far 
greater than in dancing. Many are together in a brilliantly 
lighted room or hall while dancing. Spooning usually takes 



122 ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 

place when a young man and a young woman are alone, in a 
carriage, in a park at night, or in a parlor, with the lights turned 
low, blinds down and the doors closed. Twenty fall through 
spooning where one falls through dancing. Spooning is more 
common and more dangerous. 

Ignorance and Sin. — Sin is committed when a recognized 
iaw is broken. When a law is ignorantly violated, a wrong is 
•committed. In the first case, one incurs guilt ; in the other case, 
he does not. Spooning among the single is a violation of the 
laws of personal purity. When engaged in by parties who do 
not know the results, it is wrong; when persisted in by those 
who know it to be wrong, it becomes a sin. In either event 
they may reap a very sad harvest. 

Effects of Sexual Excitement on Man.— In a man, if spoon- 
ing is persisted in, it leads to sexual excitement. This causes 
a surplus of energy to be secreted. The body can retain and 
use only a normal quantity of this energy; while spooning a 
man may form many times the normal. This surplus will be 
dissipated through involuntary losses, the secret vice or prosti- 
tution. If spooning is continued for a few months or years he 
will suffer from varicosed veins and varicocele, later he may 
become temporarily or permanently impotent or sterile. 

Effects of Sexual Excitement on Woman. — Personal famili- 
arities with men lead to ovarian troubles in girls which some- 
times require an operation. Frequent excitement leads to leu- 
corrhoea, or whites, corresponding to sexual weakness in the 
male. The eyes that once glowed with lustre will become pale 
and sunken. The cheeks once plump, ruddy and rosy with health 
will become thin and faded. Nervous prostration, invalidism, 
consumption or one or more of many other troubles may follow. 

With the kindest interest in youand yours, believe me, 

Sincerely your friend, T. W. S. 

Example of Mental Sexual Excitement. — In one of the north- 
ern universities, a young man called on the writer for an inter- 
view. He knew that he was in a critical condition. He wanted 
information and help. He was found to be impotent and possibly 
temporarily sterile. He had been quite free from the secret sin 
and visiting the immoral woman. It was explained to him that 
his trouble was in his mind, that he had indulged frequently, for 
several years, in some custom that had resulted in high states 
of sexual excitement. He was then asked to explain what he 
considered to be the cause. His reply was, "Professor, I guess 
I know, but I never dreamed that it could become this serious. 
Ftfr nearly three years, two to three times a week, three or four 
hours at a time, I have been visiting a lady friend. We have 
engaged much in kissing, embracing, reclining and sitting in 
each other's laps. We have not been personally immoral, though 
I have been uttpjentlemanly enough to request sexual favors a 



ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 123 

number of times. This she has sternly refused. I guess this 
is the cause of all my trouble." He was assured that his con- 
clusions were correct, that there was no habit more injurious 
to the sexual system, physical health, mental strength and moral 
character than that of which he was guilty. 

Effects of Improper Thinking Explained. — Young men often 
ask why they suffer certain aches and pains after they have spent 
several hours with their best girl. Invariably a few questions 
bring forth a confession of extravagant love making. Then it 
is explained to them that the sexual excitement caused by 
spooning sends a surplus of blood to the genital system and this 
congested condition leads to an inflammation that causes the 
pain. These aches and pains are the first symptoms heralding 
the approach of varicose veins and varicocele. What an out- 
rage that young women should entertain their men friends ir- 
such an unnatural way as to produce these results ! 

Another Example. — A university student, delirious with griei 
and crushed in spirit over a disappointment in a love affair, 
made an attempt to commit suicide. When he came to himself. 
he told of a very romantic courtship he had carried on with a 
young lady the previous year ; of the many delightful physical 
ecstasies he had experienced while holding her in his arms and 
when her lips met his, of the correspondence that followed during 
the vacation, of the heart crushing experience he was passing 
through due to a note he had received from her, informing him 
that she had discovered during vacation that she did not love 
him, and demanded that their engagement be broken. 

She had mistaken a sex thrill for love. When apart from 
him during vacation, she discovered her mistake. If she had 
been in love with him, she would have been as conscious of that 
love when they were separated by weeks and miles as while 
with him. The young man was doubtlessly in love, but he was 
unwise in expressing that love through the channel of spooning 

How One May Know When "In Love." — In personal inter- 
views and correspondence the author is frequently asked, "How 
can I tell when I am in love?" This is an important, serious 
and difficult question to answer. Friendship and courtship make 
it possible for young people to become thoroughly acquainted 
with each other, and to intelligently decide whether they can 
and do love each other, and whether it would be wise for them 
to marry. Young people who fondle each other are not able 
to discriminate between a heart beat of love and a sex thrill of 
pleasure. It would require the mental acuteness of more than 
a Philadelphia Lawyer to distinguish between these rivals in 
modern courtship. Sensual desire is love's enemy. The two 
can not long thrive together. If sensual desire .dominates, love 
will be destroyed and two lives will be strandecuHBj^ran never 
command sufficient love to blend them into hfHBfcy,' even by 




124 ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 

the sacred vows of marriage. Personal familiarities are a blight 
to courtship, cause unwise marriages and often end in divorce. 
If spooning could be eliminated from society, very few girls 
would ever fall, more men would retain their virtue, fewer 
mistakes would be made in the choice of a companion and the 
divorce mill would cease to grind. 

Natural Sentiments of Boys and Girls. — It is natural for a 
girl to shrink from the touch of a boy's arm about her person 
and to resent every attempt on the part of a boy to kiss her, 
It is just as natural for the well-trained boy to be chivalrous 
toward girls. This sense of modesty and discretion on the part 
of a girl and the feeling of tenderness and protection on the part 
of the boy can be easily overcome by a social atmosphere that 
approves of hugging and kissing. Many erring girls can trace 
their first step toward ruin to a kiss in childhood. Many men 
can trace their conquest of women to their boyish exploits in 
kissing small girls. 

When home training and teaching become sane and natural, 
boys and girls will come to maturity with unkissed lips, friend- 
ship will deepen naturally into intelligent pure love, courtship 
will terminate in happy marriage and divorce cases will disap- 
pear from our court dockets. 

Some Girls Take the Initiative. — Young men are not. always 
responsible for spooning. Some young women take the initi- 
ative. Girls who are addicted to the dance are accustomed to 
free personal contact with men. These girls are many times 
inclined to bestow favors. They sometimes invite familiarities. 
Girls who keep a quantity of vicious post cards in their parlors 
and who invite their men friends to look at them, do not object 
personally to spooning. Girls who are fond of wearing very 
low necked dresses, certainly ought to be informed that this is 
the most extreme and dangerous form of invitation. The par- 
tially concealed charms of women are universal temptations to 
men. A woman has no more moral right to dress in such 
manner as to tempt men to wrong desire, than a man has to 
tempt a woman to do wrong. A reform in low-necked dresses 
is a moral necessity. 

Mosaic Law, Christ's Interpretation. — The Jews understood 
the Mosaic Law, "Thou shalt not commit adultery," to apply to 
the overt act only. Christ, who knew the will of the Father and 
the laws of life, interpreted the Mosaic Law to mean character 
as well as conduct, when he said, "Whosoever looketh on a 
woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her 
already, in his heart." This statement is not true simply because 
Christ said it. It is a scientific fact that lustful mental states 
injure the body, the nervous system, the mind and moral natures 
through the generation and dissipation of the sex life, as much 
and oftentimes more than would the overt act of adultery. 



ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 125 

Christ here speaks of mental adultery. The man commits it in 
his own heart. So far as he is concerned, he is injured just 
as much as if he had committed the act with a woman. Mental 
adultery robs man of as much vital energy as does the overt act. 

Causes and Effects of Mental Adultery. — Modern society of- 
fers no opportunity more conducive to mental adultery than is 
found in the custom of spooning. Christ's statement being true, 
in view of the prevalence of promiscuous love making, it is 
certainly true that the victims of this form of adultery exceed 
those of the overt act. The reader is not to infer from this 
arraignment of this subject that all who indulge in hugging and 
kissing are charged with the sin of mental adultery. Pure and 
innocent young people might use this custom, as a means of 
expressing their love for each other, for a short time with only 
limited injury. If it is persisted in, it must lead to mental 
adultery, for the same reason that tippling leads to drunkenness. 
No human hand ever misappropriated property until the mental 
thief had stolen the property over and over, again and again, 
Finally the mental thief becomes the master and forces the 
hands to take the stolen property. The overt act of adultery 
is never committed until ment? 1 adultery has been committed 
time and again. Spooning is tne cause that leads to mental 
adultery and finally to the overt act. Girls do not voluntarily 
surrender their virtue because of a difference in wages of $8 
and $10 a week. Money is at the bottom of the white slave 
traffic and all commercialized vice. Money can be no more 
than a contributory cause of a girl's voluntary fall. A half- 
witted girl, half trained by a half-witted mother, would sell her 
virtue; a normal girl would not. A system of ethics that teaches 
girls to permit men to kiss and hug them until their passions 
are aroused beyond self-control is responsible for the fall of 
girls and men as well. The conclusion is irrefutable. Here, 
and not elsewhere, do we find the one cause for the downfall 
of young people. Only cringing, inexcusable moral cowardice 
and criminal mock modesty will longer keep teachers, ministers 
and parents from placing these facts in the hands of the youth. 

Physical Dangers of Over-Familiarity. — Spooning is injuri- 
ous, because of the strain upon the nervous system and the 
dissipation of vital energy, but this is not the only danger. 
There are many diseases that may be communicated in this 
manner. The most serious of these are the venereal diseases. 
It is now a well-established fact that these diseases may be com- 
municated to innocent parties by kissing, biting, scratching, use 
of spoons, knives, forks, cups, pipes and towels. It is for this 
reason that many states have passed laws prohibiting the use of 
the public cup and towel. When a young man, infected with 
venereal disease, enters the office of a careful physician, he is 
asked # to wash his hands in antiseptic water, before touching 
anything in the office. 



126 ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 

Innocent May Suffer from Infection. — A physician told the 
author the following incident: At a social gathering, a young 
lady asked for a pencil and piece of paper. A young man 
stepped forward and offered her his pencil. Girl-like, she placed 
the pencil in her mouth before using it. A few days later a 
syphilitic sore made its appearance upon her lip. 

In a recent issue of one of the leading medical journals is to 
be found the following incident. The article is written by a 
physician who knew the parties in the case. A number of young 
people gave a public entertainment. An entrance fee was charged. 
The proceeds were to be given to some charitable cause. Kissing 
formed a special feature of the entertainment. In the crowd 
was a popular young man who was under the care of this physi- 
cian for syphilis. A few days after the play, five girls and two 
clean young men developed syphilitic sores on their lips, two 
other members of the party had similar sores on the cheek. 

In another town, a young man was treated three years for 
this disease. At the expiration of this time his physician de- 
clared that he could safely marry. A few months after marriage 
the physician was called to examine and treat a sore on the 
wife's lip. The peculiar appearance of the sore told the story. 
Months after she was pronounced cured this doctor was called 
to perform similar service for the wife of a prominent lawyer 
in the town. She had kissed the wife of the first and guilty 
party, and was the second person to be innocently infected. 

Innocent Sufferers are Ignorant. — These innocently infected 
persons were never told the nature of their troubles. Doctors 
rarely explain these things to innocent sufferers, hence nearly 
all people, especially women, believe such cases extremely rare. 
From the health point of view there are many othe* reasons 
why promiscuous kissing should be eliminated from society. 

Dangers of Infection.- — The germs of syphilis are in the 
blood of the person infected and are carried to all parts of the 
body. Where there are external syphilitic sores, or infected 
parts, the victim is likely to get these germs on his hands. In 
all healthy people there are abrasions on the lips, so small as to 
be seen only by aid of the microscope, but amply large enough 
for these germs to enter. 

Results of Infection. — Syphilis is responsible for ninety per 
cent of the cases of locomotor ataxia, it produces insanity, it ts 
the cause of many still-born children, of apoplexy, of paralysis 
and of sudden deaths. It shortens life one-third. If the young 
woman knew the nature of these diseases the appalling number 
of young men who are infected and the danger of contamination, 
they surely would take the necessary precaution to prevent in- 
fection. 



ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 127 

SECTION TWO— EDUCATION THE REMEDY 

Natural Sex Impulses. — Occasional experiences of sex con- 
sciousness, feelings, emotions and desire are natural in animals 
and man. In animals the sexual instinct is excited only at 
certain regular periods. In man the sex instinct may be excited 
at any time and indulged in solely for sensual pleasure. 

Man Abnormal. — All men have inherited more or less of 
sensual desire. Nearly all have intensified this unfortunate 
heredity by yielding to sensual impulses, in thoughts, language 
or acts. It follows that but few are normal. 

Nature teaches the lower animals to keep out of the fire, to 
avoid eating poisons and to control sexual desire. But nature 
does not teach a child to control the sex impulses. Nature does 
not teach an infant not to crawl into the fire, a pool of water or 
not to eat poison. 

Control of Sexual Impulses. — The sexual impulse among the 
lower animals is guided and controlled by instinct. The sexual 
impulse in human beings is to be guided by reason and controlled 
by will. The attitude of the reason and will toward the sexual 
impulse will be almost wholly determined by the education 
received. If this education is scientific and moral, timely and 
wisely given, virtue will be safeguarded. If children are neg- 
lected in this respect, their reason and will are likely to be found 
powerless when temptation assails. 

Dawning of a Better Day. — In the trend of social progress 
a better day has come. We are rapidly coming to see the 
imperative need of proper sex education for both sexes and all 
ages. In the past law-makers, moralizers and teachers have 
dealt with the effects of the social evil and have neglected to 
study the causes. We no longer turn away like Pharisees, and 
pretend that we do not know what exists. We are abandoning 
our foolish, cowardly puritanical hypocrisy. 

Education the Remedy. — Wholesome legislation will help, 
evangelization will help, reform organizations will help, but the 
one paramount need of the hour is a sane, practical and universal 
application of the words of Jesus, "Ye shall know the truth and 
the truth shall make you free." 

Moral, Immoral and Unmoral People. — We are not born 
with moral convictions or moral characters. There are moral, 
immoral and unmoral peopl'e Their attitude toward any moral 
subject is determined by the education they have received. In- 
fants are neither moral nor immoral, they are unmoral. If a 
man, from infancy, has been placed under such environment as 
to receive no moral training whatever, at maturity he would 
still be unmoral. Again, if this same man had been trained from 
infancy to believe that lying, stealing, disobedience, anger, drunk- 



128 ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 

enness, murder, adultery and idolatry were honorable and right, 
he would engage in these things with the sanction of his own 
conscience. He would be unmoral, not immoral. Paul's wrongly 
•educated conscience sanctioned the death of the Christians. In 
this he was unmoral rather than immoral. 

Morality is the product of voluntarily choosing to do, in 
thought, word and act, what is known to be right and in resisting 
what is known to be wrong. 

Immorality is the product of voluntarily choosing to do, in 
thought, word and act, what is known to be wrong and in 
refusing to do what is known to be right. 

Unmorality is the product of leaving the conscience unedu- 
cated, or of a conscience partly or wholly trained to believe 
wrong to be right. 

The moral man chooses to resist temptation and to do right. 

The immoral man chooses to do wrong and yields to tempta- 
tion. 

The unmoral man is powerless to make an intelligent choice; 
all acts are legitimate to him. 

The first man deserves reward and gets it; the second man 
deserves punishment and sooner or later receives it; the third 
man deserves pity and help, but, as a rule, he is severely censured 
and unjustly punished. 

Inconsistent Teaching. — Why does the small boy's conscience 
condemn him for lying, stealing and disobedience, and fail to 
make protest against secret vice? The simple answer is, his 
conscience was normally educated in the school, home and 
church in relation to the first wrongs, but it was not educated 
normally in relation to the last evil. Why do young men hang 
their heads in shame because of lying, stealing, drunkenness and 
murder and then boast of their conquests among women? In 
relation to the first crimes their consciences were normally edu- 
cated by the school, church and home ; in relation to the last 
mentioned crime their consciences were not trained by the 
school, church and home. They were trained by the vicious 
and ignorant to regard the secret vice and fornication as physical 
necessities and manly achievements. Under this false teaching 
and lack of wholesome training, boys and men often boast of 
their conquests, whether guilty or not. Are they moral, immoral 
or unmoral? They are a cross between the three. 

School, Church, Home Responsible. — Now let us apply the 
foregoing principles to this degenerate social custom of lascivious 
love making. It is quite general among young people. Have 
the school, home and church given young people sane, ethical 
and scientific instruction on this problem, or have they ignored 
it? What sources of instruction are open to boys and girls, 
young men and women? In every town suggestive post cards 
are offered for sale, fully one-third of the scenes exhibited at 
the cheap shows and the performances at the theaters consist 



ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 129 

of suggestive relations between the sexes. Serial love stories 
and novels excuse, condone and approve of spooning. Many 
boys and men boast of their victories with women. As a result 
of this wholesale wrong teaching and little or no correct instruc- 
tion from right sources, most boys and girls, men and women 
are unmoral, rather than immoral. But, the saddest feature of 
this unmoral social condition is that our young people, unpro- 
tected, find themselves well nigh powerless to resist wrong doing 
in the presence of strong temptation. 

Education Makes Character. — The ability to choose the right 
and to reject the wrong course of action is determined by moral 
convictions and character. Moral convictions are produced by 
wholesome education and a sincere desire to know and do the 
right. Character can not be inherited, received as a gift from 
a friend or purchased at any price. Character is produced by a 
persistent choice of what is right, and rejection of what is wrong. 

Moral convictions on hone-sty result from right education on 
the subject and a sincere desire to be honest. Honesty, as an 
element of character, is produced by a persistent choice of 
honesty in preference to every temptation to be dishonest. 

Moral convictions on personal and social responsibility, in 
relation to manhood's honor and womanhood's virtue, result 
from wholesome education on these subjects and a sincere desire 
to be pure. Purity, as an element of character, is produced 
through a persistent choice to be modest and discreet in all of 
one's social relations with the opposite sex. 

Education and Grace Necessary. — Many religious people seem 
to think that grace is an absolute specific for all sexual irregu- 
larities, and for them to admit the necessity of proper teaching: 
of sex, personal and social purity truths, would be to minimize 
the efficacy of the atonement. Impure thinking and bad practices 
gradually establish a pathological condition in the sexual system. 
This leads to abnormal desire, due largely to a physical condition 
that has been produced by sending too much blood to the genitals. 
Grace operates in the moral nature. For God to restore the 
average man to a normal sexual condition, at the time of con- 
version, would require nothing short of a miracle in the physical 
realm. It is the part of education in childhood to prevent these 
unnatural conditions taking place. It is the part of sane educa- 
tion to teach the abnormal man how to become normal. 

Sex Instruction An Absolute Necessity. — Personal interviews 
with thousands of young converts, among men, have convinced 
the author that the greatest struggle men have in trying to live 
the Christian life is related to sex. If grace corrected these 
problems, men would meet with fewer defeats after conversion. 
No minister and no evangelist has completed his duty to a young 
man whom he has led to Christ, until he has helped him in some 
way to understand his sex problems. 



130 ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 

The vice reports of large cities, where careful investigations 
have been made, reveal that many of the denizens of the "red 
light" districts were once Sunday School pupils and some grew 
up in the church. The fact that some members of the church 
are guilty of sexual crimes and occasionally a minister falls, 
shows that the efforts of the church in the past have not been 
able to solve these social problems. Boys and girls, men and 
women, are safer in the church than they are on the outside, but 
they can never be absolutely safe anywhere while sex instruction 
for the masses is neglected by the home, the school and the 
church. 

Education An Essential Part of Reform. — Along with the 
reform campaign of abolishing the white slave traffic and the 
suppression of public places of vice must go a systematic cam- 
paign of sane and safe education. The author has found a 
number of colleges, where the horrors of venereal diseases have 
been annually emphasized by lectures on sex hygiene, who failed 
to place proper emphasis on how to live a continent life and 
that there has been a noticeable increase in the practice of the 
secret sin and in clandestine relations with supposedly pure girls. 
This goes to show that, if an abnormal man is frightened or 
forced out of one form of vice he will resort to another. While 
the immediate suppression of the white slave traffic and public 
immorality would be a great victory, in the author's opinion, if 
it is not done in connection with school, home and church edu- 
cational campaigns, it will result largely in substituting one form 
of vice for another. Just to the extent that young men come 
to understand that "all immoral women are diseased part of the 
time and part of the immoral women are diseased all of the 
time," that once infected often means always infected, that 
eighty per cent of the blindness from birth and over fifty per 
cent of the operations on married women are due to infection 
from husbands who supposed themselves cured, will they avoid 
clandestine relations with the opposite sex. There is abundant 
evidence of an increase of clandestine prostitution over what 
existed ten years ago. If the reform wave advances ahead of 
the educational movement, this social condition will become more 
apparent. The educational campaign is showing splendid results 
wherever it has gone and has been conducted properly. In 
lecturing to young men, in teaching young men and in books 
for young men, emphasis should be placed on these things that 
they can live pure, how to live pure and that the abnormal man 
can become normal. 

Chief Cause of Degeneracy. — "My people perish for lack of 
knowledge." No one cause of human degeneracy is more clearly 
pointed out in the Bible than that of the social evil. Why so 
many poorly developed bodies and dwarfed minds, enervated 
fathers and sickly mothers, puny children, lustful sons and fallen 
daughters ? Gradually law-makers, teachers, reformers, ministers 



ETHICS OF THE UNMARRIED 131 

and parents are beginning to see that, in spite of our past 
methods of legislation, education and evangelization, human de- 
linquents are on the increase. Gradually they are finding out 
that the chief cause is the violation of the laws of sex. We are 
slowly learning that the policy of silence has signally failed to 
produce pure men and women. It has taken the world a long 
time to see that "Ye shall know the truth and the truth shall 
make you free," is the only sane and safe method of dealing 
with social evil problems. 

Proper Distribution of Information. — * Practical Eugenics, 
the official organ of the Single Standard Eugenic Movement, and 
The Light, the official organ of the World's Purity Federation, 
should be in every home. In the choice of papers for the home 
these should be selected with the best church paper. There 
should be in every home a 'book or books treating in a chaste, 
safe,, simple and scientific manner every phase of heredity and 
sex. Parents should prepare themselves to give the earliest 
instruction to their children and be able to select for them the 
best books to read as they grow older. Many colleges are now 
making this a part of their instruction. A strong effort is being 
made to introduce this work in our high schools. When the 
time comes that this is made a functional part of our school 
work, the earliest and most important part of this teaching is 
still the duty of the parent. 

If the distribution of sex information is taken out of the 
hands of ignorant playmates, companions and servants and 
becomes the sacred obligation of wise teachers, noble fathers and 
pure mothers, then will morbid curiosity and low ideals be 
replaced by wholesome knowledge and pure ideals; virtue will 
be safeguarded, the home protected, society purified, the church 
honored and the future of the nation assured. 



* Information regarding "The Shannon Purity Books'* cheerfully 
furnished by the publishers, The S. A. Muliikin Co., Marietta, Ohio. 



CHAPTER VII 
MARRIAGE 



SECTION ONE— WHAT EVERYBODY SHOULD KNOW 

The Definition of Marriage. — In the preceding pages we have 
discussed to some extent, the subjects of Love and Beauty* 
These two subjects are closely associated with marriage. Love 
and beauty are, to the individual, motives which lead to mar- 
riage; but they are not the fundamental motives. "Marriage is 
the union of a man with a woman, who associate themselves in 
order to perpetuate the species, to aid each other by mutual 
assistance, to support together the chances of life, and to 
endure the same fate." 

A Man Not a Man Until Marriage. — A man first becomes a 
man and a woman a woman in marriage. Only when united by 
that mysterious rite does each find nature satisfied, and all the 
faculties and functions meetly exercised. By such union those 
powers which are directed without the individual, those strong 
sentiments which are the reverse of the selfish and introverted 
portions of our constitution, are called into action. The hus- 
band and father no longer labors for himself alone, no longer 
even principally for himself. There are others who, he feels, 
have claims upon his time, his thoughts, his possessions, more 
imperative even than himself. He first provides for these, and 
for their sakes willingly and often undergoes deprivations and 
self-denials. 

Home and Virtne. — Just in proportion as love is pure, mar- 
riage honored, and the bed undefiled, will all the other Christian 
virtues be admired and praised. No more ominous sign of 
decay and deep corruption in a nation can be seen than when 
there is a wide-spread aversion to marriage, an oft-repeated 
sneer at the happiness it brings, a current doubt as to the 
fidelity to those who are united in the bonds of matrimony. 

Looking Forward to Marriage.— Most young persons of both 
sexes look forward to marriage as a desirable condition, and 
when they have entered it, they accept cheerfully its burdens, 
observe honorably its injunctions, and are far happier than if 
they had remained single. 

Physical Fitness for Marriage.— Remember, marriage is for 
ithe purpose of offspring. The law, moral and physical, must 

132 



MARRIAGE 



133 



condemn any marriage in which this purpose is not at all, or 
only imperfectly, carried out. Hence, virility is a necessary 
preliminary to marriage. 

Don't Marry too Young*. — Marriage works sure and fatal 
injury on the constitution of boys or very young men. Their 
lives are shortened, their health enfeebled, their mental powers 
frequently impaired. The best age for a young man to marry 
is from twenty-three to thirty-five years. The woman, from 
twenty-three to thirty. Too early marriage is especially bad for 









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THE WEDDING PROCESSION. 



women. On the other hand, too late marriage is not well. 
The soft parts are liable to become rigid and less capable of 
yielding in child-birth. 

Hereditary Taints. — Many families have hereditary taints c 
It is probable, at least possible, that a pre-disposition to con* 
sumption, scrofula, insanity, and the like, may be passed dowD 
to the offspring. It is quite certain that these diseases will be 
inherited by the children should both the man and woman have 
§uch tendencies. 



134 MARRIAGE 

Late Marriages a Cause of Disease. — Elderly men should not 
marry. Remember that virility is essential to produce healthy, 
vigorous offspring. Old men have, unless in rare cases, lost 
much of their virility. One noted writer claims that the cause 
of the increasing number of diseases and weaknesses of our 
generation is the growing tendency to postpone marriage until 
time or indulgence has diminished the forces and exposed the 
system to succumb readily to any unusual drain upon its 
resources. 

Malformations. — Malformations should, in some cases, 
preclude the idea of marriage. But such cases are not numer- 
ous. A careful investigation by an intelligent physician may 
settle all doubtful cases. 

Relative Ages of Husband and Wife. It seems to be the 
sentiment, all but universal, that the husband should be the 
older, say from five to ten years. 

One writer says: "I think there should always be an 
interval of about ten years between a man of mature age and 
his wife. Women age much more rapidly than do men, and as 
the peculiar functions of matrimony should cease in both 
parties about the same time, such interval as this is evidently 
desirable." 

Prof. Fowler's Statement.— " Up to twenty-two, those who 
propose marriage should be about the same age; yet a differ- 
ence of even fifteen years, after the youngest is twenty-five, 
need not prevent a marriage, when everything else is favorable. 
But a man of forty-five may marry a woman of twenty-six or 
upwards much more safely than one of thirty a girl below 
twenty; for her natural coyness requires more delicate treat- 
ment than his abruptness is likely to bestow. He is apt to err 
fundamentally by precipitancy, presupposing that her mental 
sexuality is as mature as his own. Though a man upwards of 
forty must not marry one below twenty-two, yet a man of fifty 
may venture to marry a woman of twenty-five, if he is hale and 
descended from a long-lived ancestry. Still, no girl under twenty 
should ever marry any man over twenty-six. 

Ill-Mated in Years.— "The love of an elderly man for a girl is 
more parental than conjugal; while hers for him is like that of 
a daughter for a father, rather than wife for husband. He 
loves her as a pet, and therefore as his inferior, instead of as a 
woman; and ~is compelled to look down upon her, as inexperi- 
enced, below him in judgment, too often impulsive and unwise; 
which obliges him to make too many allowances to be com- 
patible with a genuine union. And she is compelled to look 
upon him more as one to be reverenced, perhaps feared, and as 
more good and wise than companionable. Their ideas and 
feelings must necessarily be dissimilar. He may indeed pet, 
flatter and indulge her as he would a grown daughter, and 
appreciate her artless innocence and girlish light-heartedness 9 




THE BRIDE 



136 MARRIAGE 

yet all this is not genuine masculine and feminine love; nor can 
she exert over him the influence every man requires from his 

wife." 

Identity of Taste and Diversity of Temperament.— Great care 

should be taken in the choice of a partner for life. Accomplish- 
ments, social position, health and beauty should all be con- 
sidered. But more than that, identity of taste and diversity of 
temper ainent between husband and wife outweighs all other con- 
siderations. 

Marriages are happiest and most productive of bright and 
healthy offspring where husband and wife differ in both body 
and mind. A ad yet the diversity in all matters of temperament 
should not be too great. A man of warm, loving disposition 
should not marry a woman who coldly repulses his efforts at 
love-making. And the reverse is also true; a woman of warm 
and ardent disposition craves the responsive affections of a hus= 
band. 

Don'ts in Selecting a Life Companion. — Don't sell yourself 
for money or position. 

Don't throw yourself away; remember marriage is not for a 
day. 

Don't fail to seek the advice of your parents. 

Don't marry to please a third party. 

Don't marry to spite anyone. 

Don't marry because someone else is seeking the same 
person. 

Don't marry to get rid of anyone. 

Don't marry merely from the impulse of love. 

Don't marry without love. 

Don't marry simply because you have promised to do so. 

Don't fail to test thoroughly effects of separation. 

Don't fail to consider the effects of heredity on your 
children. 

Don't fail to test thoroughly protracted association. 

Don't marry suddenly. 

Don't marry downward. 

Don't fail to consider the grade of the one you are to marry. 

Temperaments.— We have referred to the matter of temper- 
aments in another part of this book. It is our opinion that this 
subject is worthy of profound consideration. It would be well 
for the man and woman who contemplate marriage to make a 
special study of this subject, and not leave this matter to mere 
chance. The race would be greatly improved if marriages could 
be made on scientific principles. 

The writer well remembers a large family, mostly boys, who 
sprung from a father and mother well mated as to temperament. 
Perhaps there was not one of the children who was not superior 
to either the father or mother. At least, none were inferior to 
the parents, and most of them much superior to either parent, 



MARRIAGE 137 

A Question of Doubt. — One author makes the following state- 
ment: "Marry your conjugal mate — your personal duplicate, 
your approximate equal in development and your like." This 
statement may be correct if properly understood, but on the 
face of it, it would seem to teach that a person should marry 
one of the same temperament. If this were followed out fully, 
it would be a sad day for our race. Temperaments should be 
unlike in husband and wife. 

Marrying Near Relatives.— One writer says: "The fear of 
marrying a cousin, even a first cousin, is entirely groundless, 
provided there is no decided hereditary taint in the family. And 
when such a hereditary taint does exist, the danger is not 
greater than in marrying into any other family where it is also 
found. But as few families are wholly without some lurking 
nredisposition to disease, it is not well, as a rule, to run the risk 
*)f developing this by repeated unions." 

" The Marriage of Cousins," says the London Lancet, "pro- 
vided both are healthy, has no tendency to produce disease in 
the offspring. If, however, the cousins inherit the disease, or 
proclivity to it, of their common ancestor, their children will 
have strong tendency to that disease, which might be fostered 
or suppressed by circumstances. 

"There can be no question that cousins descended from an 
insane or highly consumptive grandparent should not intermarry; 
but we can not see any reason for supposing that either insanity 
or consumption would result from the intermarriage of healthy 
cousins." 

Taint of Insanity. — Life insurance companies are very care- 
ful to examine into the ancestry of the one seeking insurance. 
This is "business." Should young people seeking marriage be 
any less business-like? Cancer, gout, asthma, diseases of the 
heart, hysteria, epilepsy, paralysis and insanity may descend, 
and many times do descend, from the unhappy parents to the 
more unhappy offspring. 

Many cases commonly attributed to physical or moral shocks 
are really instances of the breaking out of an inherited tendency, 
which has lurked unheeded in the system until aroused by some 
unusual excitement. From one-third to one-half of all attacks 
of insanity owe their origin to hereditary causes. 

A Sad Case. — The writer is acquainted with the children, the 
grandchildren and the great-grandchildren of a woman who died 
insane, some 5fty years ago. Each generation shows the taint 
of insanity. Not all, 'of course, but it is scattered along down 
the generations. How long it is to continue the Lord only 
knows. It would be well for the world if the tainted ones should 
<wase to marry. 

Avoid Marrying a Diseased Person.— We discuss the subject 
of venereal disease in another part of this book, and will only 
<th> ?w out the red light of warning in this place. Before enter- 



138 MARRIAGE 

ing into the marriage relation, look well into this matter* 
Ladies, beware of the man tainted with any of these awful dis° 
eases. Even though you may be sure that all physical effects 
have passed, the moral taint is there unless the young man, 
in sackcloth and ashes, has repented and purged his conscience: 

Long" Engagements. — The great English surgeon, Dr. Acton, 
on the subject of long engagements, has this to say: "All med= 
ical experience proves that for anyone, especially a young man, 
to enter into a long engagement without any immediate hope of 
fulfilling it, is, physically, an almost unmitigated evil. I have 
reason to know that this condition of constant excitement has 
often caused not only dangerously frequent and long-continued 
nocturnal emissions, but most painful affections of the testes. 
These results sometimes follow the progress of an ordinary two 
or three-months' courtship to an alarming extent. The danger 
and distress may be much more serious when the marriage is 
postponed for years." 

Duty of Fidelity. — Nothing is more certain to undermine 
domestic felicity and sap the foundation of marital happiness 
than marital infidelity. The risks of disease which a married 
man runs in impure intercourse are far more serious, because 
they involve not only himself, but his wife and children. He 
should know that there is nothing which a woman will not for- 
give sooner than such a breach of confidence. He is exposed to- 
the plots, and is pretty certain sooner or later to fall into the 
snares, of those atrocious parties who subsist on blackmail. 
And should he escape these complications, he still must lose 
self-respect, and carry about with him the burden of a guilty 
conscience and a broken vow. If we have urged on the celibate 
the preservation of chastity, we still more emphatically call upon 
the married man for the observation of fidelity. 



SECTION TWO— ETHICS OF MARRIAGE 

The Law of Love. — Love is the basis of marriage; so should it 
be of married life. Love seeks the good of the beloved object- 
desires to promote the dear one's happiness, and avert sorrow, 
care and pain. We may leave love to find out the ways and 
means of doing this, and need not fetter affection with formulas. 
It will do the right thing at the right time, fall short in nothing 
and never transcend its bounds. 

This Is our Highest Ideal— our notion of that perfect love 
which casteth out selfishness, which never forgets its divine ori- 
gin is always mindful of its sacred office, and whose azure wings 
are never bedrabbled in the mire of earthly grossness. But lov- 
ers, wives and husbands are poor, imperfect mortals, after all { 
and there are few married couples who may not profit by some 
well-considered hints in regard to the minor morals of matrimo- 
nial and domestic life. 



MARRIAGE 



139 



Matrimonial Fidelity.— The first duty which married persons 
owe to each other is to maintain that sacred and unalterable 
fidelity toward each other to which they are sworn by their bridal 
vows. This fidelity implies something more than the avoidance 
of overt acts of conjugal transgression which shock the moral 
sense of community and awaken public indignation. There may 
be folly and wrong where there is no actual violation of the law 
of the land. The moth may flit about the lamp flame for a time 
without falling into it, and a flirtation may originate in vanity 




CAN IT BE HE IS UNTRUE? 

or pique, and end in nothing worse than a brief infatuation oe 
one side and a few keen pangs of jealousy on the other, but the 
danger of more serious results is fearful. 

Flirtations. — Beware, then, of the slightest approach to tri= 
fling with the holy bonds you have assumed. Let there be no 
cause for a single anxious thought, for one hour of disquiet or 
doubt on the part of the one you have sworn to love and cherish: 



140 MARRIAGE 

That one must be first in your thoughts always. The hopes, the 
plans, the happiness of husband and wife are bound up together. 
We can not divide the most sacred sympathies of our nature be- 
tween our lawful mate and another person. 

Thine Own, Forever Thine 5 is the language of the true hus- 
band or wife. We may have father, mother, brothers, sisters, 
friends, all near and dear to us, but before all, and above all, 
must be the one to whom we have given the hand and heart in 
marriage. Poverty may benumb the soul with icy hands; mis- 
fortune may darken our pathway; sickness may lay us low; 
beauty may fade and strength depart, but love and constancy 
are but a name if they live not through all. 

Mutual Confidence. — Married people who would live happily 
together must treat each other with perfect confidence, and be 
strictly honest and unreserved in their intercourse. Duplicity, 
even in the smallest matters, must be carefully avoided. A wife 
must not deceive a husband, or a husband his wife, in anything. 
When one gets into the habit of doing anything of which he or 
she is ashamed to speak to the one who should be as another 
self, there is the beginning of a course of wrong-doing of which no 
one can foresee the end. With the first detected deception — and 
deception seldom remains long undetected — there comes a loss of 
confidence, which it is almost impossible to fully restore; but 
with mutual unreserved honesty of purpose and complete open- 
ness, there will come a faith in each other which nothing can 
shake. Where such honesty, frankness and confidence exist, 
there can be no room for jealousy, no grounds for bitterness and 
strife. 

Charity. — No one is free from faults. If courtship has not 
revealed them to the lovers, marriage will certainly remove the 
veil and show each to the other with the failings, foibles and 
weaknesses of our imperfect humanity. Love, like charity, may 
cover a multitude of sins, but it can not make us blind to the 
faults of character and the errors of habit which we shall inev- 
itably discover in the beloved; but the discoveries we may make 
should not alienate us in any degree or cool our love; for while 
we see some things that we do not approve, we should bear in 
mind the fact that we probably have as many and as great faults 
as our companion, and that there will be need of constant mutual 
forbearance and charity. 

Shall Husband and Wife Criticise ?— It is a duty we owe to 
our friends, and especially to our best of all earthly friends — our 
wife or husband — to remind them, in a spirit of kindness and 
charity, of their faults, with a view to their correction. We must 
not do this in a censorious and self-righteous spirit, but consid- 
erately and tenderly, and we must not manifest impatience if the 
habits of years are not wholly abandoned in a week. 

Agree to Disagree.— When a hushand and wife can not think 
%like on any particular subject, they can at least "agree to dis- 



MARRIAGE 141 

agree," and not allow a slight difference of opinion to cause un- 
kind feelings or estrangement. Be tolerant everywhere, but 
especially at home. 

We may establish a claim on some incidental circumstance, 
or the bare fact of relationship, and impose burdens and accept 
kindness without a thought of obligation on our part. 

Matrimonial Politeness. — The husband should never cease 
to be a lover, or fail in any of those delicate attentions and tender 
expressions of affectionate solicitude which marked his inter- 
course before marriage with his heart's queen. All the respectful 
deference, every courteous observance, all the self-sacrificing de- 
votion that can be claimed by the mistress is certainly due to the 
wife, and he is no true husband and no true gentleman who 
habitually withholds them. 

Honor, Respect and Love.— It is not enough that you honor, 
respect and love your wife. You must put this honor, respect 
and love into forms of speech and action. Let no unkind word, 
no seeming indifference, no lack of the little attentions due her, 
remind her sadly of the sweet days of courtship and the honey- 
moon. Surely the love which you then thought would be cheap- 
ly purchased at the price of a world is worth all your care to 
preserve. 

Wife and Sweetheart.— Is not the wife more, better and 
dearer than the sweetheart? It is probably your own fault if she 
be not. The chosen companion of your life, the mother of youi 
children, the sharer of all your joys and sorrows, as she pos^ 
sesses the highest place in your affections, should have the best 
place everywhere, the politest attentions, the softest, kindest 
words, the tenderest care. Love, duty and good manners alike 
require it. 

"Youst My Yife." — There is a story told of an old German 
who was engaged in the back part of his place of business when 
one of his clerks came and told him that there was a lady waiting 
to see him in his office. He had thrown off his coat and the 
work he was doing had soiled his hands. 

Hurrying to a basin he washed his hands, threw on his coat, 
straightened his tie and made himself as presentable as possible 
before going forward to meet the lady. Returning a few minutes 
later, he said, with an aggrieved air, as he threw off his coat: 

"I put on my coat und make myself clean for noding. Dot 
vas youst my vife." 

Now there are a good many intelligent, entirely respectable 
and well-meaning men who do not feel it to be incumbent upon 
them to observe the ordinary rules of courtesy towards women, 
when the woman in question is "youst my vife." And so there 
are wives who fall into the habit of negligence regarding their 
personal appearance and who are indifferent to many of the or- 
dinary little courtesies of life, when there is no one around but 
"just my husband." 



142 MARRIAGE 

It is an evil day in any home when the husband feels that he 
can be less courteous to his wife than to other women, and it is 
an equally evil day when the wife feels that she can put aside 
many of the little courtesies. 

Husband and Lover. — And has the wife no duties? Have the 
courteous observances, the tender watchfulness, the pleasant 
words, the never-tiring devotion which won your smiles, your 
spoken thanks, your kisses — your very self— in days gone by s 
now lost their value? Does not the husband rightly claim as 
much as the lover? If you find him less observant of the little 
courtesies due you, may not this be owing to the fact that you 
sometimes fail to reward him with the same sweet thanks and 
sweeter smiles? Ask your own heart. 

Dress for His Eyes. — Have the comfort and happiness of 
your husband always in view, and let him see and feel that you 
still look up to him with trust and affection — that the love of 
other days has not grown cold. Dress for his eyes more scrupu- 
lously than for all the rest of the world; make yourself and your 
home beautiful for his sake: try to beguile him from his cares; re- 
tain his affections in the same way that you won them. Be 
polite even to your husband. 

A Sanctum of Love. — Let there be a place at home sacred 
from all ideas of toil — a sanctum of domestic love and sociability, 
where never intrude the cross word and sour look. With a pleas- 
ant greeting and smile welcome him as he comes from the sharp 
conflict with his fellows. You say, ' 'Are we always to wear a smil- 
ing face to chase away his frown? The children have been vexa- 
tious, can we always bear it smilingly?" Know this, wives, that 
when assured of an habitually pleasant reception, the frown will be 
left at the office, put from the face, closed with the ledger. It is 
utterly impossible to do otherwise, for like begets like, as surely 
as operate nature's laws. Become to him a necessary part of 
himself, a wife in every respect, and he will not fail to respond. 

Why Weil-Disposed Wives Fail.— "Why is it," asked a lady-, 
"that so many men are anxious to get rid of their wives?" "Be- 
cause," was the reply, "so few women exert themselves after 
marriage to make their presence indispensable to the happiness 
of their husbands." When husband and wife have become 
thoroughly accustomed to each other — when all the little battery 
of charms which each play off so skilfully before the wedding 
day had been exhausted — too many seem to think that nothing 
remains but the clanking of the legal chains which bind them to 
each other. 

Eenew Domestic Felicity.— Renew the attentions of earlier 
days. Draw your hearts close together. Talk the thing all over. 
Prayerfully — aye, prayerfully — acknowledge your faults to one 
another, and determine that henceforth you will be all in all to 
each other, and my word for it, you shall find in your relation the 
sweetest joy earth has for you. There is no other way for you 




WELCOMING DADDY HOME. 



144 MARRIAGE 

to do. If you are not happy at home you must be happy abroad; 
the man or woman who has settled down upon the conviction 
that he or she is attached for life to an uncongenial yoke-fellow, 
and that there is no way to escape, has lost life; there is no effort 
too costly to make which can restore to its setting upon the 
bosom the missing pearl. 

Children and Happy Wedlock.— Again: children born in 
happy and loving wedlock will be more comely, more beautiful, 
more perfect. Children born in unhappy wedlock are less favor- 
ably organized, less happily disposed, less comely and beautiful. 
Loving parents, loving children; quarreling parents, quarreling, 
children. This is the rule. Therefore, for the sake of posterity, 
we are in duty bound to cultivate the more amiable qualities, anjd 
keep the passions in subjection. Grace comes by seeking. 

Health and Household Pleasures.— Strive to keep the health, 
if we would have sunshine in our homes. Nervous irritability 
and the state of being ill-at-ease — these and many other forms of 
ill-health may, as a general rule, be avoided by those who 
endeavor to preserve their health as a sacred duty. If most 
people have but little health, it is because they transgress the 
laws of nature, alternately stimulating and depressing them- 
selves. For our own sake and for the sake of others whom we 
trouble by irritability, we are bound to obey these laws — fresh 
air. exercise, moderate work, conquest of appetite. 

Unpleasant Words at Meal-Time. — The very worst time for a 
husband and wife to have unpleasant words is dinner-time. He 
who bores us at dinner robs us of pleasure and injures our health, 
a fact which the alderman realized when he exclaimed to a stupid 
interrogator, "With your confounded questions, sir, you've 
made me swallow a piece of green fat without tasting it." 

Many a poor wife has to swallow her dinner without tasting 
it because her considerate husband chooses this time to find fault 
with herself, the children, the servants and with everything ex- 
cept himself. The beef is too much done, the vegetables too 
little, everything is cold. "I think you might look after some- 
thing! Oh! that is no excuse," and so on, to the great disturb- 
ance of his own and his wife's digestion. 

God sends food, but the devil sends the few cross words that 
prevent it from doing us any good. We should have at least 
three laughs during dinner, and every one is bound to contribute 
a share of agreeable table-talk, good humor and cheerfulness. 

Conditions Demand Charity. — Make allowances for your wife's 
share of the great inheritance of human nature. Do not expect 
her to smile in unmoved serenity when children are ungovern- 
able, servants are in high rebellion, and husband comes home 
cross and hungry. If she is a little petulant, do not bang doors 
by way of soothing her temper. Just remember that a pleasant 
word or two, the touch of a kindly hand, or the light of a pitying 
eye will act like oil on the troubled waters. Even men are known 



MARRIAGE 145 

to get out of patience sometimes, therefore be not astonished at 
woman's occasional lapse of self-control! 

Tital Questions for Husbands.— 1. Have you given to her 
all of your time which you could spare? 

2. Have you endeavored to make amends to her for the loss 
of her friends? 

3. Have you joined with her in her endeavors to open the 
minds of your children and give them good moral lessons ? 

4. Have you strengthened her mind with advice, kindness 
and good books? 

5. Have you spent your evenings with her in the cultivation 
of intellectual, moral or social excellence? 

6. Have you looked upon her, as well as yourself, as an im- 
mortal being? 

7. Has her improvement been as much your aim as your 
own? 

8. Has your desire been to "love her," as St. Paul commands 
you, and to see her "holy and without blemish?" 

9. Has your kind word soothed the irritation of her brow? 

10. Has your arm supported her in the day of trial and 
trouble? 

11. Have you truly been a helpmate to her whom you have 
sworn before God to love and cherish? 

Advice to Husband.— Let what we have said add to your 
desire to serve, to assist to cherish the wife in all possible ways. 

Let your children have the example before them of parents 
bound by one tie, one hope; united here and forever. 

Let him whose married life has been short, aid and counsel 
his young wife. 

Let her troubles be yours and her joys be your joys. 

Let the wife have all the companionship possible with the 
husband. 

A Beautiful Picture. — There is a picture, bright and beautiful, 
but nevertheless true, where hearts are united for mutual kappi- 
ness and mutual improvement ; where a kind voice cheers the 
wife in her hour of trouble, and where the shade of anxiety is 
chased from the husband's brow as he enters his home ;_ where 
sickness is soothed by watchful love, and hope and faith burn 
brightly. For such there is a great reward, both here and here- 
after, in their own and their families' spiritual happiness and 
growth, and in the blessed scenes of the world of spirits. 

The Wife Makes Home. — And, wives ! do j-ou also consult the 
tastes and dispositions of your husbands, and endeavor to give to 
them high and noble thoughts, lofty aims and temporal comfort. 
Be ready to welcome them to their homes; gradually draw 
their thoughts while with you from business, and lead them to 
the regions of the beautiful in art and nature and the true and 
the divine in sentiment. Foster a love of the elegant and refined, 
and gradually will you see business, literature and high moral 
culture blending in " sweet accord." 



146 MARRIAGE 

Mutual Help. — It was thus, surely, that intellectual beings of 
different sexes were intended by their great Creator to go through 
the world together: thus united, not only in hand and heart, but 
in principles, in intellect, in views, and in dispositions ; each pur- 
suing one common and noble end, — their own improvement, and 
the happiness of those around them, — by the different means ap- 
propriate to their situation ; mutually correcting, sustaining, and 
strengthening each other ; undegraded by all practices of tyranny 
on the one hand, and of deceit on the other ; each finding a can- 
did but severe judge in the understanding, and a warm and par- 
tial advocate in the heart of their companion. 

Nobody But My Husband.— In America, some women think 
that anything is good enough to wear at home. They go about 
in slatternly morning dresses, unkept hair, and slippers down at 
the heel. '■ Nobody will see me," they say, " but my husband." 

An English lady, visiting the wife of one of the wealthy mer- 
chants of India, found her always in full dress, with toilet as 
carefully arranged as if she were going to a ball. 

" Why!" exclaimed the visitor, " is it possible that you take all 
this trouble to dress for nobody but your husband?" 

"Do, then," asked the lady in reply, "the wives of English- 
men dress for the sake of pleasing other men?" 

Cleanliness. — Women who neglect cleanliness are peculiarly 
liable to give out unpleasant odors. 

So it is with bad breath. This sometimes arises from neglect 
of the teeth; sometimes from diseases of the stomach; sometimes 
from catarrh and the like. A husband is almost forced to hold 
at arm's length a wife with a fetid breath. 

Love Enters Through the Nose.— Perspiration, especially 
about the feet, under the arms, and the like, cause a very un- 
pleasant smell about many men and women. 

Now these disagreeable smells must, in some way, be removed 
if husband and wife are to retain each other's love. 

It is said that love enters through the nose. If that be true, it 
may well be said that love may be driven out through fetid, filthy 
feet. 

Conjugal Harmony. — In true marriage, when all the condi- 
tions are favorable, and husband and wife spend much of their 
time together, there is a natural tendency to assimilate. 

Loving each other and admiring each other's qualities, they 
insensibly take on each other's characteristics, and finally grow 
into a strong personal resemblance to each other. 

Examples of this conjugal resemblance, in couples who have 
lived long in happy marriage relations, may be pointed out in 
almost every community. The harmony between such married 
people, instead of being lost or broken up by constantly recurring 
discords, becomes, year by year, sweeter and more complete. 

Harmony Lost. Why?— But there are cases in which the 



MARRIAGE 147 

opposite result takes place. A good degree of congeniality may 
exist at the time of marriage, but may afterward be lost. 

Instead of climbing the hill of life hand in hand, as they 
should, they become separated in the crowd, and one is left far 
behind. They no longer see things from the same point of view, 
and the unity of thought and feeling which existed at first, is 
destroyed. 

The Wife's Fault. — Sometimes the wife, confined to home by 
domestic duties; debarred by maternity and the care of her chil- 
dren from mingling in society; deprived, mainly by lack of time 
and opportunity, of the advantages of lectures and books; and 
finally, perhaps, losing her taste for intellectual pursuits, remains 
stationary, or rather deteriorates, intellectually, while the hus- 
rand, mingling constantly in society with cultivated people, 
brought into daily contact with the great movements of the day, 
beading, thinking and attending lectures, is constantly advancing 
— gaining new ideas, new views of life, new interests and new 
aspirations. The congeniality which drew them together in the 
beginning no longer exists. Harmony is lost. Instead of grow- 
ing toward each other, they have grown far apart — become men- 
tally strangers to each other. 

It May Be the Husband.— in otner cases it is the husband 
who falls behind in the journey of life. Giving himself up 
entirely to business; spending his days in his counting-room; 
^oing home fatigued, listless and indisposed to study, conversa- 
tion or thought, he neglects books, loses his interest in the new 
ideas and movements of the age, and instead of leading onward 
and upward the mind of his intelligent and perhaps ambitious 
wife, leaves her to find in others the intellectual companionship 
she craves. Relieved mainly from household cares by a house- 
keeper and servants, she reads, thinks, goes into society, mingles 
with cultivated and progressive people, and is constantly advanc- 
ing in the path of mental improvement. There is the same loss 
of harmony as in the other case, and the final results are gener- 
ally more disastrous. 

Mutual Growth, Law of Nature. — Young married couple9 
should think of this in time. Remember that growth is a law of 
nature. But if the conditions are unfavorable we become dwarfed 
and deteriorate, instead of improving. You should strive to attain 
the conditions requisite for mental progress, and to equalize them 
so as to grow up together in mind, as it were, keeping step in the 
onward march of life. There can be no solid and satisfactory 
happiness in the conjugal relation without a close sympathy in 
thought and feeling. To secure this, you must marry congenial 
partners; and to retain it, you must perpetuate the harmonious 
conditions existing at marriage by equal advantages, so far as 
possible, for mental improvement after marriage. Be together 
as much as possible; read the same books and periodicals; talk 
about what you read; attend lectures; go together into society, or 
spend your evenings together at home; and in all things help 



148 MARRIAGE 

each other to be true and good, to grow in grace, and in that 
knowledge which maketh wise unto salvation. 

Peaceful Blending. — 

I saw two clouds at morning, 

Tinged with the rising sun, 
And in the dawn they floated on 

And mingled into one: 
I thought that morning cloud was blest 
It moved so sweetly to the west. 

I saw two summer currents 

Flow smoothly to their meeting, 
And join their course, with silent force, 

In peace each other greeting: 
Calm was their course, through banks of grees. 
While dimpling eddies played between. 

Such be your gentle motion, 

Till life's last pulse shall beat; 
Like summer's beam and summer's stream 

Float on, in joy, to meet 
A calmer sea, where storms shall cease, — 
A purer sky, where all is peace. 

— Brainardc 



CHAPTER VIII 
AFTER MARRIAGE 



SECTION ONE— THE CONSUMMATION OF MARRIAGE 

Its Signification. — In both law and medicine the prime object 
of marriage, regarded from a social point of view, is the continu- 
ation of tne species. Hence, until the preliminary steps to this 
end are taken, the marriage is said not to be consummated. The 
precise meaning of the expression is this: "The first time that 
the husband and wife cohabit together after the ceremony of 
marriage has been performed is called the consummation of mar- 
riage." A marriage, however, is complete without this in the eye 
of the law, as it is a maxim that consent, not cohabitation, is the 
binding element in the ceremony. 

A Wise Restraint. — A sage morality throughout most civilized 
lands prohibits any anticipation of the act until the civil officer 
or the priest has performed the rite. The experience of the world 
proves the wisdom of this, for any relaxation of the laws of pro- 
priety in this respect are fraught, not only with injury to society, 
but with loss of self-respect to the individual. Those couples 
who, under any plea whatever, allow themselves to transgress 
this rule, very surely lay up for themselves a want of confidence 
in each other and a source of mutual recrimination in the future. 

True as this is shown to be by constant experience, yet there 
have been and still are communities in which the custom is 
current of allowing and even encouraging such improper intima- 
cies. 

When Consummated. — Usually marriage is consummated 
within a day or two of the ceremony. In Greece the excellent 
rule prevails that at least three days shall be allowed to elapse 
between the rite and the act, and it were well if this rule were 
general. In most cases the bride is nervous, timid, exhausted by 
the labor of preparation and the excitement of the occasion — 
indeed, in the worst possible frame of body and mind to bear the 
great and violent change which the marital relation brings with it. 

The Bridal Chamber.— The first hour in the bridal chamber 
is, to the delicate and sensitive young wife, one of severest 
trial. However much she may respect her husband, she realizes 
that he is to her almost a stranger. Yet she should not hesitate. 
Without a trace of prudishness, she should forget herself in per- 
fect love and trust. 

9 149 



150 AFTER MARRIAGE 

The young husband should fully appreciate the feelings of his 
bride. With delicate consideration he should strive to spare her 
modesty. To urge his attentions upon her would be little less 
than brutal. He should regard her, not as within his power, but 
as under his protection. By tender caresses he may try to win 
her to him, but let desire wait her invitation. 

Danger Ahead! — The consequence is that in repeated in- 
stances the thoughtlessness and precipitancy of the young hus- 
band lay the foundation for numerous diseases of the womb and 
nervous system, and for the gratification of a night he forfeits 
the comfort of years. Let him at the time when the slow-paced 
hours have at last brought to him the treasures he has so long 
been coveting, administer with a frugal hand and with a wise fore- 
thought. Let him be considerate, temperate and self-controlled. 
He will never regret it if he defer for days the exercise of those 
privileges which the law now gives him, but which are more than 
disappointing if seized on in an arbitrary, coarse or brutal man- 
ner. 

A Sign of Low Breeding.— There is no more infallible sign of 
a low and vulgar man than to hear one boast or even to mention 
the occurrences on the nuptial night. Who does so, set him 
down as a fellow devoid of all the finer feelings of his own sex, 
and incapable of appreciating those of the other. While the 
newly married man should act so that his tender solicitude and 
kind consideration could only reflect credit on himself, were they 
known, he should hide them all under a veil of reticence. 

Painful to the Bride. — A husband should be aware that 
while, as a rule, the first conjugal approaches are painful to the 
new wife, and therefore that she only submits and can not enjoy 
them, this pain should not be excessively severe, nor should it 
last for any great length of time — not more than one or two 
weeks. Should the case be otherwise, then something is wrong; 
and if rest does not restore the parts, a physician should be con- 
sulted. 

A Source of Misery. — It is especially necessary that great 
moderation be observed at first, an admonition which we the 
more urgently give because we know it is needed, and because 
those specialists who devote their time to diseases of women are 
constantly meeting patients who date their months and years of 
misery from the night of the consummation of marriage. 

Obstacles to the Consummation of Marriage. — We have now 
to consider the cases where for some incapacity on the one side 
or the other, it is not possible to consummate marriage. When 
an incapacity of this kind is absolute or incurable, and when it 
existed at the time of the ceremony of marriage, both the eccle- 
siastical law and the special statues of several of the American 
States, declare the marriage void and of no effect. But the suit 
must be brought by the injured party, and he or she naturally 
incapable can not allege that fact in order to obtain a divorce. 




TRUE BLISS 



152 



AFTER MARRIAGE 



An incapacity for marriage may exist in either sex, and it may 
be in either temporary or permanent. 

On the Part of the Bride. — The most common cause of a 
temporary character is an excessive sensitiveness of the part. 
This may be so great that the severest pain is caused by the in- 
troduction of a narrow sounder, and the conjugal approaches are 
wholly unbearable. Inflammation of the passage to the bladder, 
of some of the glands, and various local injuries are also abso- 




THE CHRISTENING. 



lute but temporary barriers. Any of these are possible, and no 
man with a spark of feeling in his composition will urge his 
young wife to gratify his desires at the expense of actual agony 
to herself. 

Conditions of this kind require long and careful medical treat- 
ment, and though it is disagreeable to have recourse to this, the 
sooner it is done the better for both parties. 



AFTER MARRIAGE 153 

The Hymen. — A permanent obstacle is occasionally interposed 
by a hymen of unusual rigidity. It is rare, indeed, that this mem- 
brane resists, but occasionally it foils the efforts of the husband, 
and leads to a belief on his part that his wife is incapable of 
matrimony. 

The Vagina. — A complete or partial absence of the vagina 
forms an absolute and generally incurable obstacle to conjugal 
duty on the part of the woman. Such a condition may arise from 
an injury received earlier in life, and which has allowed the sides 
to contract and grow together ; or she may have been so from 
birth. 

"Want of Virility in Man.— Virility is from the Latin vir, 
meaning man. A want of virility, then, is being incapable of 
performing the functions of a man. Virility depends upon the 
ability of a man to secrete the sperm. In that sperm, as one of 
its parts, is the spermatozoa, the life-transmitting power. 

Spermatozoa. — The spermatozoa are exceedingly numerous 
and active when the secretion is healthy. A single one of them — 
and there are many hundreds in a drop — is sufficient to bring 
about conception in a female. They not only have a rapid vibra- 
tory motion, but singular vitality. 

They are not, however, always present, and when present may 
be of variable activity. In young men, just past puberty, and in 
aged men, they are often scarce and languid in motion. Occa- 
sionally they are entirely absent in otherwise hale men, and 
this is one of the causes of sterility in the male. Their presence 
or absence can only be detected by the microscope. 

The organs in which this secretion is elaborated from the 
blood are the testicles. 

Before Pnberty. — A secretion is formed before puberty, but it 
is always without these vibratory bodies. Only after that period 
is it formed healthily and regularly by the proper glands. 

Observers have noted that that produced soon after puberty 
is feeble, and generally fruitless, or if capable of fecundating, the 
child thus produced is weakly and apt to be exposed to disease. 

A Medical Writer Say8: — " In losing the virile powers at an age 
when it should be vigorous, man loses his self-respect, because he 
feels himself fallen in importance in relation to his species. 
Therefore the loss of virile power, real or supposed, produces an 
effect more overpowering than that of honors, fortune, friends 
or relatives ; even the loss of liberty is as nothing compared to 
this internal and continual torture." 

Lethargy. — There are some individuals who are rarely or 
never troubled by the promptings of nature to perpetuate life, 
and yet are by no means incapable of doing so. They are indeed 
few in number, and are usually slow in mind and of an extremely 
lymphatic and lethargic temperament. They experience very 
little desire and no aversion toward the opposite sex. 



154 AFTER MARRIAGE 

A want of desire does, however, often occur under circum- 
stances which give rise to great mental trouble. It may have 
many causes; some mental, others physical. Prolonged and 
rigid continence, excesses either with the other sex or in soli- 
tary vice, a poor and insufficient diet or the abuse of liquors and 
the pleasures of the table, loss of sleep, severe study, constant 
thought, mental disturbances, as sorrow, anxiety or fear, the 
abuse of tobacco, drugs, etc., all may lead to the extinction of 
the sexual feelings. 

When lethargy arises from age or local disease it must be 
met by a judiciously regulated medical treatment which we can- 
not detail here. 

Debility. — It is not uncommon to find desire present, and yet 
the consummation of marriage to be impossible from a want of 
power, although the individual is by no means impotent. This 
condition is called "false impotence," and often causes great 
alarm, though generally unnecessarily. In persons of nervous 
temperaments, though otherwise perfectly healthy, the force of 
imagination, the novelty, the excitement and the trepidation 
attendant upon the ceremony of marriage completely overpower 
them, and they are terrified to find it impossible to perform the 
duties of their new relation. Sometimes this state of the system 
lasts for days, weeks and months. Recollecting, perhaps, some 
early sins, the young husband believes himself hopelessly impo- 
tent, and may in despair commit some violent act forever to be 
regretted. 

Impotence of Man. — True impotence consists of want of 
power, not once, but habitually; not only with prostitutes, but 
with those whom we most love; not under unfavorable circum- 
stances, but during long periods of time, say five, fifteen or twenty 
years. Actual impotence during the period of manhood is a very 
rare complaint, and nature very unwillingly, and only after the 
absolute neglect of sanitary laws, gives up the power of repro- 
duction. 

It is very uncommon to find complete and permanent inability 
to consummate the marriage rite. 

Aversion of Wife to Hnsband. — Not only sensual women, but 
all, without exception, feel deeply hurt, and are repelled by the 
husband whom they may previously have loved dearly, when, 
after entering the marriage state, they find that he is impotent. 
The more inexperienced and innocent they were at the time of 
marriage, the longer it often is before they find that something is 
lacking in their husband ; but, once knowing this, they infallibly 
have a feeling of contempt and aversion for him. It is the 
knowledge that they are becoming contemptible and disgusting 
to their wives, that brings so many young husbands, fearing they 
are impotent, to the physician. Unhappy marriages, barrenness, 
divorces, and perchance an occasional suicide, may be prevented 
by the experienced physician who can give correct information, 
comfort and consolation when consulted on this subject. 



AFTER MARRIAGE 155 

Let Lewd Women Alone. — Under no circumstances should 
he adopt the scandalous and disgusting advice which immoral 
associates may give him, to experiment with lewd women in 
order to test his powers. Such an action must meet with un* 
equivocal condemnation froiii every point of view. Should there 
be good medical reasons to believe that he is actually impotent, 
he must not think of marriage. Such an act would be a fraud 
upon nature, and the law both of church and state declares such 
a union null and void. Yet even with this imperfection he need 
not give way to despair or to drink. 

Old Age. — The period of virility in man, like that of child- 
bearing in women, is naturally limited to but a fraction of the 
whole term of life. The physiological change which takes place 
in the secretion in advanced years deprives it of the power of 
transmitting life, and at last the vigor of the function is lost. 

Impotence and Venereal Diseases.— Venereal diseases lead, 
more frequently than do any other class of maladies, to perma- 
nent, incurable impotence. They may do so either by an actual 
destruction of the part, or by exciting inflammation in the secre- 
tory apparatus, or by attacking the adjacent parts. 

Malformations and Impotence. — Malformation in man is an 
other cause of impotence. These may be natural, dating froro 
birth, or accidental from injury, or from some necessary surgical 
operation, or from design, as in the case of eunuchs. 

Self-Abuse and Impotence. — Self-abuse causes perversion 
of feeling and debility, but does not affect the character of f.he 
secretions, except when carried to great excess. It leads to debil- 
ity, but exceedingly rarely to permanent incapacity. 

Obesity may lead to impotence, either mechanically, by 
causing such an unwieldy growth that the conjugal relation is 
rendered impossible, or by diminishing desire and power. 

Fat children sometimes never manifest in after years any 
desire for the opposite sex, and there are examples of young men 
thirty years old who were completely devoid of f eeling from the 
same cause. 

The remedy for such a condition is to observe a regimen 
which will reduce the flesh without impairing the strength. 

Other Causes. — The habitual use of opium induces a general 
prostration of the nervous system and a debility of the powers 
of generation, which in the slaves to those pernicious habits 
passes into complete impotence. 

General mal-nutrition of the body, lead poisoning, diabetes 
and some diseases of the spinal cord, also may bring abpat this 
condition. 

Sterility. — It is possible for a man to consummate marriage 
when it is utterly impossible for him to have children. His 
power of transmitting life is gone forever. That is, impotence 
and sterility do not mean the same thing. 



156 AFTER MARRIAGE 

Conditions of Sterility. — The conditions 01 sterility in man 
may arise either from a condition of the secretions which deprives 
it of its fecundating powers, or it may spring from a mal-forma- 
tion which prevents its reaching the point where fecundation 
takes place. 

The condition of sterility is the most common in old age, and 
as a sequence of venereal disease, or from a change in the struc- 
ture or functions of the glands. 

Sterility from mal-formation has its origin in a stricture or 
in an injury or in debility. 

Electricity a Remedy. — Where sterility depends upon a de- 
ficient secretion of the seminal fluid, the patient may have a fair 
chance of improvement, always provided no organic disease is 
present. A regulated diet, tonics and a change of climate will 
do much ; but it is the judicious application of electricity from 
which most is to be hoped. 

The value of this medicinal agent in debility and failure of the 
generative powers has long been recognized by professional men. 
It acts as a powerful stimulant, and when combined with 
proper general treatment holds out a promise of improvement 
and often of cure, in most cases where no structural change has 
taken place. But it is a useless and even a dangerous remedy in 
ignorant hands. 

Excessive Passion Dangerous.— Those who ignorantly and 
rashly imagine that excessive passion is a mark of vastly increas- 
ed vigor, and felicitate themselves on the change, will have 
bitterly to rue their error in after years. 

Marriage Natural and Beneficial.— It is evident that wedded 
life is the best condition for man. Mortifying the flesh to subdue 
the sexual passions, as is practiced by ascetics, is more apt to con= 
centrate the attention of the mind on the very things sought tc 
be avoided. 

Purity of thought is better accomplished by turning the 
thoughts, through the action of the will, from sexual things 
toward the non-sexual. One who has insufficient sleep is always 
sleepy. One with insufficient food is always hungry. Sexual 
instincts properly satisfied relieve the mind of sexual thoughts. 
The marriage state makes it possible for man and woman to live 
a life of continence more successfully than by living a single life e 

Long Life and Marriage. — Statistics show that married men 
live longer than bachelors. 

Married, child-bearing women live longer than spinsters c 
Wives also have better health than their unmarried sisters 
This, too, in spite of the added dangers associated with child- 
birth. Many delicate and ailing women have become robust 
during the rest of their lives after marriage and the birth of one 
or more children. 

Nature seems to compensate the mother for her pains and 
^are of maternity. 



AFTER MARRIAGE 



157 



Other Physical Benefits from Marriage.— We are able to 
state, on many good authorities, that marriage purifies the com- 
plexion, removes blotches from the skin, invigorates the body, 
gives a freedom and elasticity of carriage, a full and firm tone of 




MOTHERHOOD. 



voice, and is the medium through which nature makes the human 
species tranquil, happy, healthy, contented, useful and wise. 

Liberties Before Marriage. — Kissing, embracing, sitting in 
lover's lap, leaning on his breast, long periods of secluded com- 



158 AFTER MARRIAGE 

panionship are dangerous conditions. Thoughtful parents 
should have a profound fear at the dangers surrounding such a 
state of affairs. It is a marvel that so many ladies arrive safely 
at the wedding day. If our young women realized the danger of 
arousing the sexuality even of the best men, they would shudder 
at the risk they run. Don't do it, ladies! 

The enjoyments of that delightful period of life between the 
betrothal and marriage should not be unreasonably curtailed. 

A Warning. — It is said, "A woman in love will refuse nothing 
to a persistent lover." We do not believe it is true; but still we 
recognize the fact that here is danger. We doubt the genuine- 
ness of the "lover" who "persistently" would seek the ruin of the 
one he loves. But the element of sensuality is very strong in 
many men, and if there is a want of moral tone in the supposed 
lover, both the man and maiden may be swept into ruin. 

Tests of "Virginity Unreliable,— The consummation of mar- 
riage with a virgin is by no means necessarily attended with a 
flow of blood, and the absence of this sign is not the slightest 
presumption against her former chastity. In stout blondes it is 
even the exception rather than the rule; and in all young women 
who have suffered from leucorrhcea, the parts are relaxed and 
flowing does not occur. 

So, too, the presence or absence of the hymen is no test. 
Frequently it is absent from birth, and in others it is of exceed- 
ing tenuity, or only partially represented. There is, in fact, no 
sign whatever which allows even an expert positively to say that 
a woman has or has not suffered the approaches of one of the 
opposite sex. 

The True and Only Test which any man should look for is 
modesty in demeanor before marriage, absence both of assumed 
ignorance and a disagreeable familiarity, and a pure and religious 
frame of mind. Where these are present, he need not doubt 
that he has a faithful and chaste wife. 



SECTION TWO— CHASTITY IN THE MARRIED RE- 
LATION 

Different Views on Sexual Union.— The practice of married 
people varies according to the views held by different individuals 
It is sad to know that multitudes of married couples go at this 
matter in a "slam-bang" way, merely as uncontrolled passion 
dictates, thus impairing themselves and their offspring. 

There are three theories as follows : 

First. — Those who claim that the sexual relation should nevev 
be entered into except for procreation. 

Second. — Those who believe that it is a love act. 

Third. — Those who hold that sexual intercourse as a physical 
necessity for man, but not for woman. 



AFTER MARRIAGE 1 r '> 

First Theory Discussed.— Perhaps Dr. Cowan's statement of 
what he calls true continence will make this matter clear. He 
says: "The highest enjoyable season at which a healthy woman 
desires sexual congress is immediately following the cessation of 
her monthly menses, and this is the season in which the repro- 
ductive element is most intensified, and when her whole organ- 
ism is ready to take on the loving and holy duties of reproduction 
— the originating and developing of a new life. 

"The man and wife come together at this period with the 
desire for offspring; impregnation and conception follow, and 
from that time until the mother has again menstruated — 
which occurs after the weaning of the child, which in duration 
extends to about eighteen or twenty-one months — sexual inter- 
course should not be had by either husband or wife. 

"Do you mean that the man should have no sexual intercourse 
for twenty-one months ?' 

"That is precisely what is meant — precisely what nature 
intended. This is the only true solution of God ' s divine law in 
the government of the reproductive element in mankind. 

"A continent man, therefore, is one who possesses the power 
to reproduce his species, and who, through a true life and firm 
will, exercises his reproductive element only at the right seasons, 
and only for the purpose of reproduction." The italics are Dr. 
Cowan's. 

It is not impossible to live up to the theory thus advanced. 
We have shown in other parts of this book that there are other 
uses for the reproductive element in man than the generation of 
offspring. But the altitude is too high for the great mass of 
mankind. 

The Second Theory.— The second theory (that coition is a love 
act) seems to us to be within the bounds of possibility, and has 
some things in its favor. 

The act should be mutual on the part of man and wife; and 
when procreation is not desired, care should be taken as to the 
proper time in relation to the monthly period. 

This act is a mutual exchange of love, giving health and vigor 
to each. But more than all, it keeps alive that flame of sacred 
fire which burns in the breasts of a truly wedded pair. It is an 
inexplicable bond of union. There is no such thing as "Platonic 
love" between the sexes; but there is something better — conjugal, 
maternal and paternal love. 

Sex-force is the basis of all the nobler attributes of mankind. 
When Christ wished to illustrate that invisible, loving bond of 
union between Himself and His people, He used conjugal love as 
a symbol — He is the bridegroom, the church is the bride. 

Herein is where the second theory surpasses both the first 
and the third. Separation breeds coldness; presence and asso- 
ciation give warmth to both love and friendship. 

By the third theory, the supposed demands of the husband 
lead almost universally to over-indulgence, and cause the wife 



160 AFTER MARRIAGE 

many times to all but abhor the sexual presence of her lascivious 
husband. 

The Third Theory.— What are some of the results of the third 
theory? Let us see. 

1. In the marriage relation, it requires the wife to be man's 
prostitute, that the husband may meet the necessities (?) of his 
nature. 

2. In the unmarried state, it leads to one or all of the follow- 
ing: Prostitution, fornication, masturbation, or some other 
abominable practice. 

3. In any state, it teaches a double standard of morals, one 
for man and another for woman. In such conditions there is no 
room for Miss Willard's "A White Life for Two." 

4. It leads, logically, to over-indulgence in the sexual net- 
Parents and children are made to suffer. It lowers the whole 
moral and physical tone of the race. Men and women lose their 
vitality; the children are puny, scrawny beings, many of whom 
in early life pass to untimely graves. 

We repeat again the statement we have already made; 
It is not necessary to health to expend man's sexual force: 




Results of Conception when the Father was Intoxicated 




NEGLECTED! 

The above chart illustrates the attitude of our government and the com- 
mercial spirit of our age toward forests, domestic animals, mothers and 
children. If our mothers and children could be given a commercial value, 
based on their beauty, perfection of form, health and character, rated in 
value on a par with a $2,600 chicken, a $4,600 hog, a $13,000 cow, or a 
$20,000 horse, the initial of every child would be intelligently planned for, 
its prenatal rights would be respected, its nativity warmly welcomed and 
its environments would be wisely safe-guarded. 



CHAPTER IX 
HUSBAND AND WIFE 



SECTION ONE— THE MARRIAGE BED 

The Bed-Chamber.— The bed-chamber should be large and 
airy. But very few bed-chambers are sufficiently large to afford 
plenty of fresh air without some form of ventilation. No one or 
two or three or more should sleep in an ordinary bedroom with- 
out ventilation. We shall speak further on this subject under 
"Ventilation." 

In the Same Bed. — Should husband and wife sleep in the 
same bed? This is customary in America; it is the rule, but, of 
course, there are exceptions. There are good reasons for both 
customs. In the light of hygiene, pure and simple, the argument 
for the single bed is decisive. 

It is also claimed that the temptation to over-sexual indul- 
gence is too great. The close and constant contact of bodies 
leads to excitement, and therefore requires greater will-power to 
overcome the temptation. 

On the other hand, in sleeping apart there is loss of 
that affection which should subsist between man and wife. In 
the separation of husband and wife there is danger that the bond 
of union may be loosened and possibly broken. Separation 
breeds coldness, distrust and indifference. Nearness of body 
leads to a nearness of spirit, and mutual trust and love are fos- 
tered by the fact of contiguity. 

An Exception. — Only when disease, or some avocation which 
leads to disturbed slumbers, is to be taken into account, do we 
recommend the opposite plan. Consumption is contagious, and 
of course many chronic skin diseases notoriously are so; and if 
present, it is too severe a demand for the sufferer to make that 
a healthy person should needlessly be exposed to the danger of 
illness. 

Neatness of Attire. — Women have more delicate sensibilities 
than men; they are readily pleased or repulsed by little things; 
the husband who is anxious to maintain pleasant relations in his 
home circle will do well not to neglect the cares of toilet. 

Frequent changes of underclothing are desirable on this 
account, as well as for general hygienic reasons, and any pains 
bestowed on keeping the attire neatly arranged and well care£ 
for will not be lost. 

161 



162 HUSBAND AND WIFE 

Passion in Women. — There are many females who never feel 
any sexual excitement whatever; others, again, to a limited 
degree, are capable of experiencing it. The best mothers, wives 
and managers of households know little or nothing of the sexual 
pleasure. Love of home, children and domestic duties are the 
only passions they feel. As a rule, the modest woman submits 
to her husband, but only to please him; and, but for the desire 
of maternity, would far rather be relieved from his attentions. 
This is doubly true of woman during the periods when they 
are with child, and when they are nursing. 

Hallowed Pleasures. — Jeremy Taylor, the quaint old English 
divine, says: "Married people must be sure to observe the order 
of nature and the ends of God. He is an ill husband that uses 
his wife as a man treats a harlot, having no other end but pleas- 
ure. The pleasure should always be joined to one or another of 
these ends — with a desire for children, or to avoid fornication t 
or to lighten and ease the cares and sadness of household affairs, 
or to endear each other, but never with a purpose, either in act 
or desire, to separate the sensuality from these ends which 
hallow it. 

"Married people must never force themselves into high and 
violent lusts with arts and misbecoming devices, but be 
restrained and temperate in the use of their lawful pleasures." 

Complete Cessation. — There are certain periods when a com' 
plete cessation should be observed. One of these is during the 
monthly sickness of the wife, and for a day or two after that 
epoch. 

The Mosaic law pronounces a woman "unclean" for a num- 
ber of days after her monthly illness. 

During pregnancy and nursing, conjugal relations should be 
few and far between. Some authorities condemn them alto= 
gether. Perhaps that is somewhat extravagant. With care, 
they may do no harm. Miscarriage is sometimes caused by too 
violent action. 

A Dangerous Period.— During and after the change of life, 
it is also important to observe an unwonted moderation. Dur- 
ing that period any unaccustomed excitement of this character 
may be followed by flooding and other serious symptoms, while 
after the crisis has been passed, the sexual appetite itself should 
wholly or almost wholly disappear. 

Danger of Excess. — The married man who thinks that, be- 
cause he is a married man, he can commit no excess, no matter 
how often the sexual act is repeated, will suffer as certainly and 
as seriously as the debauchee who acts on the same principle in 
his indulgences, perhaps more certainly from his very igno- 
rance, and from his not taking those precautions and following 
those rules which a career of vice is apt to teach a man. Till 
he is told, the idea never enters his head that he has been 
guilty of great and almost criminal excess, nor is this to be 



HUSBAND AND WIFE 163 

wondered at, as such a cause of disease is seldom hinted at by 
the medical man he consults. 

Nature of Excess, — The nature of excess may be twofold; 
either it is a long-continued indulgence beyond the average 
power of the man to withstand, or it is brief and violent. 

A Noted Physician's Opinion. — "A great excess for a few 
days only, acting like a 'shock,' may manifest its consequences 
in the nervous system at a long distant subsequent period. A 
sudden, short, yet great excess may be more dangerous than 
more moderate, albeit excessive indulgence, extending over a 
long period. In certain constitutions, although only indulged in 
legitimately and for a short period, as after marriage, such 
excess may act like a shock or concussion of the spinal cord, or 
Jike a blow on the head, and may give rise to serious chronic 
diseases, as epilepsy, insanity and paralysis." 

A Foolish Notion. — A foolish notion sometimes prevails that 
it is necessary to health to have frequent intercourse. There 
is no condition of life more thoroughly in accordance with per- 
fect vigor than chaste celibacy. Next to this comes moderation 
in married life. It is never required for sanitary reasons to 
abuse the privileges which law and usage grant. Any such 
abuse is pretty sure to bring about debility and disease. 

A General Rule. — Generally speaking, the hygienic rule is, 
that after the act the body should feel well and strong, the sleep 
should be sound, and the mind clear. Whenever this is not the 
case, when the limbs feel languid, the appetite feeble or capri- 
cious, the intellect dull and the faculties sluggish, then there is 
excess, and the act should be indulged in more rarely. 

Those who observe strictly this rule will need no other, and 
will incur no danger from immoderate indulgence. 

Marriage and Transmitting of Life. — The differences of the 
sexes, the emotions which depend upon these differences, and 
the institution of marriage are primarily and directly existent for 
the purpose of transmitting life, or, to put it more plainly, for 
having children. Every married couple must distinctly and 
constantly impress this truth upon their minds, and be governed 
by it in their life. Whatever relations they bear to each other, 
whatever duties they may owe to society and themselves, all of 
them are subordinate to the paramount obligation of having and 
raising a family. We care not what excuse may be imagined 
in order to escape this duty, it is inadmissible. Nothing short 
of positive incapacity can exculpate either party. 

Season for Conception.— It is not only their duty to have, not 
merely a child or two, but a family of children; but also, to do 
all in their power that their offspring have all the natural ad- 
vantages which it is possible to give them. It may not be gen- 
erally known that this matter touches some of the most intimate 
and earliest relations of the married couple. But, nowadays, 



164 



HUSBAND AND WIFE 



physicians at least are fully satisfied that the season and man* 
ner of conception, the condition of father and mother at the 
time, and several attending circumstances, exercise a most 
important influence on the newly -formed being. 

Nature of Conception. — Every human being originates from 
an egg. Every one of us commenced our existence in an egg. 
The human egg, however, has no shell, and is not, as with fowls 
and many lower animals, deposited outside the body. The 
female matures one or several at each of her monthly periods, 
and they pass from the sac which has hitherto contained them 
on their way to the outer world. They are so minute that they 
are hardly visible to the naked eye, and so delicate in structure 
that they readily perish. They remain a longer or a shorter time 
in their passage from the spot where they are formed to their 
destination, sometimes requiring but a day or two, at others 
probably a week or two. 

The Egg and Sperm Meet.— During this passage, should they 
come in contact with the secretion of the male, the vibratory 
bodies called spermatozoa surround the egg, penetrate into it per= 
haps, and fecundate it. At this moment conception has taken 
place, and a new member of the species has commenced its 
.individual life. 

An Explanation. — It will be understood that the spermatozoa 
of man (as in all mammalia) are living, active semi-animals, with 
the power of locomotion, while the female ovum is fiassivt, with 
no power to move itself from place to place. The ovum is 
moved by forces outside of itself; the spermatozoon seeks the 
ova by its own inner force. Hence, if the spermatozoa be 
placed within the female vagina by any means, they will find 
their way into the womb, and if a ripe ovum is in place, there 

will be a union of one of the 
spermatozoa (a spermato- 
zoon) with the ovum, and 
thus a new life is brought 
into being. 

Artificial Impregnation. 

— Union is not essential to 
impregnation; it is possible 
for conception to occur 
without congress. All that 
is necessary is that seminal 
animalcules enter the womb 
and unite there with the 
egg or ovum, as explained 
above. It is not essential 
that the semen be intro- 
duced through the medium 
of the male organ, as it has 
Semen Highly Magnified. been demonstrated repeat- 




HUSBAND AND WIFE 



165 



edly that by means of a syringe and freshly obtained and healthy 
semen, impregnation can be made to follow by its careful intro- 
duction. 



SECTION TWO- THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS 

1. The Bladder, cut open by a 
crucial Incision and the four 
Flaps separated. 

2. The Ureters. 

3. Their Vesical Orifices. 

4. Uvula Vesicas. The Trian 
gle formed by the Points at 
3.4 is the Vesicle Triangle. 

5. SuperiorFundusof the Blad- 
der. 

6. Bas Fond of the Bladder. 

7. The smooth Centre of the 
Vesical Triangle. 

8. Verumontanum or Caput 
Gallinaginis. 

9. Orifice of the Ductus Ejacu- 
latorius. 

10. Depression near the Veru- 
montanum. 

11. Ducts from the Prostate 
Gland. 

12.13. Lateral Lobes of the Pros- 
tate Gland. 

14. Prostatic Portion of the Ure- 
thra; just above is the Neck 

of the Bladder. 

15. Its Membranous Portion. 

16. One of Cowper's Glands. 

17. The Orifices of their Excre- 
tory Ducts. 

18. Section of the Bulb of the 
Urethra with its Erectile 
Tissue. 

19. Cut Edges of the Corpora 
Cavernosa. 

20. CutEdgesoftheGlansPenis. 

21. Prepuce dissected off. 

22. Internal Surface of the L>e- 
FIG. 370. thra laid open. 

23. Outer Surface of Corpora 
The Bladder and Urethra op Cavernosa. 

a man, laid OPEN IN its whole 24.25. AcceleratorUrinaeMuscle. 
.Length, 26.27. Erector Penis Muscle. 




. 166 HUSBAND AND WIFE 

THE FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANS 

The generative or reproductive organs of the human female 
are usually divided into the internal and external. Those 
regarded as internal are concealed from view and protected 
within the body. Those that can be readily perceived are 
termed external. The entrance of the vagina may be stated as 
the line of demarcation of the two divisions. 

External Organs. — 1. The labia majora, or greater lips, 
and the 

2. Labia minora, or lesser lips, are formed by double folds 
extendi Qg downward from the mons veneris, the prominent 
eminence formed by fatty tissue, just above the organ. 

3. The clitoris is a prominent erectile structure, situated at 
the upper part of the opening between the folds of the labia 
niinora just where the lips come together. This is the coun- 
terpart of the glands penis in man. 

4. The hymen is a membranous fold which partly closes the 
opening to the vagina. 

5. Vulva is a term applied when speaking of all of these 
external parts. 

Internal Organs. — 1. The Vagi?ia is a canal about five or six 
inches long, which extends from the vulva to the uterus. This 
organ is very distendible, and plays an important part in child- 
birth. 

2. The Uterus is situated between the bladder and the rec- 
turn in the cavity of the pelvis. It is held in position by the. 
broad bands of peritoneum on each side, which extend from the 
sides of the uterus to the walls of the pelvis, and is supported by 
the uterus. 

3. The Fallopian tubes are two in number, situated one on 
each side of the uterus, in the broad ligament extending from 
the uterus to the sides of the pelvis. They convey the ova from 
the ovaries to the cavity of the uterus. 

4. The Ovaries — The ovaries are oval shaped bodies, situ- 
ated one on each side of the uterus, behind and below the Fal- 
lopian tubes, in the posterior part of the broad ligament. They 
are about an inch and a half long, three-quarters of an inch 
wide, and one-third of an inch thick. 



CHAPTER X 
CHILD-BEARING 



SECTION ONE— PREGNANCY 

Veneration for the Pregnant.— "In no period of her life ia 
woman the subject of interest so profound and general as at the 
time when she approaches the sacred threshold of maternity. 
The young virgin and the new wife have pleased by their grace, 
spirit and beauty. The pregnant wife is an object of active 
benevolence and religious respect. It is interesting to note how, 
at all times and in all countries, she has been treated with con 
siderate kindness and great deference. She has been made the 
subject of public veneration, and sometimes even of religious 
worship. At Athens and at Carthage the murderer escaped 
from the sword of justice if he sought refuge in the house of a 
pregnant woman. The Jews allowed her to eat forbidden meats. 
The laws of Moses pronounced the penalty of death against all 
those who by bad treatment or any act of violence caused a 
woman to abort. 

Lycurgus compared women who died in pregnancy to 
the brave dead on the field of honor, and acccrded to them 
sepulchral inscriptions. In ancient Rome, where all citi- 
zens were obliged to rise and stand during the passage of a mag- 
istrate, wives were excused from rendering this mark of respect, 
for the reason that the exertion and hurry of the movement 
might be injurious to them in the state in which they were sup- 
posed to be. In the kingdom of PannoDia all enceinte women 
were in such veneration, that a man meeting one on the road was 
obliged, under penalty of a fine, to turn back and accompany 
and protect her to her place of destination. The Catholic 
Church has in all times exempted pregnant wives from fasts. 
The Egyptians decreed, and in most Christian countries the 
law at the present time obtains, that if a woman shall be con- 
victed of an offense the punishment of which is death, the sen- 
tence shall not be executed if it be proved that she is pregnant." 
—Geo. H. Nap keys, M. £>. 

Signs of Pregnancy. — One of the first signs of pregnancy is 
that of the cessation of the menses. As a sign, it is not to be 
depended upon by itself alone. Ceasing to be "unwell" may 
arise from various causes. In the great majority of cases, how- 
ever, the- menses cease to flow after conception has taken place 

167 



FIG. 400. 

A Side View of the 
, Viscera op the Fe- 
jmale Pelvis. 

1. Symphysis Pubis. 

2. Abdominal Pariete9. 

3. The Fat forming the 
Mons Veneris. 

4. The Bladder. 

5. Entrance of the Left 
Ureter. 

6. Canal of the Urethra. 

7. Meatus Urinarius. 

8. The Clitoris and its 
Prepuce, 

9. Left Nympha. t 

10. Left Labium Majus. 

11. Orifice of the Vagina. 

12. Its Canal and Trans- 
verse Rugae. 

13. The Vesico - Vaginal 
Septum. 

14. The Vagino • Rectal 
Septum. 

15. Section of thePerineum. 

16. Os Uteri. 

17. CervixUteri. 

18. Fundus Uteri. 

19. The Rectum. 

20. The Anus. 

21. Upper 'Portion of the 
Rectum. 

22. Re'ctoVUterine Fold of 
the Peritoneum. 

23. Utero-Vesical Reflec- 
tion of the Peritoneum. 

24. The Peritoneum re- 
flected on the Bladder 
"from the Abdominal 

Parietes. 

25. Last Lumbar Verte- 

bra. 

26. The Sacrum. 

27. The Coccyx. 



FIG. 401. 

A Vertical Section 

THROUGH THE LlNEA 

Alba and Symphy- 
sis Pubis so as to 
show the Bladder, 
Vagina,Uterus and 
Rectum in Situ. — 
The Peritoneum 
has been cut at the 
Points where it is 
Reflected. 

1. Anterior Parietes of 
the Abdomen. 

2. Sub. Cutaneous Cel- 
lular Tissue. 

3. Hairs on the Mons Ve- 
neris. 

4. Cellular Tissue on the. 
Mons Veneris. 

5. Rectus Abdominis of 
the 'Right Side, 

6. Right Labia Majora. 

7. Symphysis Pubis. 

8. TheClitoris. 

9. Its opposite Cms. 

10. Right Labia Minora. 

11. Orifice of the Vagina. 

12. Portion of the Left 
Labia Minora. 

13. The Fourchette, or 
PosteriorCommissure 
of the Vulva. 

14. The Perineum. 

15. The Anus. 

16. A Portion of the Inte- 
guments of the But- 
tock. 

17. Left Side of the Blad- 
der. 

18. Neck of the Bladder. 

19. The Urethra. 

20. Meatus Urinarius. 



21. Entrance of the Left 
Ureter into the Blad- 
der. 

22. Left Ureter cut off. 

23. Left Side of the Va- 
gina. 

24. Left Side of the Neck 
of the Uterus outside 
of the Vagina. 

25. Fundus ofthe Uteru9. 

26. Left Fallopian Tube 
separated from the Pe- 
ritoneum. 

27. Its Fimbriated Extre- 
mity. 

28. Its Entrance into the 
Uterus. 

29. Left Round Ligament. 

30. Left Ovary. 

31. Fimbriated Portion 
which unites the Tube 
to the Ovary. 

32. Insertion of the Liga- 
ment of the Ovary to 
the Uterus. 

33. Right Broad Ligament 
of the Uteru9. 

34. Lower Portion of the 
Rectum. 

35. Rectum turned off" and 
tied. 

36. The Peritoneum lin- 
ing the Anterior Parie-. 
tes ofthe Abdomen. 

37. The Peritoneum which 
covers the PosteriorPa- 
rietes ofthe Abdomen. 

FIG. 402. 
The Uterus, Fallo- 
pian Tubes, Ovaries 
and a Part of the 
Vagina of a Female 
of Sixteen Years. 
On one Side the 



Tube and Ovary is 
divided Vertically; 

THE OTHER SlDE If* 

untouched. The An- 
terior Portion of 
the Uterus and Va- 
gina have also been 
removed. 

1. Fundus of the Uterus. 

2. Thickness of its Parie- 
ties anteriorly. 

3. External Surface ofthe 
Uterus. 

4. Section ofthe Neck of 
the Uterus. 

5. Section of the Anterior 
Lip. 

6. Its Posterior Lip un- 
touched. 

7. Cavity ofthe Uterus. 

8. Cavity of its Neck. 

9. Thickness of the Walla 
ofthe Vagina. 

10. Its Cavity and Poste- 
rior Parietes. 

11. Openings of Fallopian 
Tubes into the Uterus. 

12. Cavity of the Left 
Tube. 

13. Its Pavilion. 

14. Corpus Fimbriatum. 

15. Its Union wiih the 
Ovary. 

16. Left Ovary vertically 
divided. 

17. The Vesicles in its Tis 
sue. . 

18. Ligament of theOvary. 

19. Right Fallopian Tube, 
untouched. 

20. Its Corpus Fimbria- 
tum. 

21. Right Ovary. 

22. The Brond Ligament. , 



Female Organs of Generation 



170 CHILD-BEARING 

One sign, with many ladies, is an increase in the size of the 
neck, which usually occurs in a few days after conception. 

Sometimes women menstruate during the entire period of 
gestation. This, of course, is an abnormal condition and should 
be remedied. 

Again, women who have never menstruated have been known 
to bear children. 

Pregnancy seldom takes place under such conditions, but it 
is not an unusual occurrence for women not to menstruate from 
one pregnancy to another. This indicates too rapid child-bear- 
ing. 

Morning Sickness. — Morning sickness is regarded as one of 
the most reliable early symptoms. If it appears at all, it gen- 
erally occurs within three weeks, and may present itself within 
a few days after conception. This derangement of the stomach 
is manifested in various ways. Frequently there is great loath- 
ing of food, nausea of a most distressing character, and vomiting 
of anything taken into the stomach, particularly in the morning. 
Many women, however, are never troubled with the morning 
sickness. There is also in some cases a certain longing for 
unusual articles of food, and when not gratified in her fancies, 
the individual exhibits such disappointment that it is certainly 
better to indulge her vagaries, when not positively injurious. 
Usually all disturbances of the stomach disappear by the third 
or fourth month, the appetite becomes regular and the digestion 
good, and the whole body takes on an appearance of bloom and 
health. 

External Signs. — Owing to the direct and intimate sympathy 
existing between the uterus and breasts, pregnancy is generally 
indicated by changes in the latter organs. They may become 
somewhat painful and swollen, the nipple is elevated, and the 
areola, or circle around it, assumes a dark brown hue, and is 
dotted with small tubercles. The nipple enlarges, and as preg- 
nancy advances milk can be forced from it by pressure. Milk 
in the breasts, however minute in quantity, is a pretty sure sign, 
especially in a first pregnancy. Great importance is attached 
to the increased darkness in the color of the circle around the 
nipple, and it is a sign which rarely fails; like all presumptive 
signs of early pregnancy, though, it can hardly be relied upon 
alone. 

Besides the changes in the nipple and the enlargement of the 
breast, the veins look more blue, and the whole substance is 
firmer and more knotty to the touch. 

Enlargement of the abdomen, though an invariable accom- 
paniment of pregnancy, can not positively be relied upon as a 
symptom, as other causes may produce it; besides, in many 
cases the development of the abdomen is not observed till rather 
late. 

It may be occasioned by various causes. Instances are 
quite common where women have made careful preparation foi 



CHILD-BEARING 171 

confinement, only to be disappointed by finding they were 
suffering from some serious disease causing suppression of the 
menses. 

From the third to the eighth month the abdomen continues 
to enlarge. 

Quickening. — The movements of the child occur from the 
eighteenth to the twentieth week. Sometimes these motions 
begin as early as the third month, and then they are a feeble 
fluttering only, causing unpleasant sensations of fainting and 
nausea. 

The motion of the child is regarded by women of experience 
as an unfailing sign. But cases are common where the throb- 
bing of a tumor and other causes have been mistaken for fetal 
movements. Though at first feeble, after a time the motions 
become more quick and frequent, and a lady is not only able to 
recognize her condition, but the very period of her pregnancy, 

The Fetal Heart.— In the fifth month there is a sign which, 
if detected, furnishes clear evidence of conception, and that is 
the sound of the child's heart. If the ear be placed on the 
abdomen over the womb, the beating of the fetal heart can 
sometimes be heard quite plainly; and by the use of an instru= 
ment called the stethoscope, the sounds can be still more plainly 
heard. This is a very valuable sign, inasmuch as the presence 
of the child is not only ascertained, but also its position, and 
whether there are twins or more. 

Will it Be a Boy or a Girl, or Twins?— By the use of the 

stethoscope, during the three last months of pregnancy, may be 
ascertained the sex of the fetus; even without that instrument, 
the inquirer, if he possess good hearing, may decide this; for 
science states that the number of beats to the minute of the fetal 
male heart is from 120 to 130; those of a female, from 140 to 150. 
'The ear should be pressed firmly against the abdomen. In the 
same way, if two distinct pulse-beats of different rapidity are 
made out, twins may be suspected; especially if two promi- 
nences appear in the shape of the abdomen with some depres- 
sion between; unusual size would be merely corroborative and 
not alone of particular value for a decision. 

Other Signs. — Some ladies are afflicted by the appearance of 
more or less prominent and dark yellowish-brown spots or 
patches on the face, generally upon the forehead, nose and over 
the cheek bones. These disappear after the birth. 

While before the fifth month there is no one sign that may 
be depended on with absolute certainty, any person with ordi- 
nary powers of observation will have little trouble in distin- 
guishing pregnancy from other conditions that bear more or less 
resemblance. After the fetal heart-beat is detected no further 
difficulty will be experienced, for in that we have a sure sien of 
pregnancy. 



172 CHILD-BEARING 

The morning sickness, though a valuable sign, is by no means 
constant. 

Even in the absence of some symptoms, there will not be 
much trouble, as a rule, to recognize the true condition, espe- 
cially if the menses have ceased. 

Changes in the Mind.— The most wonderful of all the 
changes which attend pregnancy are those in the nervous sys- 
tem. The woman is rendered more susceptibl-e, more impres- 
sible. Her character is transformed. She is no longer pleasant, 
confiding, gentle and gay. She becomes hasty, passionate, jeal- 
ous and bitter. But in those who are naturally fretful and bad- 
tempered a change for the better is sometimes observed, so that 
the members of the household learn from experience to hail 
with delight the mother's pregnancy as a period when clouds 
and storms give place to sunshine and quietness. In some rare 
cases, also, pregnancy confers increased force and elevation to 
the ideas, and augmented power to the intellect. 

How to Calculate the Time of Birth. — If the precise day on 
which conception took place were known, there would be no 
difficulty in calculating the time that delivery should occur. 
The usual number of days for the duration of pregnancy is two 
hundred eighty (280) days or forty (40) weeks. While this is the 
average, there are undoubtedly cases in which the time is ex- 
ceeded, or fallen short of, by a few days. 

First children are frequently born within less than 280 days; 
and the fact of a woman giving birth to her first child within a 
little less than nine months of her marriage, should not neces- 
sarily fix upon her the charge of unfaithfulness or bring her 
virtue into question. 

Legitimate Birth. — Different countries vary somewhat in 
their laws affecting the legitimacy of children, though in the 
main there is not a wide variation. The usual legal time is 
fixed at nine calendar months, allowing a latitude of a few days 
on either side. France does not call the legitimacy of a child 
into question, who has been born three hundred days after the 
death or absence of the legal parent. According to the laws of 
Scotland, a child is a bastard who is born later than ten calendar 
months after the absence of the legal husband. 

Unusual Cases. — Women about whom there can be no doubt, 
have gone ten months with child, and cases have been reported 
of eleven, and even twelve months; but these are, of course, 
very exceptional, and about which some doubt might be enter- 
tained. On the contrary, there are many well-authenticated 
cases of children born seven months after conception. These 
varying cases have been the cause of much domestic trouble and 
even of divorces. The question of the extreme limit has 
always been an important one, interesting not only the parties 
concerned and the medical man, but bearing also much legal 
significance. 




A HEALTHY MOTHER AND CHILD. 



174 CHILD-BEARING 

Where to Commence to Count. — It is customary among some 
women to count from the middle of the month after the appear- 
ance of the last menstruation; it is the most usual mode with all, 
in fact, but taking into consideration the process of ovulation, 
the time during which the egg ripens and leaves the ovary, it 
would appear that the period most liable to conception, and 
therefore the safest to count from, is that closely following or 
preceding menstruation. It is at those times that the germ 
from the male is most apt to meet with and impregnate the 
female egg. 

If a woman passes over the ninth month, she will probably 
go on to the tenth month before delivery takes place. 

Healthfulness of Maternity.— Thin women become plump 
during pregnancy; symptoms of poor health often disappear at 
this time from the lives of many women. Nature seems to 
gather all her forces to ward off disease, and to guard both 
mother and child through the great process. Nothing can be 
more conducive to the good health of women than occasional child- 
bearing. If the reader does not believe this, let him (or her) 
take a little time to run over in mind the matrons on the one 
hand, and the spinsters and non-child-bearing wives on the 
other, and compare the two classes as to health and vigor. 

No woman of sense enough to follow the instructions of a 
proper treatise on child-bearing, should make a bugaboo of any 
of the various stages of maternity, when all the testimony is so 
overwhelmingly in favor of its healthfulness. 

Premature Births. — The earliest period that a child can be 
brought into the world and live is not fully determined. It is a 
common opinion that a child can not live if born before seven 
months. But it is well known that sixth-month's children and 
less, have lived, grown to maturity, and enjoyed good health. 

The cases where a child lives when born under seven months 
are exceedingly rare; but after that age has been reached the 
chances are, under proper care, much in favor of the child, if 
well developed. 

Miscarriage. — Miscarriage is most frequent in the earlier 
months of gestation. Women who have had miscarriage once, 
are liable to experience the same again at about the same time 
of pregnancy. 

Dangers to Mother.— Wives are too much in the habit of 
making light of miscarriages. They are much more frequently 
followed by disease of the womb than are confinements at full 
term. There is a greater amount of injury done to the parts than 
in natural labor. Menstruation soon returns; conception may 
quickly follow. Unhappily, there is no custom requiring hus- 
band and wife to sleep apart for a month after a miscarriage, 
as there is after a confinement. Hence, especially if there be 
any pre-existing uterine disease, or a predisposition thereto^ 
miscarriage is a serious thing. 



CHILD-BEARING 175 

Causes of Miscarriage.— The irritation of hemorrhoids or 
straining at stool will sometimes provoke an early expulsion of 
a child. Excessive intercourse by the newly married is a very 
frequent cause. Bathing in the ocean has been known to pro- 
duce it. Nursing is exceedingly apt to do so. It has been 
shown by a distinguished medical writer, that, in a given num- 
ber of instances, miscarriage occurred in seventeen per cent, of 
cases in which the woman conceived while nursing, and in only 
ten per cent, where conception occurs at some other time. A 
wife, therefore, who suspects herself to be pregnant, should 
wean her child. 

Over-exertion, over-excitement, a fall, a blow, any violent 
emotion, such as anger, sudden and excessive joy, or fright; 
running, dancing, horseback riding;' riding over rough roads, 
great fatigue, lifting heavy weights, purgative medicines, dis- 
placement of the womb, general ill-health, are all well-known 
causes of miscarriage, in addition to those before mentioned. 

Prevention. — The way to prevent miscarriage is to lead a 
quiet life, particularly during those days of each successive 
month when, under other circumstances, the woman would 
menstruate; and to abstain during those days not only from 
long walks and parties, but also from sexual intercourse. 

It is especially desirable to avoid a miscarriage in the first 
pregnancy, for fear that the habit of miscarrying shall then be 
set up, which it will be very difficult to eradicate. Therefore 
newly-married women should carefully avoid all causes which 
are known to induce the premature expulsion of the child. If 
it should take place in spite of all precautions, extraordinary 
care should be exercised in the subsequent pregnancy, to pre- 
vent its recurrence. 

Interdict sexual intercourse until after the fifth month; for if 
the pregnancy pass beyond this period, the chances of miscar- 
riage will be much diminished. 

If the symptoms of miscarriage, which may be expressed in 
the two words pain and flooding, should make their appearance, 
the doctor ought at once to be sent for, the wife awaiting his 
arrival in a recumbent position. He may even then be able to 
avert the impending danger. At any rate, his services are as 
necessary, and often even more so, as in a labor at full term. 



SECTION TWO— PAINLESS PREGNANCY AND 
CHILD-BIRTH 

General Rules. — Some excellent popular volumes have been 
largely devoted to directions how to secure a comfortable 
period of pregnancy and painless delivery. 

With a little common sense on the part of the woman, all 
may be summed up under the simple heads of: 1. An uncon= 



176 



CHILD-BEARING 



fined and lightly burdened waist. 2. Moderate but persistent 
Dutdoor exercise, of which walking is the best form. 3. A 




" The House We Live In " for nine months : showing the ample room 
provided by Nature when uncontracted by inherited inferiority of form or 
artificial dressing. 




A Contracted Pelvis, Deformity and Insufficient Space. 

plain, unstimu'ating, chiefly fruit and vegetable diet. 4. Little 
or no intercourse during the time. 

These are hygienic rules of benefit under any ordinary con- 
ditions; yet they are violated by almost every pregnant lady. If 



CHILD-BEARING 



// 



hygienic rules are followed, biliousness, indigestion, constipa- 
tion, swollen limbs, morning sickness and nausea, all will absent 
themselves or be much lessened. 

The above is a statement in a "nut-shell" of the whole mat- 
ter of painless child-birth labor; but for emphasis we add some 
definite information. 

Tight Lacing of Mothers.— No tongue can tell, no finite mind 
can conceive, the misery tight lacing has produced, nor the 
number of deaths, directly or indirectly, of young women, bear« 
ing mothers and weakly infants it has occasioned. 




A. 



B. 



The ribs of large carve; the lungs large The ribs bent almost to angles ; the 

oud roomy; the liver, stomach and bow- lungs contracted; the liver, stomach and 

els In their normal position; all with intestines forced down into the pelvis : 

abundant room. crowding the womb seriously. 

Nature versus Corsets, Illustrated. 

If the murderous practice continues another generation, it 
will bury all the middle and upper classes of women and chil- 
dren and leave propagation to the coarse-grained, but healthy, 
lower classes. 

Clothing.— The weight of the skirts should rest entirely on 
the shoulders by means of straps. No weight or tightness 
should be permitted on the hips or around the waist. 

The amount of clothing should be suited to the season, but 
rather increased than diminished, owing to the great suscepti- 
bility of the system to the vicissitudes of the weather. It is 
especially important that flannel drawers should be worn dur» 



178 CHILD-BEARING 

tng advanced pregnancy, as the loose dress favors the admis- 
sion of cold air to the unprotected parts of the body. 

Care of Lower Limbs. — Pressure upon the lower limbs, in the 
neighborhood of the knee or the ankle joint, should be avoided, 
more particularly towards the last months. It is apt to produce 
enlargement and knotting of the veins, swelling and ulcers of the 
legs, by which many women are crippled during their preg- 
nancies, and sometimes through life. Therefore the garters 
should not be tightly drawn, and gaiters should not be too 
closely fitted, while yet they should firmly support the ankle. 

Exercise. — Moderate exercise in the open air is proper and 
conducive to health during the whole period of pregnancy. It 
should never be so active nor so prolonged as to induce fatigue. 
Walking is the best form of exercise. Riding in a badly con- 
structed carriage, or over a rough road, or upon horseback, as 
well as running, dancing, and the lifting or carrying of heavy 
weights, should be scrupulously avoided, as liable to cause rup- 
ture, severe flooding and miscarriage. Journeys are not to be 
taken. Exercise and fresh air are of the greatest importance to 
mother and child. The mother should not force herself to go to 
a certain place nor to walk during a certain time in a day. As 
soon as fatigue is felt, stop walking. 

A tendency to indolence must be overcome. A gentle activ- 
ity is better and beneficial. 

Toward the end of pregnancy the wife should economize her 
forces. She should not remain long standing or kneeling, nor 
sing in either of these postures. 

Bathing 1 . — Those who have not been accustomed to bathing 
should not begin the practice during pregnancy, and in any case 
great care should be exercised during the latter months. It is 
better to preserve cleanliness by sponging with tepid water than 
by entire baths. Foot-baths are always dangerous. Sea-bath- 
ing sometimes causes miscarriage, but sea air and the sponging 
of the body with salt water are beneficial. The shower-bath is 
of course too great a shock to the system, and a very warm bath 
is too relaxing. In some women of a nervous temperament, a 
lukewarm bath taken occasionally at night during pregnancy 
has a calming influence. This is especially the case in the first 
and last month. But women of a lymphatic temperament and 
of a relaxed habit of body are always injured by the bath. 

Ventilation.— Attention should also be directed to keeping 
the atmosphere in the sitting and sleeping rooms of the house 
fresh. This can only be accomplished by constantly changing 
it. The doors and windows of every room, while unoccupied, 
should be kept thrown open in the summer-time, and opened 
sufficiently often in the winter to wash out the apartments sev- 
eral times a day with fresh air. The extremes of heat and cold 
are to be, with equal care, avoided. The house should be kept 
light. Young plants will not grow well in the dark. Neither 



CHILD-BEARING 179 

will the young child nor its mother flourish without sunlight. 
The ancients were so well aware of this, that they constructed 
on the top of each house a solarium, or solar air-bath, where 
they basked daily, in thin attire, in the direct rays of the sun. 

Sleep. — During pregnancy a large amount of sleep is required. 
It has a sedative influence upon the disturbed nervous system of 
the mother. It favors, by the calmness of all the functions 
which attends it, the growth of the fetus. Neither the pursuit 
of pleasure in the evening, nor the observance of any trite max- 
ims in regard to early rising in the morning, should be allowed 
to curtail the hours devoted to sleep. At least eight hours out 
of the twenty-four can well be spent in bed. 

The Mind. — A tranquil mind is of the first importance to the 
pregnant woman. Gloomy forebodings should not be encour- 
aged. Pregnancy and labor are not, we repeat, diseased con- 
ditions. They are healthful processes, and should be looked 
upon as such by every woman. Bad labors are very infrequent 
It is as foolish to dread them as it is for the railway traveler to 
give way to misgivings in regard to his safety. Instead of de^ 
sponding, science bids the woman to look forward with cheerful- 
ness and hope to the joys of maternity. 

Food. — The nourishment taken during pregnancy should be 
abundant, but not, in the early months, larger in quantity than 
usual. Excess in eating or drinking ought to be most carefully 
avoided. The food is to be taken at shorter intervals than is 
common, and it should be plain, simple and nutritious. Fatty 
articles, the coarser vegetables, highly salted and sweet food, 
if found to disagree, as is often the case, should be abstained 
from. The flesh of young animals — as lamb, veal, chicken and 
fresh fish — is wholesome, and generally agrees with the stom- 
ach. Ripe fruits are beneficial. The diet should be varied as 
much as possible from day to day. The craving which some 
women have in the night or early morning may be relieved by a 
biscuit, a little milk, or a cup of coffee. When taken a few 
hours before rising, this will generally be retained, and prove 
very grateful, even though the morning sickness be troublesome. 
Any food or medicine that will confine or derange the bowels is 
to be forbidden. The taste is, as a rule, a safe guide, and it 
may be reasonably indulged. But inordinate, capricious desires 
for improper, noxious articles should, of course, be opposed. 

A Few Don'ts for Pregnant Women.— 1. Don't permit your- 
self to become constipated — nc, not for one day 

2. Don't permit youself to become bilious. Use all your 
hygienic knowledge to keep yourself from becoming so. 

3. Don't force your appetite. Let hunger demand the food. 
t 4. Don't be too sedentary in your habits. Take sufficient 

gentle exercise. 

* Don't overwork or do heavy lifting and the like. 




COMING TO EARTHLY HOME. 



CHILD-BEARING 181 

6. Don't overtax the brain or the nervous system. Live z 
quiet life. 

7. Don't in any way confine the temporary home of the littJ* 
one resting under your heart. 

8. Don't eat indigestible or constipating foods. 

Use of Anaesthetics.— Is it possible to avoid the throes o 
labor, and have children without suffering? Yes. Medical art 
brings the waters of Lethe to the bedside of woman in her hour 
of trial. 

Anaesthetics are now used successfully here as in surger} 
and other painful cases. Their administration is never pushed 
so as to produce complete unconsciousness, unless some opera 
tion is necessary, but merely so as to diminish sensibility anc 
render the pains endurable. These agents are thus given with 
out injury to the child, and without retarding the labor or expos 
ing the mother to any danger. When properly employed, they 
induce refreshing sleep, revive the drooping nervous system 
and expedite the delivery. 

They should never be used in the absence of the doctor. He 
alone is competent to give them with safety. In natural, easy 
and short labor, where the pains are readily borne, they are not 
required. But in those lingering cases in which the suffering it 
extreme, and, above all, in those instances where instruments 
jiave to be employed, ether and chloroform have a value beyond 
all price. 



SECTION THREE— CONFINEMENT 

Where Did the Baby Come From? 

Where did you come from, baby dear? 
Out of the everywhere into here. 

Where did you get the eyes so blue? 
Out of the sky, as I came through. 

Where did you get that little tear? 
I found it waiting when I got here. 

What makes your forehead so smooth and high? 
A soft hand stroked it as I went by. 

What makes your cheek like a warm white rose? 
I saw something better than any knows. 

Whence that three-cornered smile of bliss? 
Three angels gave me at once a kiss. 

Where did you get this pretty ear? 
God spoke, and it came out to hear. 

Where did you get those arms and hands? 
Love made itself into hooks and bands. 



11 



182 CHILD-BEARING 

Feet, whence did you come, you darling things? 
From the same box as the cherub's wings. 

How did they all come just to be you? 
God thought of me y and so I grew. 

But, how did you come to us, you dear? 
God thought about you> and so I am here. 

— George Macdonald. 

Preparation for the Confinement.— Before a lady is con* 
Aned, before labor really commences, everything pertaining to 
the proper arrangement of the lying-in room, everything neces- 
say to the safe and successful conduct of the labor, and every- 
thing essential to the comfort and welfare of both mother and 
shild, should be in complete and perfect readiness. Let no 
patient be dilatory in these matters. Nothing, however seem- 
ingly unimportant it may be, should be put off to the last mo- 
ment. The nurse should be engaged six or eight weeks before- 
hand, and should be a person of good reputation for skill, 
cleanliness and quiet. Some nurses are slovenly and given to 
constant gossip and chatter. The physician should also be 
spoken to. It will be well if the advice of a lady friend of ex- 
perience in the cares of maternity can be had regarding some 
oi the details of preparation. 

Necessary Articles. — The arrangement of the bed and bed- 
slothing, the dress of the patient, and the many small but 
necessary articles that should be on hand and ready for imme- 
diate use, must all receive their due share of attention. Among 
other things that the patient may deem necessary, there should 
be provided a skein of strong thread, a good pair of scissors, 
some pure lard or sweet oil; all things, in fact, necessary to the 
mother or babe, should be placed in such order that they can 
be found without bustle or confusion the moment they are 
wanted. 

The clothing should be perfectly loose, and sufficiently warm 
to permit the patient to get out of bed if necessary to do so. 
The following very suitable garments have been recommended: 
A clean and comfortable night-gown should be put on, and, 
that it may not become soiled, rolled carefully and smoothly 
up about the waist when the lady lies down; over this, a short 
bed-gown reaching to the hips; to meet this a flannel, or, better, 
a plaited cotton petticoat, is next put on; and over the whole 
may be worn a dressing gown until taken to the bed. 

Dressings for the Bed. — There are certain articles of clothing 
and dressings for the bed which should be cared for in advance, 
that they may be ready when required. 

It is of consequence to procure a proper bandage. It should 
be made of heavy muslin, neither too coarse nor too fine; an 
ordinarily good quality ©f unbleached muslin is the best. The 
material is to be cut bias, about one and a quarter yards long. 



CHILD-BEARING 183 

The Bed. — In the preparation of the bed, a rubber, oil or 
waterproof cloth is necessary. The bed should be made as 
usual, except that a sheet folded several times ought to be 
placed beneath the lower sheet. On the top of the lower sheet 
should be placed the rubber or oil cloth, and on top of this again 
another folded sheet. By this arrangement the necessity of 
making up the bed after the birth of the child is obviated, as the 
soiled clothes can all be removed without disturbing the bed 
and mother. 

A bed used for this purpose should always have a good, firm, 
smooth mattress, not feathers. 

Other Preparations.— As soon as it is evident that labor has 
begun, warm water should be in readiness. 

The lying-in chamber should be kept comfortable, quiet and 
well ventilated. 

Persons Present. — No more people should be allowed in the 
room than the nature of the case absolutely requires. 

Should the husband be present? Yes, if the wife says so; 
she, in all probability, wants and needs his sympathy and en- 
couragement. 

The only other necessary attendants are the doctor and the 
nurse. Possibly some close, intimate lady friend might be help- 
ful with her sympathy and encouragement. But we insist that 
all present be cool-headed; it is no place for nervous people. 

Position Chosen. — The position chosen during delivery may 
be on the back, though some women prefer to lie on their side. 
with a pillow between the knees; some would rather stand; while 
others desire to place themselves on their knees during a part 
of the time. On the left side is undoubtedly the most conve- 
nient, though it may be changed frequently with advantage 
under different circumstances. 

Food During Labor.— Solid food should be avoided, and 
nothing in shape of nourishment taken but a little milk, broth 
or soup. Even these are not desired, usually, unless the labor 
is protracted and the system weakened. 

Spirituous or malt liquors, and stimulating drinks of any 
kind, are best let alone at this time, from the danger of their 
producing congestion or inflammation. A little wine may some- 
times be needed in cases of great exhaustion, but if stimulants 
are required during labor, great caution and discrimination 
must be exercised in their administration. 

Simple cold water is as refreshing as need.be, but if lemon- 
ade, tea, toast or barley water are preferred., they may be given 
without fear of evil consequences.^ A very good beverage during 
labor is a cup of warm tea; this will be found grateful and 
refreshing. 

As for solid food, it is not only improper at this time, but the 
patient will usually have no appetite for it. and the stomach will 
refuse it. 



184 CHILD-BEARING 

Avoid Constipation. — To see that there is now no constipa- 
tion, no accumulation within the rectum, is a matter of such 
consequence to the patient that it should under no circumstances 
be neglected. A free evacuation of the bowels will, by giving 
the neighboring parts more room, very much expedite the 
progress of labor and abridge the pain. 

When the first premonitory symptoms of the approaching 
labor are noticed, a little castor oil, one or two teaspoonfuls, 
according to the quantity required, may at once be taken if the 
bowels have been at all costive. If the patient object to oil, an 
injection should be prescribed instead. A pint of warm water 
thrown into the rectum will soon have the desired effect. The 
bladder, which, when distended, encroaches upon and crowds 
the adjoining parts, should be often emptied during the progress 
of labor; by so doing the patient will have more ease and com- 
fort, and her case will be much expedited. 

Articles for the Little Stranger. — A package of large pins, 
one and a half inches in length, for the bandage of the mother, 
and smaller ones for that of the child; some good linen bobbin for 
the doctor to tie the naval-string; good toilet soap and fine sur- 
gical sponge for washing the child; a piece of linen or muslin for 
dressing the naval; a box of unirritating powder, and a pile of 
towels — should all be had and laid aside many weeks before 
they are wanted. 

These together with the materials for dressing the bed, the 
child's clothing, and the mother's bandage, ought to be placed 
together in a basket got for the purpose, in order that they may 
all be easily and certainly found at the time when perhaps the 
hurry and excitement of the moment would render it difficult 
otherwise to collect them all immediately. 

Signs of Approaching- Labor.— One of the earliest of the 
preliminary signs of the coming on of confinement occurs about 
two weeks before that event. It is a dropping or subsidence of 
the womb. The summit of that organ then descends, in most 
cases, from above to below the umbilicus, and the abdomen 
becomes smaller. The stomach and lungs are relieved from 
pressure, the woman breathes more freely, the sense of oppres- 
sion which troubled her before is lost, and she says she feels 
comfortable. This feeling of lightness increases, and a few days 
before the labor she feels so much better that she thinks she 
will take an extra amount of exercise. 

A second sign of labor is found in the increased fullness of 
the external parts, and more mucous secretions. This symptom 
is a good one. 

Symptoms of Actual Labor.— The first symptom of actual 
labor is generally the discharge of the plug of mucus which has 
occupied the neck of the womb up to this time; this is usually 
accompanied by a little blood. 

Perhaps before this, or it may be some hours after, the pains 
will develop themselves. These recur periodically, at intervals 




MOTHER AND CHILD. 



185 CHILD-BEARING 

of an hour or half an hour at the outset, and are "grinding" in 
character. True labor pains are distinguished from false by the 
fact that they are felt in the back, passing on to the thighs, 
while false pains are referred to the abdomen; by their inter- 
mittent character, and by the steady increase in their frequency 
and severity. In case of doubt as to their exact nature, the 
doctor should be summoned, who will be able to determine 
positively whether or not labor has begun. 

Cause of Labor Pains. — The contractions of the womb cause 
the pains. This organ is assisted by the abdominal muscles and 
the diaphragm. It is the effort of nature to expel the child. 

Labor Pains. — Up to this time the pains have been of a 
"grinding" character, and the intervals have been long, usually 
from a half hour to two hours; but soon — the length of time is 
uncertain — they alter, and become "bearing down;" they are 
now more frequent and regular, and the skin becomes hotter and 
bathed in perspiration. 

True labor pains intermit with periods of almost perfect easef 
they are also situated in the womb or adjacent parts, especially 
in the back and loins. They come on at regular intervals, rise 
gradually to a certain pitch of intensity, and then gradually 
subside. They are not sharp and abrupt; but are deep, dull and 
heavy. When they assume the "bearing down" character, the 
physician's presence becomes very necessary; if the "waters 
break" before this he should have been summoned at once, even 
if there were no true pains, as it is essential that he know the 
exact "presentation" of the child, and whether the umbilical 
cord or either of the child's arms has descended. 

Three Stages of Labor Pains.— A natural labor is usually 
divided into three stages, and in order that it may be better 
understood, we will explain that the premonitory or first stage 
comprises the subsidence (dropping) of the womb and the coming 
away of the blood-tinged mucus from the vagina, sometimes 
called the "show." This is in reality the discharge from the 
mouth of the womb of the plug, which has up to this time her- 
metically sealed that organ during gestation. The second stage 
is known by the "grinding" nature of the pains. The mouth of 
the womb at this time gradually dilates, and the pains become 
more frequent; at about this juncture, usually, the "bag of 
waters" breaks, or the liquor amnii (liquid contents of the 
amnion, in which the child has been immersed) escapes. As the 
pains alter in character to true labor pains, and become "bear- 
ing down," the third stage is indicated, in which nature is mak- 
ing her best efforts to expel the child. 

"Bearing Down."— The mother must not strain or bear down 
either in the first or second stage, for the womb is not then in a 
condition to expel its contents; any efforts on her part will avail 
nothing at this time, and will exhaust her strength, which she 
may greatly need further on. • Thus assisting the birth of the 



CHILD-BEARING 



187 



child should not be attempted until the last stage, when the 
bearing-down pains will indicate to her the time that a little 
aid on her part may be of service. 

Remember, also, that it does no good to attempt aid between 
intervals of pain. Help nature when it works; rest when nature 
rests. Do not attempt to help nature too much. There is some 
danger of rupture. The doctor ought to know how much help 
he should give. 

Nature and Art. — Some contend that nature should be left 
quite alone, as she is perfectly able to bring a child into the 




THE FIRST-BORN. 



world without human assistance. While we have no use for an 
over-meddlesome attendant, and believe that too much interfer- 
ence is harmful, there are few even natural labors in which a 
good physician may not render most important service to both 
mother and child. A physician who merely presents himself at 
the bedside when the child is born, and barely waits for the 
expulsion of the after-birth to take his departure, will hardly 
be called upon again to officiate in a like capacity in the same 
family. 



188 CHILD-BEARING 

It is true that in most cases of natural labor not much assist- 
ance is needed; but, in case there should be, the doctor ought 
by all means to be there to render it. His judgment alone must 
be depended upon as to the amount of aid required; and what- 
ever interference there should be in the progress of the case 
must be suggested by his judgment alone, and by the knowledge 
he possesses of the matter in hand. 

At Birth. — As soon as the head is born, it should be immedi- 
ately ascertained whether the neck is encircled by the cord. If 
so, it should be removed or loosened. 

The neglect of this precaution may result fatally to the 
infant. 

It is also of importance at once to allow the entrance of air to 
the face, to put the finger in the mouth to remove any obstruc- 
tion which may interfere with inspiration; also lay the babe on 
its right side, with the head removed from the discharges. 

The Navel Cord should not be tied until the infant is heard to 
cry or begins to breathe. 

The ligature is to be applied in the following manner: Tie 
the cord in two places, first ascertaining that a loop of the child's 
intestines does not protrude into the cord, as great harm may 
be done. The first place tied should be about two inches from 
the navel; the second, four inches from the navel of the child. 
Midway between these two ligatures cut the cord. Do this 
with great care. The thread should be strong, and wrapped 
several times around the cord rather tightly, and tied in a good 
hard knot. 

The cord must not be tied and cut until the artery in it 
ceases to pulsate. But it will, however, cease to pulsate soon 
after the child begins to breathe. 



SECTION FOUR— MOTHER AND CHILD 

Attention to the Child.— When the child is separated from 
the mother, a warm blanket or piece of flannel should be ready 
to receive it. In taking hold of the little stranger it may slip 
out of the hands and be injured. To guard against this acci- 
dent, which is very apt to occur with awkward or inexperienced 
persons, always seize the back portion of the neck in the space 
bounded by the thulmb and first finger of one hand, and grasp 
the thighs with the other. In this way it may be safely carried. 
It shouid be transferred, wrapped up in its blanket, to some 
secure place, and never put in an arm-chair, where it may be 
crushed by some one who does not observe that the chair is 
already occupied. The head of the child should not be so cov- 
ered as to incur any danger of suffocation. 

Attention to the Mother.— When the after-birth has come 
away, the mother should be drawn up a short distance — six or 



CHILD-BEARING 



189 



eight inches — in bed, and the sheet which has been pinned 
around her, together with the temporary dressing of the bed, 
removed, a clean folded sheet being introduced under the hips. 
The parts should be gently washed with warm water and a soft 
sponge or a cloth. 

The anointing of the external and internal parts with goose- 
grease is soothing and efficient in speedily allaying all irrita- 
tion. This ought all to be done under cover, to guard against 
the taking of cold. The chemise pinned up around the breast 
should now be loosened, and the woman is ready for the appli- 
cation of the bandage, which is to be put on next to the skin. 
This will prove very grateful to the mother. 

In order to apply the bandage, one-half of its length should 
be folded up into plaits, and the mother should lie on her left 




A THRIVING LITTLE FELLOW. 



side; lay the plaited end of the bandage underneath the left side 
of the patient, carrying it as far under as possible, and draw 
the loose end over the abdomen; then let the mother roll over on 
her back upon the bandage, and draw out the plaited end. The 
bandage should be first tightened in the middle by a pin. Pins 
should be placed at intervals of about one inch. The lower 
portion of the bandage should be made quite tight, to prevent it 
from slipping up. 

The mother is now ready to be drawn upon the permanent 
dressing of the bed. This should be done without any exertion 
on her part. A napkin should be laid smoothly under the hips 
— never folded up — to receive the discharges. 

The Doctor's Presence.— If the doctor be present, some of 
the minute instructions herein given are unnecessary, as it is his 



190 CHILD-BEARING 

place to see to many of the things mentioned, as the care and 
cutting of the navel cord and the like. But the prospective 
mother, the nurse and other attendants should make a thor- 
ough study of all the particulars in order to be ready for any 
and all emergencies The doctor is not always present just at 
the time when needed. 

Bathing the Child. — The child may now be washed and 
dressed. Before beginning, everything that is wanted should 
be close at hand, namely, a basin of warm water, a large quantity 
of lard or some other oily material, soap of the finest quality, a 
fine sponge and a basket containing the binder, shirt and other 
articles of clothing. 

What to Do.— First rub the child's body thoroughly with 
lard. The covering can only be removed in this way; the use of 
soap alone will nave no effect unless the friction be so great as 
to take off also the skin. The nurse should take a handful of 
lard and rub it in with the palm of the hand, particularly in the 
flexures of the joints. In anointing one part, the others should 
be covered, to prevent the child from taking cold. 

If the child is thus made perfectly clean, do not use any 
soap and water, because the skin is left in a more healthful 
condition by the fard, and there is risk of the child's taking cold 
from the evaporation of the water. But the face may be washed 
with soap and water, great care being taken not to let the soap 
get into the child's eyes, which is one of the most frequent 
causes of sore eyes in infants. 

Dressing the Navel. — The navel-string is now to be dressed, 
This is done by wrapping it up in a circular piece of soft mus 
lin, well oiled, with a hole in its center. The bandage is next to 
be applied. The object of its use is to protect the child's abdo= 
men against cold, and to keep the dressing of the cord in its 
position. It should be pinned in front, three pins being general- 
ly sufficient. The rest of the clothing before enumerated is 
then put on. 

Cursing. — The child is now to be applied to the breast at once* 
This is to be done, for three reasons. First, it very often pre- 
vents flooding, which is apt otherwise to occur. Secondly, it 
tends to prevent milk fever, by averting the violent rush of the 
milk on the third day, and the consequent engorgement of the 
breast and constitutional disturbance. The third reason is, 
that there is always a secretion in the breast from the first, 
which it is desirable for the child to have; for it acts as a ca- 
thartic, stimulating the liver, and cleansing the bowels from the 
secretions which fill them at the time of birth. 

Manipulating the Breast.— There is generally sufficient nour- 
ishment in the breasts for the child for the first few days. The 
mother may lie on the one side or the ofeher, and receive the 
child upon the arm of that upon which she is lying. If the 



CHILD-BEARING 191 

nipple be not perfectly drawn out so that the child can grasp it 
in its mouth, the difficulty may be overcome by filling a porter- 
bottle with hot water, emptying it, and then placing the mouth 
of the bottle immediately over the nipple. This will cause, as 
the bottle cools, a sufficient amount of suction to elevate the 
sunken nipple. The bottle should then be removed and the 
child substituted — a little sugar and water or sweetened milk 
being applied, if necessary, to tempt the child to take the breast. 

Diet of the New Mother. — It is necessary to exercise peculiar 
care as regards the diet at this period. Bread and milk, bread 
and butter, arrowroot and milk, dry toast and milk, milk toast, 
gruel, light puddings, roasted apples, broths, beef tea, tea and 
lemonade, should constitute the chief articles of diet. But 
little solid food, and nothing stimulating, ought to be taken, at 
least for a few days. The diet can be gradually improved, so 
that at the end of about the fourth day the usual diet may be 
returned to, providing it is plain, wholesome and nourishing. 
Of course it is folly to attempt the restriction of all cases to one 
class of food, as many women are in a prime condition, bar- 
ring a little weakness, after their confinement; while others, 
after a hard and lingering labor, are exceedingly weak. Com- 
mon sense should be the guide in these cases, the same as in all 
others, and if a lady is very weak she should have chicken 
broth, good strong beef tea, mutton chops, game, eggs, etc., from 
the very commencement. 

No Stimulating Drinks.— The doctor should certainly be 
consulted when there is unusual weakness, and debility; and 
only on his advice should stimulating drinks be given in these 
particular cases. The best beverages for the first week, in the 
majority of cases, are milk, barley water, toast and water, 
gum arabic water, and, in some instances, cool lemonade. 

The After-Pains. — The "after-pains" of labor, those which 
come on after the placenta has been expelled, are due to the 
efforts of the womb to discharge the remaining coagulated blood. 
Most women experience them, and they are very much like the 
true labor pains. They are generally felt but a few hours after 
labor, though sometimes mucn longer; but as a rule they are 
seldom, if ever, experienced in first labors. They may be miti- 
gated, though not prevented, either by the application of a hot 
poultice over the abdomen or cloths wrung out of hot water and 
applied in the same manner. _ An injection into the rectum or 
vagina of thin starch, to which has been added about twenty 
drops of laudanum, will frequently give great relief. Gum cam- 
phor taken in capsules, in doses of two or three grains, and 
repeated every two or three hours, will be found of value. 

How to Check Flooding.— Flooding, or uterine hemorrhage, 
which may come on during pregnancy or labor, requires the serv- 
ices of a physician ; but to those who may be placed in an emer- 
gency, when the doctor is not at hand, a few simple directions 



192 CHILD-BEARING 

may be of value. The flooding of labor is always troublesome 
and demands instant attention, as it is sometimes fatal, unless 
quickly checked. 

The chief causes are laceration of the womb, a rupture of 
one or more of its blood-vessels, or a too early or violent separa- 
tion of the after-birtb. In many cases it is preceded by a sensa- 
tion of heat and weight in the pelvis, pains in the back and 
thighs, headache, dizziness and flushed face. In some in- 
stances, however, flooding comes on suddenly and without any 
warning whatever. 

Among the Chief Remedies to be relied upon there are two 
which are always within reach and easy to be applied; they are 
pressure and cold. The womb should be grasped and held by 
the hand on the outside of the abdomen. It can be felt, like a 
hard, round ball, when it is properly contracted; and when it is 
not thus felt there is always danger of hemorrhage; non-contrac- 
tion of the womb is verv liable to be followed by flooding. By 
firmly grasping the middle of the abdomen, below the navel, at the 
same time pressing downward a7id backward, the womb may be 
made to contract; and this is what is greatly to be desired. At 
the same time that the womb is compressed, cold should be vig- 
orously applied, which also aids in the contraction. 

A large napkin or towel may be dipped in ice water and 
dashed suddenly on the external parts, the thighs and lower part 
of the abdomen, until the womb contracts and the violence of 
the hemorrhage is controlled. 

In addition to these measures, stimulants are sometimes 
administered; ergot is also usually of great value. Hot water, 
as hot as it can be borne, instead of cold water, is advised by 
some physicians to be injected into the vagina in large quanti- 
ties. It is claimed for this remedy that it is entirely free from 
danger and very efficacious. 

Restraint During Nursing.— During lactation (the period of 
secretion of milk and nursing the infant), few women experience 
much desire for marital congress, and it is therefore a season 
calling for great forbearance on the part of the man. Her vital 
forces seem to be concentrated in the direction of furnishing 
nourishment to her babe; nature usually suspends the processes 
of ovulation for the time and makes the wife sterile, which are 
plain indications that this is a condition intended by nature. It 
is quite certain that the less intercourse during this whole 
period, the better for both mother and child. 

Advantages of Early Nursing. — As a rule, the baby should 
go to its mother's breast, if there is nothing special to prevent, 
as soon as she has secured a little repose from the fatigue and 
excitement of labor. Reluctance on the part of mothers to 
nurse their children is little short of criminal in its cruelty. 

Bottle-fed infants have but a greatly diminished chance of 
life, compared with those nourished at the breast. It is also a 
^ast deal less trouble to feed a baby at Nature's fount than to 



CHILD-BEARING 



193 



several times a day and night go through all the trouble of pro- 
curing and preparing artificial food of even the simplest kind. 

Sore Nipples.— Inflammation of the breast before secretion 
of milk is rare; after, it is frequent. The slightest unusual full- 
ness or knottiness discovered after the infant has been suckling 
should receive immediate attention. 




WRITING TO PAPA. 

Symptoms. — The first symptom is a hardness or knottiness in 
some part of the organ, which often enlarges before causing 
pain or uneasiness. Next, increasing pain is felt during suck- 
iing. The skin becomes red, tense and shiny, while more or 
less of the breast feels inelastic, firm, prominent and heavy. 
The pain becomes severe. 

Treatment. — Great care should be given to the nipple. If it 



194 CHILD-BEARING 

is imperfect, precautions should be taken to prevent the breast 
itself from becoming involved. If the infant can not draw off 
the milk, some other means will have to be used. If abrasions, 
ulcers, cracks or chaps are visible, some soothing preparation 
must be applied. The following lotion is excellent: Borax, one 
drachm; glycerine, one-half ounce; rose-water, seven and one- 
half ounces. Or, a jelly made of gum tragacanth, two to four 
drachms; lime-water, four ounces; rose-water, three ounces; 
glycerine, one ounce. If there is much secretion from the glands 
on the nipple, after washing it, a dry powder of starch, or of 
oxide of zinc, or carbonate of magnesia, will be useful. 

Child-Bed Fever.— Child-bed fever, briefly described, is a 
severe and sudden inflammation, usually commencing in the 
womb, extending to all the adjacent organs of both the pelvic 
and abdominal cavities, and hastening with great rapidity, if 
unchecked, to a fatal termination. It usually makes its ap- 
pearance from the second to the fifth day after delivery, though 
in rare instances it has been known to commence as early as a 
few hours, and in other cases as late as two or three weeks, 
after. When it occurs, at once send for the doctor. 

Getting Up Too Soon. — A too early return to the ordinary 
active duties of life retards or checks restoration to normal 
size, and, the womb being heavier, exposes the woman to great 
danger of uterine displacements. Nor are these the only risks 
incurred by a too hasty renewal of active movements. The 
surface, the substance, and the lining membrane of the womb 
are all very liable, wbile this change from its increased to its 
ordinary bulk is occurring, to take on inflammation after slight 
exposure. The worst cases of uterine inflammation and ulcera- 
tion are thus caused. 

Be Cautious. — A "bad getting-up," prolonged debility, pain 
and excessive discharge are among the least penalties conse- 
quent upon imprudence after confinement. It is a mistake to 
suppose that hard-working women in the lower walks of life 
attend with impunity to their ordinary duties a few days after 
confinement. Those who suffer most from falling of the womb 
and other displacements are the poor, who are obliged to get up 
on the ninth day and remain upright, standing or walking for 
many hours with an over-weighted womb. If this be true of 
vigorous women accustomed to a hardy life, how much more apt 
to suffer from this cause are the delicately nurtured, whose sys- 
tems are already, perhaps, deteriorated and little able to resist 
any deleterious influences! 

A mother should remain in bed for at least two weeks after 
the birth of the child, and should not return to her household 
duties under a month; she should also take great pains to pro- 
tect herself from cold, so as to escape the rheumatic affections 
to which at this time she is particularly subject. 

Rules for Ifursing.— The new-born child should be nursed 



CHILD-BEARING 195 

about every second hour during the day, and not mo* e than 
once or twice at night. Too much ardor may be displayed by 
the young mother in the performance of her duties. Not know- 
ing the fact that an infant quite as frequenty cries from being 
overfed as from want of nourishment, she is apt to give it the 
breast at every cry, day and night. In this manner her health 
is broken down, and she is compelled perhaps to wean her child, 
which, with more prudence and knowledge, she might have 
continued to nurse without detriment to herself. 

Nursing at Night. — It is particularly important that the child 
shall acquire the habit of not requiring the breast more than 
once or twice at night: This, with a little perseverance, can 
readily be accomplished, so that the hours for rest at night, so 
much needed by the mother, may not be interfered with. In- 
deed, if the mother does not enjoy good health, it is better for 
her not to nurse at all at night, but to have the child fed once 
or twice with a little cow's milk. 

Influence of Pregnancy on the Milk.— Menstruation is ordi- 
narily absent, and pregnancy therefore impossible, during the 
whole course of nursing, at least during the first nine months. 
Sometimes, however, mothers become unwell at the expiration 
of the sixth or seventh month; in rare instances, within the first 
five or six weeks after confinement. When the monthly sick- 
ness makes its appearance without any constitutional or local 
disturbance, it is not apt to interfere with the welfare of the 
infant. When, on the contrary, the discharge is profuse, and 
attended with much pain, it may produce colic, vomiting and 
diarrhoea in the nursling. The disturbance in the system of the 
child ordinarily resulting from pregnancy in the mother is such 
that, as a rule, it should be at once weaned so soon as it is cer* 
tain that pregnancy exists. The only exceptions to this rule are 
those cases in the city, during the hot months, in which it is 
impossible either to procure a wet-nurse or to take the child to 
the country to be weaned. In cold weather an infant should 
certainly be weaned, if it has attained its fifth or sixth month, 
and the mother has become pregnant. 

Influence of Emotions on the Milk.— It is well established $ 
that mental emotions are capable of changing the quantity and 
quality of the milk, and of thus rendering it hurtful, and even 
dangerous, to the infant. 

The secretion of milk may be e7itirely stopped by the action of 
the nervous system. Fear, excited on account of the child 
which is sick or exposed to accident, will check the flow of milk, 
which will not return until the little one is restored in safety to 
the mother's arms. Apprehension felt in regard to a drunken 
husband has been known to arrest the supply of this fluid. 

On the other hand, the secretion is often augmented, as every 
mother knows, by the sight of the child, nay, even by the thought 
of him, causing a sudden rush of blood to the breast known to 
nurses as the draught. Indeed, a strong desire to furnish milk, 



196 CHILD-BEARING 

together with the application of the child to the breast, has been 
effectual in bringing about its secretion in young girls, old 
women and even men. 

Those passions which are generally sources of pleasure, and 
which when moderately indulged are conducive to health, will, 
when carried to excess, alter, and even entirely check, the secre- 
tion of milk. 

Evil Effects of Excitement.— But the fact which it is most 
important to know is, that nervous agitation may so alter the 
quality of the milk as to make it poisonous. A fretful temper, fits 
of anger, grief, anxiety of mind, fear and sudden terror not 
only lessen the quantity of the milk, but render it thin and 
unhealthful, inducing disturbances of the child's bowels, diar- 
rhoea, griping and fever. Many instances of death to the child 
are given, caused by nursing the child while the mother was in 
great excitement or fear. 



CHAPTER XI 
THE FAMILY 



SECTION ONE— LIMITATION OF OFFSPRING 

Object of Marriage. — The only natural object of marriage is 
to have and to rear a family of children. How many children is 
it our duty to have? The father feels his abilities to educate and 
provide for children is limited. The mother, who travails in sor- 
row, and on whom the immediate care of them devolves, looks 
often with more dread than pleasure to another addition to her 
flock. Her health may be giving way and her spirits flagging. 

Is it possible and is it right to limit offspring? Nature ha9 
made provisions for the limitation of offspring; it also warns us 
of the danger of too rapid child-bearing by yielding feeble, im- 
perfect and deformed children, and by wrecking the health of 
the mother. 

Natural Safeguards. — The safeguard which nature has thrown 
out against over-production is by constituting certain periods of 
woman's life seasons of sterility. Before the age of nubility, dur- 
ing pregnancy and after the change of life they are always bar- 
ren. During nursing most women are so, but not all. Some even 
continue their monthly change at this time. There is no abso- 
lute certainty that a woman will not conceive then, though the 
probability is against it. 

A so-called agenetic or sterile period exists between each 
monthly change, during the continuance of which it is not possi- 
ble for the female to conceive. This branch of our subject has 
attracted much attention of late years, from its practical charac- 
ter, but the conclusions reached have so far not been as satis- 
factory as we could wish. 

Intercourse is more liable to be followed by pregnancy 
when it occurs about the menstrual epoch than at other times. 
The exact length of time, however, preceding and following the 
menses during which impregnation is still possible has been 
ascertained. The spermatic fluid, on the one hand, retains its 
vitality for an unknown period after coition, and the egg for an 
unknown period after its discharge. The precise extent of the 
limit of these occurrences is still uncertain, and is probably more 
or less variable in different individuals. 

Those, therefore, who would take advantage of this natural 
law can do no better than confining themselves to a few days in- 
tervening about midway between the monthly epochs. It is 

12 197 




A HAPPY MOTHER. 



THE FAMILY 199 

proper and right under some circumstances for married people 
to avail themselves of these provisions of our economy. 

When Should Offspring he Limited? — When the wife is dis- 
tinctly suffering from over-much child-bearing; when the chil- 
dren are coming so rapidly that they interfere with each other's 
nutrition; when a destructive hereditary disease has broken out 
after marriage; and when the wife can not bear children without 
serious danger to her life. 

Those who coincide with us here may urge the objection, and 
it is a partially valid one, that the observation of these natural 
periods of sterility does not answer the end in view; that they are 
uncertain and inadequate. They are so to some degree, but we 
believe them to be much more reliable than they are generally 
supposed. 

Another Remedy. — The next refuge is to renounce entirely 
the conjugal privilege. This is a perfectly allowable and proper 
course, if it be with mutual consent. The objection nowadays 
urged against it is that it is too severe a prescription, and conse- 
quently valueless. This ought not to be. A man who loves his 
wife should, in order to save that wife overwork, and misery, and 
danger of death, and wretchedly constituted children, be able 
and willing to undergo as much self-denial as every one of his 
continent bachelor acquaintances does, not out of high devotion, 
but for motives of economy, or indifference, or love of liberty 
The man who can not do this, or does not care to do it, does not 
certainly deserve a very high position. 

But while all this is granted, the question is still constantly 
put: Is this all? Is there no means by which we can limit our 
families without either injuring the health, or undergoing a self « 
martyrdom which not one man in a thousand will submit to? 

Many Methods. — Yes, there are many methods, but we warn 
against them all. Most of the artificial means proposed for this 
purpose can not be used constantly without either failing to 
accomplish their purpose, or sowing the seeds of disease Many 
of them are in the highest degree injurious and reprenensible, 
and are certain to destroy health. 

All Under Condemnation. — The habit of uncompleted inter- 
course which many adopt must be disapproved on the same 
grounds. It does violence to nature, and is liable to bring about 
premature loss of virility, and serious injury to the nervous 
system. 

It is a doubtful question whether any of the appliances of art 
recommended for this purpose, even if they are innocent in re- 
gard to health, are morally to be approved. Whether under 
some rare and exceptionable circumstances, as when women 
conceive during nursing, or are incapable of bearing children 
with safety to life, such means are permissible or not, must be 
left for the medical attendant to determine, and he alone must 
bear the responsibility of affirming or refusing to affirm the prac« 



200 



THE FAMILY 



tice. But in the majority of marriages, where the avoidance of 
children is sought merely to save expense or trouble, or to give 
greater room for freedom and selfish pleasure, the resort to such 
means must be unequivocally condemned. 




THE SUNSHINE OF THE HOME. 



Too Small Families.— It has become the fashion for parent9 
to be leading round a solitary, lonely child, or possibly two, it 
being well understood, talked about, and boasted of, that they 
are to have no more. The means to prevent it are well under- 



THE FAMILY 201 

stood instrumentalities shamelessly sold and bought, and it is a 
glory that tney are to have no more children. 

Conditions in France. — A prominent French physician in one 
of the provincial towns of that country, draws a striking picture 
of the demoralization it has brought about. He shows how the 
bonds of public morality have been loosened, the sacred institu- 
tion of marriage converted into legal prostitution, woman sunk in 
respect, man yielding to unnatural debauches, losing his better 
impulses to plunge into sensuality, diseases and debility gaining 
ground, the number of births constantly decreasing, and the 
nation itself incurring the danger of falling a prey to its rivals 
through a want of effective soldiers. The picture is a gloomy 
one, and is probably but little overdrawn. 

Conditions in America.— If it is true that the native American 
population is actually dying out, and that year by year the births 
from couples born in this country are less in proportion than 
those from couples one or both of whom are of European birth, 
as many have asserted, then we must seek the explanation of 
this startling fact either in a premature decay of virility, or a 
naturally diminished virility in middle life in the husbands, or 
to an increased tendency to sterility in the wives, or else we 
must suppose there is a deliberate and wide- spread agreement 
between those who are in the bonds of matrimony, that American 
women sfee.ll be childless, or the next thing to it. 

Will We Open Our Minds to Honest Conviction ?— We know 
that, in making the foregoing statements, we must of necessity 
run against the prejudices of many. Very few people are willing 
to listen to a dispassionate discussion of the propriety or the im- 
propriety of limiting within certain bounds the number of chil- 
dren in a family. 

On the one side are many worthy physicians and pious clergy- 
men, who, without listening to any arguments, condemn every 
effort to avoid large families. 

On the other side are numberless wives and husbands who 
turn a deaf ear to the warnings of doctors and the thunders of 
the divines, and, eager to escape responsibility they have as- 
sumed, hesitate not to resort to the most dangerous and immoral 
means to accomplish this end. 

Let both parties lay aside prejudice and prepossessions, and 
examine with us this most important social question in all its 
bearings. 

Too Many Children. — Two-thirds of all cases of womb 
diseases are traceable to child-bearing in feeble women. 

Every farmer is aware of the necessity of limiting the off- 
spring of domestic animals. How much more severe are the 
injuries inflicted on the delicate organization of woman! 

Puny, Sickly, Short-lived Children.— The evils of a too rapid 
succession of pregnancies are likewise conspicuous in the chil- 
dren. There is no more frequent cause of rickets than this : 



202 



THE FAMILY 



Puny, sickly, short-lived offspring follows over-production. They 
come to overburden a mother already overwhelmed with progeny. 
They can not receive at her hands the attention they require. 
Weakly herself, she brings forth weakly infants. Thus are the 
accumulated evils of an excessive family manifest. 

Another Reason. — There are also women to whom pregnancy 




a mother's love. 



is a nine-months' torture, and others to whom it is nearly certain 
to prove fatal. Such a condition can not be discovered before 
marriage, and therefore can not be provided against by a 
single life. Can such women be asked to immolate themselves? 



THE FAMILY 203 

Hereditary Hindrances. — Apart from these considerations, 
there are certain social relations which have been thought by 
some to advise small families. When either parent suffers from 
a disease which is transmissible, and wishes to avoid inflicting 
misery on an unborn generation, it has been urged that they 
should avoid children Such diseases not infrequently manifest 
themselves after marriage, which is answer enough to the 
objection that if they did not wish children they should not 
marry. 

John Stuart Mill says : "Little improvement can be expected 
in morality until the producing too large families is regarded 
with the same feeling as drunkenness, or any other physical 
excess." 

Conflict of Opinions. — One says that the wish to limit 
offspring arises most frequently from an inordinate desire for 
indulgence. 

Others affirm most positively that more frequently the wish 
springs from love of children. The parents seek to avoid having 
more than they can properly nurture and educate. They do 
not wish to leave their sons and daughters in want. This second 
motive, though not the highest, is more common than is usually 
supposed. 

But in most cases this over-anxiety for the welfare of the 
children works evil, for there should never be less than two 
children in a family, perhaps not less than four, if it be possible 
properly to have them. An intimate friend of the writer ex- 
pressed his regrets that he had but one child in his family. She 
is a lovely daughter, but the father thinks it would have been 
better for his daughter, as well as for the parents, to have had 
more children. 

An Excuse for Self-Indnlgence. — Many men, in trying to 
find an excuse for self-indulgence, seek it in religion. They 
insist that the wife should bear all the children possible; that 
the Bible teaches it; that it is wicked to place any obstruction in 
the way of bearing children; that "God sends all the children 
in a family, few or many, in rapid succession or far apart, 
strong or weak, bright or stupid, good or bad, and pre-ordains 
their lives." 

Suppose the stock-raiser should follow the same plan? It is 
too absurd for serious consideration. 

A Wife's Rights. — If a woman has a right to decide any 
question, it certainly is as to how many children she shall bear. 
Wives have a right to demand of their husbands at least the 
same consideration which a breeder extends to his stock. 

Whenever it becomes unwise that the family should be 
increased, justice and humanity require that the husband should 
impose on himself the same restraint that is submitted to by the 
unmarried. 

In short, the generative impulses of man should be placed 
absolutely under the sway of right reason, chastity, forecast and 
justice. 



204 



THE FAMILY 



A Wife's Duty. — There are women who require no limitation 
whatever. They can bear healthy children with rapidity, and 
suffer no ill results. There are others — and they are the 
majority — who should use temperance in this as in every other 
function; and there are a few who should bear no children at all. 
It is absurd for physicians or theologians to insist that it is 
either the physical or moral duty of the female to have as many 
children as she possibly can. 

"Race Suicide" is a common expression in our day. It arises 
from the conditions as indicated in the preceding pages. The 
birth-rate is so low among the native Americans that it is feared 




NO HOME COMPLETE WITHOUT THEM. 



by some that the native American stock will ultimately dis« 
appear. An appeal to patriotism has been made in this matter. 

Not only patriotism, but religion — our duty to God and man — 
also makes its appeal for larger f amilies. 

It is quite clear that patriotism, our duty to God and the 
race, as well as the happiness of the family relation, demand 
larger families where both parents are physically, morally, 
intellectually, financially and hereditarily fitted for parenthood. 

Karezza.— What is it ? 

Dr. Alice B. Stockham has on the market a book known as 



THE FAMILY 205 

Karezza, in which she very forcibly urges the practice of 
Karezza by husband and wife. 

Space will not permit us to enter fully into its merits or it3 
defects, if it has either or both. 

If the reader is sufficiently interested, we advise the reading 
of the book. 

Dr. Stockham says : * ' Karezza signifies 'to express affection in 
both words and actions.' " Also: " Karezza so consummates 
marriage that, through the power of will and loving thoughts, 
the crisis is not reached, but a complete control by both hus- 
band and wife is maintained throughout the entire relation, a 
conscious conservation of creative energy." In short, "unless 
procreation is desired, let the final propagative orgasm be entirely 
avoided. With abundant time and mutual reciprocity the inter- 
change becomes satisfactory and complete without emission or 
crisis." 

Dr. Sfierry says: "Doubtless there are a few cold-blooded, 
semisexed men and a considerable number of passionless women 
who could successfully adopt this practice. Perhaps a few old 
and sexually decayed men and women can employ it quite satis- 
factorily. I am forced to the conclusion that average men and 
women, who possess fullness of sexual vigor, alert minds and live 
nerves, can not indulge in sexual connection and experience a 
satisfactory play of the affections without passing on to coition, 
sexual spasm and discharge of semen. When starving men learn 
to hold pleasant and nutritious food in their mouths for an hour 
without swallowing it, then we may expect passionate men and 
women to adopt Zugassent's discovery (Karezza) as a practical 
method of healthfully enjoying the mental and physical pleasures 
of sexual embrace." 



SECTION TWO— THE UNWELCOME CHILD 

Abortion is the expulsion of the product of conception at any 
period of gestation before the fetus becomes viable. 

Miscarriage, the act of bringing forth before the natural time; 
premature birth. 

Criminal Abortion, the act of causing abortion, or miscar- 
riage, in a pregnant woman, unless when necessary to preserve 
the life of the mother. 

A Punishable Crime. — Criminal abortion is a crime, punish- 
able by severe penalties in most states and Christian nations. It 
is extremely dangerous, and exposes the woman to life-long in- 
jury, or to death. 

The Husband the Instigator.— It is useless to deny or to con- 
ceal the fact that in many instances the husband's dislike of a 



206 



THE FAMILY 



large family, combined with his unwillingness to practice self- 
denial in regard to his appetites, is the motive which, beyond all 
others, induces the wife to visit the fashionable aborter, and to 
destroy the fruit of her womb and imperil her own life and health. 
This cowardice and brutality on his part can not anywhere find 
an excuse. 

For the woman, enfeebled perhaps by too excessive child- 
bearing, for which her husband is generally wholly responsible, 
for few of our wives do not become, sooner or later, virtually 




AN UNINVITED GUEST. 



apathetic ; for the woman, timid, easily alarmed, prone to mental 
depression or other disturbance, and dreading the yet safe and 
preferable labor that awaits her, there is a certain measure of 
excuse. For her husband, none. 

This flagrant abuse is not confined to immoral circles of 
society, nor to the corrupt atmosphere of our great commercial 
centers, but extends into remote country hamlets, and through' 
out all grades of social life. We call upon our readers by 
example and precept to do their utmost to stem its devastating 



THE FAMILY 207 

tide, and, at least in their own families and among their friends, 
to mete its due reprobation. 

Its worst effects are not seen in marriage, though no physi- 
cian is ignorant how many women in the community suffer from 
the vile "French pills" and "female regulators" hawked about, 
as well as from rude instruments in awkward and unfeeling 
hands. But it is in the impunity which the vicious believe they 
enjoy, the temptation to indulge in lustful and illegitimate 
liaisons^ the weakening of virtue, that its most serious conse- 
quences are manifest. 

Feticide is Murder.— The following is from Dr. Stockham's 
Tokology: "Many women have been taught to think that the 
child is not viable until after the quickening, and that there is no 
harm in arresting pregnancy previous to the feeling of motion ; 
others believe that there is no life until birth, and the cry of the 
child is heard. * * * " 

Life From Inception. — When the female germ and the male 
sperm unite, then is the inception of a new life; all that goes to 
make up a human being — body, mind and spirit — must 
be contained in embryo within this minute organism. 
Life must be present from the very moment of conception. If 
there was no life there could be no conception. At what other 
period of a human being's existence, either pre-natal or post- 
natal, could the union of soul and body take place? 

The Guilty. — "Is it not plain that the violent or forcible dep- 
rivation of existence of the embryo, the removal of it from the 
citadel of life, is its premature death, and hence the act can be 
denominated by no milder term than murder; and whoever 
performs the act, or is accessory to it, in the sight of God and 
human law, is guilty of the crime of all crimes?" 

Grave Responsibilities. — There may be no harm or sin in 
preventing conception, but from the moment of conception there 
are present all the possibilities of a human being. There are the 
possibilities of a Wesley or a Webster, of a Paul or a Peter; at 
least, a man. 

The Mother's Love for Her Babe.— Again from Dr. Stock- 
ham: "The life of the babe in her arms is to the mother more 
precious than all else; her heart is thrilled with a pang of agony 
at the thought of the least danger to its life. By what false 
reasoning does she convince herself that another life, still more 
dependent upon her for its existence, with equal rights and pos- 
sibilities, has no claim upon her protection? More than this, she 
deliberately strikes with the red hand of murder, and terminates 
its existence with no thought of wrong, nor consciousness ot 
violated law. 

An Unnatural Act. — The woman who produces abortion, or 



208 



THE FAMILY 



allows it to be produced, risks her own health and life in the act, 
and commits the highest crime in the calendar, for she takes the 
life of her own child." 

We quote this with approval, believing that every statement 
is true. The puzzle to us is, how any sane person can think 
otherwise. 




OVUM OF SIX MONTHS AGE. 



CHAPTER XII 
CHILDREN 



SECTION ONE— PUBERTY 

What is It ? — At a certain period in the life of the youth he 
undergoes a change by which he acquires powers which qualify 
him to take part in the perpetuation of his kind. This change is 
the period of puberty. It is distinguished by a number of physical 
alterations, the most significant of which is the secretion of a 
fecundating fluid. 

The proper age at which puberty should come varies from 
twelve to eighteen years, as it is influenced by many surrounding 
conditions. 

The Boy's Changes.— When the boy passes to the condition 
of youth he leaves behind him the characteristics of childhood. 
The skin becomes coarser and less delicate, the muscles firmer 
and more distinctly marked, the voice loses its childish treble, 
the vocal apparatus enlarges and emits a harsher sound, the 
bones harden, the "wisdom teeth" appear, various parts of the 
body become covered with a soft down which gradually becomes 
rougher and thicker, and those organs peculiar to his sex enlarge. 

Not less remarkable are the mental changes. Unwonted de- 
sires and sensations, half understood and confusing, awake in the 
mind impulses to which he has been a stranger, vague longings 
after he knows not what, sudden accesses of shamefacedness in 
circumstances where he had ever been at ease, a restlessness and 
a wilfulness, indicate to the observing eye the revolution which 
is going on within. Perilous moment for the boy! 

Causes of Variation. — /. Climate. Travelers have frequently 
observed that in tropical countries both the sexes arrive at matur- 
ity earlier in life than in temperate or cold countries. This ex- 
plains the early marriages which are customary in those localities, 
and which do not appear to exert the injurious influence on the 
offspring which is almost constantly observed in temperate cli- 
mates from premature union. 

2. Hereditary Tendency. This is constantly observed as has- 
tening or retarding by a year or two the development of both 
sexes. It is to some extent connected with race, as it is f ouud that 
negroes are more precocious than whites, and boys of southern 
parentage than those of northern. This is readily seen to be 
traceable to the influence of climate just referred to. 

209 



210 



CHILDREN 



3. The temperament is also a controlling influence. Light 
haired, stout, phlegmatic boys are longer in attaining the age of 
puberty, than those of nervous and nervo-bilious temperaments. 




AN UNEXPECTED MEETING. 

4. Occupation and habits have also much to do in the matter. 
As a general rule, the more vigorous, the more addicted to ath- 
letic exercise, the more accustomed to outdoor life, and to active 



CHILDREN 211 

pursuits, the slower will be this change in approaching. This 
statement may be unexpected to many; they may think that 
vigorous health is precisely what nature would wish to assist her 
to complete this profound and mysterious transformation in the 
constitution. 

5. The constitution , by which we mean the mass of morbid 
or healthy tendencies inherited from parents, consequently has 
very considerable weight in determining the time at which the 
change will take place. In accordance with the physiological law 
just quoted, it is very generally found that boys with weak, nerv- 
ous, debilitated constitutions are apt to be precocious, and those 
gifted by their parents with sturdy limbs and a powerful frame 
remain boys much longer. 

Hygiene of Puberty.— The less that the boy and the youth 
think about, or any way have their attention directed to, the sexual 
distinctions, the better. Does it follow from this that it is the 
duty of parents and teachers sedulously and wholly to refrain 
from warning them, or giving instructions of a private nature? 
This important question has been frequently discussed, and there 
are now, as there always have been, men of influence who answer 
it in the affirmative. But it is also worth remarking that without 
an exception those medical, authors who have given most con 
stant and earnest attention to the diseases and disorders which 
arise from the prevailing ignorance in such matters are earnest 
and emphatic in their recommendations to educators and tc 
parents to give sound advice to the boys, and to urge upon them 
the observance of certain precautions, which tend to remove pre 
mature excitements. 

False Modesty. — It is one of the most important duties of 
those who have charge of youths to see that neither by ignorance 
nor urged by opportunity or intellectual stimulants, they fore- 
stall nature's own good time. Most inexcusable is the false mod- 
esty which, on the ground of fear lest indecorous thoughts 
should be awakened, serves as the plea for wholly neglecting this 
vital department of sanitary supervision. 

Muscular Development. — Systematic, daily, regulated exer- 
cise, pushed to the verge of fatigue, and varied so as to keep up 
the interest of the pupil, can not be too much insisted upon. 
This alone is worth all other precautions, and is almost indispens- 
able. Now that most large schools have gymnasiums attached, 
and especially as light gymnastics have been so widely intro- 
duced, and can be put in practice at such small expense, there 
is no excuse for neglecting this precept. Parents will do weii to 
decline sending their boys to any institution which has no pro« 
visions for physical culture. 

Cleanliness. — It were an excellent arrangement for every boy 
to be induced to take a sponge bath, or, what is better, a shower 
bath, every morning, in cool or cold water. 

Avoidance of Irritation from any cause is always essentiaL 



212 



CHILDREN 



It may arise from ill-fitting drawers or pants, or from an uncom- 
fortable seat, or from constipation of the bowels, or from an un- 
healthy condition of the urine or bladder, from piles, and much 
more frequently from worms, especially those familiarly known 
as seat-worms. Soft cushions should be dispensed with; cane- 
bottomed chairs and benches are for many reasons preferable. 
Certain varieties of skin diseases of a chronic character are 
attended by such a degree of heat and itching that the 




ASLEEP ON DUTY. 



child is led involuntarily to scratch and rub the affected part. 
Whenever they attack the inside of the thighs or lower part of 
the abdomen, they should receive prompt and efficient treatment. 

The Dormitory Regulations should invariably be of a char- 
acter to promote modesty. Never should two or three boys be 
allowed to sleep in the same bed, and it were more prudent to 
assign each a separate chamber. They should be encouraged 
by precept and example to avoid needless exposure of the person 



CHILDREN 213 

and indecorous gestures. The beds should be tolerably hard, 
mattresses of hair or with springs being greatly preferable to 
those of feathers, cotton or sponge. These latter are heating, 
and, therefore, objectionable. The bed clothing should be light, 
thick comfortables being avoided, and the chambers should be 
cool and well ventilated. Every boy should be required before 
retiring to empty the bladder, as the presence of much fluid in 
that organ acts as a sort of irritation on the surrounding parts. 
When a boy wets his bed during sleep, it may be taken as evi- 
dence that he either neglects his duty, or else that there is some 
local irritation present which requires medical attention. Sleep- 
ing on the back should be warned against, as this is one of the 
known causes of nocturnal excitement and emissions. 

Moral Training-. — Equally important as these physical regu- 
lations is it that the boy should be assiduously trained to look 
with disgust and abhorrence on whatever is indecent in word or 
action. Let him be taught a sense of shame, that modesty is 
manly and honorable, and that immodesty is base and dishonor- 
able. 

Passion the Foundation of Nobility.— All these precautions 
are to what end ? To avoid exciting the passion of sex. It is well 
to hold this clearly in view ; and it is also well to understand dis- 
tinctly what this passion is. 

Is this passion a fire from heaven or a subtle flame from hell? 

The noblest and most unselfish emotions take their rise in this 
passion of sex ; the most perfect natures are moulded by its sweet 
influence ; the most elevating ties which bind humanity to holy 
effort are formed by it. 

The wise man will recognize in the emotions of youth a power 
of good, and a divinely implanted instinct, which will, if properly 
trained, form a more symmetrical and perfected being than could 
possibly be in its absence; and he will have impressed upon him 
the responsibility which devolves on those who have to control 
and guide this instinct. 

When Does Passion Commence % — It is not at the period of pu- 
berty that passion commences. In fact, it is hard to say how 
early it may not be present ; and this point we wish to impress 
the more emphatically, because parents and teachers, in spite of 
their own boyish experiences, if they would but recall them, are 
too liable to persuade themselves that at the age of five or ten 
years no particular precautions are necessary. But the physician 
knows that even in infants it is not very rare to witness excite- 
ment of the organs, which must depend on the action of those 
nerves which control passion. 

Self- Abuse. — Self-abuse not uncommonly prevails at the ages 
we have mentioned, and proves the early development of the in- 
stinct. In such cases it is as purely nervous phenomenon not 
associated with the discharge of the secretion, which does not yet 
exist. 

13 



214 CHILDREN 

A Source of Elevation or Ruin. — The danger that threatens 
is not to be obviated by a complete repression or an annihilation 
of this part of our nature as something evil in itself, but by rec- 
ognizing it as a natural, prominent and even noble faculty, which 
does but need intelligent education and direction to become a 
source of elevated enjoyment and moral improvement. 

Should the false modesty, the ignorance or the neglect of 
those who have charge of youth at the critical period when the 
instinct first makes itself felt leave it to wander astray, it is with 
the certainty of ensuing mental anguish, physical injury and 
moral debasement. To what a hideous depth these aberrations 
of passion may descend we dare not disclose; for, as the Apostle 
says, "it is a shame even to speak of those things." 

Age of Puberty in Man. — The power of procreation does not 
usually exist in the human male until the age of from fourteen 
to sixteen years; and it may be considered probable that no 
spermatozoa are produced until that period, although a fluid is 
secreted by the testes. At this epoch, which is ordinarily desig- 
nated as that of puberty, a considerable change takes place in the 
bodily constitution. 

The procreative power may last, if not abused, during a very 
long period. Undoubted instances of virility at the age of more 
than one hundred years are on record; but, in these cases, the 
general bodily vigor was preserved in a very remarkable degree. 
The ordinary rule seems to be, that sexual power is not retained 
by the male, in any considerable degree, after the age of sixty or 
sixty-five years. 

Female Organism. — The essential part of the female gen- 
erative system is that in which the ova are prepared; the other 
organs are merely accessory, and are not to be found in a large 
proportion of the animal kingdom. 

In the human female, the period of puberty, or of commencing 
aptitude for procreation, is usually between the thirteenth and 
sixteenth year; it is earlier in warm climates than in cold; and in 
densely populated manufacturing towns, than in thinly peopled 
agricultural districts. The mental and bodily habits of the 
individual have also a considerable influence upon the time of its 
occurrence, girls brought up in the midst of luxury or sensual in- 
dulgence undergoing this change earlier than those reared in 
hardihood and self-denial. The changes in which puberty con- 
sists are for the most part connected with the reproductive 
system. 

Age of Puberty in Woman.— It is to this periodical function 
of her system that woman owes health, life and all that can make 
her attractive, as woman, to the opposite sex. It can not be that 
it was designed to be a period of suffering. It is as essential a 
function of her organism as is breathing. On the regular, health- 
ful recurrence of no function of her nature does her beauty, her 
energy, her health and happiness more essentially depend. Yet, 
feebly organized and developed as women, in civiled life, now are* 



CHILDREN 



215 



it is generally a period of physical and mental prostration, and 
often of deepest suffering to the body and anguish to the soul. 
It is then her nature calls for the tenderest love and sympathy 
from the opposite sex; but it is the time when, often, even from 
him who holds to her the relation of husband, she gets the least. 
But, if men were taught in early life to understand this function 
of the female system, and its relations to her beauty, health and 
happiness, and to all the dearest relations of life, they would ac- 
cord to her, during this period, their purest, tenderest and man- 
liest sympathy. 



SECTION TWO— ORIGIN OF LIFE 

The Life-Germ of Man and Woman. — To prepare the germ of 
a new man or woman is the noblest function of the male; to pro- 
vide it sustenance and develop it into a human form is the 
most perfect work of the female. 
The life-germ of 
the human being is, 
with other ingredi- 
ents , contained in 
what is called the 
spermatic fluid. This 
is secreted in the ap- 
°f 1% propriate organs of 
days the male. Thence it 




Embryo 
to 14 



laid open. 



the 




is transmitted to 

female. 
The mysterious process of repro- 
duction evidently consists, in flower- 
ing plants, of nothing else than the Embryo of Twenty-one Days 
implantation of a cell-germ, prepared Laid Open. 

by male organs, in a nidus, or recep- a , a , a, Chorion laid open and 

tacle, adapted to aid its early devel- secured by plus; 6, the Embryo 
opment; which nidus constitutes the Hvith Amnion laid opeu. 
essential part of the female system. 

There is now good reason to believe that in no animals is the 
reproductive apparatus less simple than it is in the higher plants; 
that is to say, in every instance two sets of organs, a germ-pre- 
paring and a germ-nourishing, are present. 

These organs differ much in form and complexity of structure 
in the various tribes of animals. But their essential function is 
the same in all. 

Those which are termed male organs prepare and set free cer- 
tain bodies which, having an inherent power of motion, have been 
supposed to be independent animalcules, and are known as sper- 
matozoa. But they can not be independent, as each must unite 
with an ovum in order to continue its existence; but even then it 
does not exist as a spermatozoon, but with the egg it forms a new 
and entirely different being. Thus from the union of a micro- 



216 CHILDREN 

scopic spermatozoon and an ovum, so small as to be almost in* 
visible, springs man % with all his strength and possibilities. 

Same Law in Plants and Animals.— The act of fecundation is 
analogous in animals to the process which takes place in flower- 
ing plants. The origin of human beings as the offspring of 
human beings, is similar to that of all other existences. The 
reproductive system consists of two sets of organs, whose 
functions are entirely distinct, each performing its office entirely 
independent of the other. Of course, the part performed by 
each is such that the condition of the different organisms must, 
of necessity, affect the child for good or evil. 




SECTION THREE— PRENATAL INFLUENCE 

Transmission of Disease.— In preparing the germ, the phys- 
ical intellectual and moral conditions of the father must neces- 
sarily affect, more or less, its conditions in 
similar directions. In nourishing and de- 
veloping that germ, the mother must, neces- 
sarily, impart to it her conditions. A healthy 
mother might, before birth, impart to a dis- 
eased germ of a weak and sickly father some 
degree of health, strength and beauty. m Or, 
a weak and sickly mother may impart disease 
and deformity to a healthy germ of a healthy 
father. 

Father and Child. — Does the father, in 

Head of Human preparing the germ, so impress on it his own 

Embryo, conditions of body and soul that these must 

necessarily be developed in the future child, 

About tne end of the so ^ essentially to affect his character and 

second month. destiny? That he does is certain. Whatever 

diseases affect the father must also affect the secretions of his 

system, and none more so than the germs of future human 

beings. What an obligation, then, rests on every man, to see 

to it, so far as he can, that the system in which the life-germs 

of human existence are prepared should be replete with manly 

beauty, tenderness and power! 

Mother and Child. — No less important is the maternal rela- 
tion to the child before birth! She consents to receive the germ 
into her organism. It is placed in its only proper position for 
growth. It has an inherent power to attract to itself, from the 
liquid in which it floats in the womb, materials for growth to 
body and soul. These elements, which constitute that growth, 
are prepared in her system, from the various substances 
received into it from without. That nourishment must be 
affected by the conditions of the organism in which it is pre- 
pared and administered. The energies of her nature are taxed 



THE GROWTH OF A NEW LIFE 



217 




Embryo of Thirty Days, 

.», I»»d of Embryo; ft, Eyes; c, Mouth; d, Neck; e, Chest; /.Abdomen; g, extremity ot 
Spine; h, h, Spinal Arch; k, neck of Umbilical Vesicle; I, the Vesicle. 




Embryo of Forty-fee Days. 

«i, «, <*, Chorion ; 6, Villositfcs of Placenta ; <•, c, 
Amulon; <*, Head of Embryo; e, Temples; /, inter- 
val between Eyes or Root of Nose ; A, the Arms; i. 
Via Abdomen ; fc, tlie Sexual Organs ; I, I, Umbilical 
^>>rd; m, the luternal portion of Cord. 



iJuto nil Side of Plfkocnto* 



218 



CHILDREN 



to prepare and administer to the growth of the new being, and 
should be left free as possible to do well the work assigned to 
them. She has taken into herself the germ of a new life, in 
human form, gladly and thankfully, it may be, and by so doing 
has pledged herself to the future man or woman to confer o« 
him or her health, strength and beauty, to body and soul. 

Some Questions for the Mother. — Does that woman know trie 
intimacy and power of the relation which she, voluntarily, it is 




Fourth position of vertex. 



to be hoped, assumes to that germ, which, under her forming 
hand, is soon to appear in the form, of a man or woman? Does 
she know that, from all she takes into her system in the shape 
of food, drink, air and the like, the living germ is to extract the 
substance that must go to form the body and soul of the future 
living being? When she consented to receive that life-germ of 
immortal spirit into herself, did she ask the question, whether 
she was prepared to forego all practices and indulgences that 



CHILDREN 219 

could conflict with the health and perfection of her new charge? 
Did she ask whether her own organism was in a fit state to 
receive such a charge, and perform to it the services of a just 
and loving mother? 

Inherited Conditions of Parents. — Facts abundantly prove 
that the inherited conditions of the parent enter into the organic 
structure and constitutional tendencies of children. Bad con- 
ditions are no less likely to be transmitted than good tendencies. 
Scrofula, consumption, insanity and idiocy are everywhere 
recognized as capable of being transmitted from parent to chil- 
dren. This knowledge is acted upon, the world over, by all who 
are interested in improving the quality of all animate existence 
beneath man, and no pains are spared to get healthy offspring. 
But what encouragement do they offer for the production of 
the most beautiful, healthy and perfect specimen of the human 
being? 

A Father's Disease : An Illustration.— Ponder the following 
fact: A woman, known in the circle of my friends as healthy, 
beautiful and highly accomplished, married a man entirely dis- 
eased. She had four children. One died in infancy, a mass of 
disease; one at seven and one at eleven, each a mass of disease 
from birth, and having known no cessation from suffering dur- 
ing its brief existence. The one that died at seven had more 
the countenance of one of seventy, caused solely by intense 
sufferings. One is now living, but her appearance bears the 
marks of the diseased state that swept away the others. The 
father died fearfully diseased; the health of the wife and mother 
was nearly ruined by the diseases of her husband being com- 
municated to her. 

Greatest Source of Disease. — What greater outrage against 
nature could a woman commit than to consent to become a 
mother by such a man? None. Let every man and every 
woman, as they would live in the love and respect of their off- 
spring, consider well the physical, mental and moral conditions 
of those with whom they unite, to become the fathers or mothers 
of their children. It is computed that more human beings die 
from diseased tendencies, inherited from parents, who them- 
selves had inherited them, than from war, intemperance, slav- 
ery, cholera, fevers and all contagious, adventitious diseases 
put together. 

Acquired Diseases and Tendencies.— Many diseases of body 
and soul are acquired, and inherited diseases are mad? more 
malignant, by abuse. Those whose organizations were originally 
quite sound acquire, by unnatural indulgences, diseased condi- 
tions. There are few whose natural tastes do not reject 
tobacco, alcohol, tea, opium and various other articles of com- 
mon use, but of great injury when first they are taken. These 
acquired conditions, both of body and soul, are transmitted. 



220 



CHILDREN 



Illustrations. — I know of a man and woman who, as to wealth, 
move in the wealthiest ranks of fashion. « The woman is exceed- 
ingly passionate and addicted to strong drinks. They had four 
children. The eldest, greatly deformed by a fall of her mother 
in a fit of intoxication, previous to birth, died of consumption 
at eighteen. The second, a dwarf, a mild and gentle one, died 
at twenty, of consumption. The third was deaf and dumb, and 
of a malignant temper. The fourth is a demon in temper, and 
a drunkard. The mother's conditions were transmitted to her 
children. She had several miscarriages, caused by intemperate 
habits. 

Another Case. — A man and woman, both healthy at mar- 
riage, became deceased by abuse of their sexual natures after 




Twin embryos 



marriage. He suffered in the lungs; she became deranged in 
the nervous system and by scrofula. Had five births, the first 
an abortion produced by sexual abuse during pregnancy. The 
living children all deceased with scrofula or consumption, or 
both. Thus, it is seen, the parents go on reproducing, in their 
own likeness, scrofula and consumption. 

Conditions During Sexual Intercourse. — The conditions of 
the parent or parents, one or both, at the time of sexual inter- 
course, have a marked influence on the child. 

Proper Conditions. — The soul should be in its happiest and 
most perfect state, free from care ; the love element in the entire 



CHILDREN 221 

ascendant; every element in the soul of each concentrated in 
love upon the other. The body, in all its powers and functions, 
should be full of vigor, free from all weariness, or lassitude; 
not excited by artificial stimulants of any kind. 

Conjugal love, when true, is attracted to purity, to beauty, to 
all that is sweet, tender, pure, delicate. It can have no affinity 
to coarseness, vulgarity, uncleanness or meanness. Marriage 
love can do nothing but refine, elevate, beautify and adorn all 
who come under its influence. 

Passion, Not Love. — Passion, existing and seeking indulgence 
without love, as it generally does, is coarse, selfish, polluted and 
necessarily tends to degrade and profane both body and soul. 
No woman, instigated by pure love, can be attracted to a man 
of filthy, disgusting habits, such as essentially belong to those 
who use tobacco, alcoholic drinks, opium eaters, and those who 
live under the influence of any artificial stimulants. No man, 
influenced by pure love, can be attracted to a woman, as a hus- 
band, who lives on artificial excitements. All such, whether 
men or women, become impure, ugly and necessarily repulsive 
to true love. The sexual elements in all such become diseased, 
utterly corrupt and debased, and totally unfitted for the sacred 
function of reproduction. 

Woman, Be Not Defiled. — How can a woman consent to be- 
come a mother by a man physically and spiritually polluted by 
tobacco, alcohol or any foul, unnatural appetite and practice? 
How can a man receive as a wife, and become a father by, a 
woman whose body and soul are filled with enfeebling, polluting 
disease? Passion, gross sensualism, may bring such together 
to propagate; but pure, chaste, saving love, never. Pure, chaste 
love can not be attracted to uncleanness and meanness of body 
or soul. The offspring of impure, unclean souls and bodies 
must of necessity be defiled. Insanity, idiocy, anger, revenge 
and diseases of various kinds and degrees appear in the chil« 
dren born of such unions. 

Another Illustration.— The following case illustrates the 
influence of parental conditions, at the time of sexual congress, 
on the offspring: The wife was a healthy woman, in body and 
soul — refined and accomplished in heart and intellect, and of 
great personal grace and beauty. Her husband was a sober, 
respectable man when she married. He became a sot. Under 
the influence and excitement of intoxicating drinks, he sought 
and obtained personal intercourse with his wife. An idiotic 
child was the result— hopelessly and helplessly idiotic. The 
mother attributed the idiocy to the drunkenness of the father, 
and justly, without doubt. 

Drunkards Excluded. — No woman, who respects herself or 
her child, will ever 3'ield to sexual intercourse with a man when 
he is excited by alcohol, or who habitually or occasionally comes 



222 CHILDREN 

under its influence. Drunkenness, in any degree, should exclude 
a man or woman from marriage and parental relations. 

May the day soon come when men and women will so respect 
the function of reproduction that they will shun all food, drink 
and pursuits of gain or pleasure that tend to injure and dis- 
qualify for parentage of healthy children. 

Two Sisters. — Two young sisters are opposite as the poles in 
their tendencies; one being fretful, impatient, revengeful and 
seldom satisfied or in harmony with any thing or person around 
her; the other is exactly the reverse. Both have the same 
father and mother. What makes the difference? The differ- 
ence in the conditions of the parents at the time of reproduc- 
tion. The union from which the former derived existence was 
had when the parents were laboring under pecuniary anxieties 
and trials thai kept them in constant irritation and impatience, 
and suffering under a sense of wrongs received; that from which 
the other sprang occurred under circumstances directly the 
reverse. One will suffer and the other be happy, as the result 
of the different conditions of their parents at the time of con- 
ception. 

A Mother's Testimony.— The following is the testimony of 
the mother of five children. A stranger asked her one day how 
it happened that her children manifested such marked differ- 
ences in their characters. She replied: "I am aware of the 
difference. It has existed from their birth. They are as differ- 
ent as so many nations. But I know the cause. I can see and 
feel in each my own mental, affectional and physical conditions 
at the time of their conception and their birth." 

"Mother's Marks." — The effect of the imagination of the 
mother upon the child before birth is well known. There is 
hardly anyone but has known of or seen very remarkable 
instances where the child has become peculiarly marked as the 
result of some strange impressions on the mind of the mother. 
These marks often resemble some object making the impres- 
sions. Among many cases may be mentioned that of a lady who 
had a child covered with hair, with hands shaped very much 
like the paws of a bear, and which she attributed to having often 
seen the picture of John the Baptist clothed in a bear's skin. 
The familiar marks observed on the skins of certain individuals, 
of different colors, and known by the name of "mother's marks," 
are attributed to various causes. In many instances they are 
supposed to have been produced by the mother having longed 
for some particular things while pregnant. 

Pure Blood Required. — In whatever manner the marks are 
produced, it is a well-known fact that the quality of the mother's 
blood is very much affected by the state of the mind and the 
various emotions experienced; and as the child must mainly be 
formed from this blood, its condition is of great consequence to 
the unborn infant. Joy and a cheerful state of the mind make 






■ X 








ij^spfe. 


'mm 


Wrm 






4i>^ij 


*-~' - ~ — ■ j 



LATERAL SECTION OF THE FEMALE PELVIS, WITH ITS CONTENTS. 



224 CHILDREN 

the blood rich and pure by accelerating its circulation and thus 
increasing its nutritive properties. Grief and despondency, on 
the other hand, cause it to become more or less thin and watery, 
on account of its circulation being very sluggish; its nutritive 
properties are, consequently, decreased. 

Sexes at Will. — It is often a matter of the utmost interest in 
families to have a child of a particular sex. There is always a 
disappointment in having a number of children, all either boys 
or girls. The father, as a rule, takes greater interest in his 
daughters, the mother in her sons. The ideal family is com- 
posed of some of each sex. 

Thury's Law. — Many different theories have been advanced 
concerning sex at will, but we have our doubts about the abso- 
lute correctness of any of them. Here is what is known as 
Thury's law: 

He found by a series of experiments with different animals 
that when the male was given at the first signs of heat in the 
female, the result was a female; but when the male was given 
at the end of the heat, the result was male offspring. 

Physicians constantly observe that if labor comes a few days 
before "full term," or just at term, the child is more likely to 
be a female; but if labor is delayed beyond term, which is the 
same as saying if the conception took place quite a number of 
days after the cessation of menstruation, then it is more likely 
to be a boy. 

Terry's Theory. — Terry gives as a tested and proved theory 
that if the wife is in a higher state of sexual vigor and excite- 
ment at the time of conception, boys will be conceived; but if 
the reverse is true, girls will be the result. 

Dr. Stockham's Idea. — Alice B. Stockham, M. D., believes 
that sex is in the soul. In that case, the sex of the offspring 
must be determined by a law of the soul. The parent whose 
mental forces previous to and at the time of conception are most 
active and vigorous controls the sex of the child. 

Dr. Fowler's Observation. — Dr. Fowler says that the greater 
male power and passion creates boys; female, girls. Concep- 
tion right after menstruation gives girls, because the female 
is the most impassioned; later, boys because her wanting sexual 
warmth leaves him the most vigorous. 

Dr. Fowler Also Says.— It is thought that impregnation oc- 
curring within four days of the closing of the female monthlies 



CHILDREN 225 

produces a girl, because the ovum is yet immature; but that 
when it occurs after the fourth day from its close, gives a boy, 
because this egg is now mature; whereas, after about the 
eighth day this egg dissolves and passes off, so that impregna- 
tion is hereby rendered impossible, until just before the 
mother's next monthly. 

Queen Bees Lay Female Eggs First, and males afterwards. 
Mares shown to the stallion late in their periods drop horse 
colts rather then fillies. — Nepheys. 

On Twenty-two Successive Occasions I desired to have 
heifers, and succeeded in every case by giving the male in the 
first sign of the heat. — Swiss Breeder. 

Intercourse in from two to six days after the menses pro- 
duces girls, in from nine to twelve, boys. — Medical Reporter. 

Other Theories. — There are other theories that, it is claimed, 
have been proven; but all can not be true. Thury's theory is 
the only one that can be of any practical use to husband and 
wife. 

SECTION FOUR— HEREDITY 

Definition of Heredity. — Heredity is a term applied to that 
law of living things in which the offspring resembles the 
parents, the characteristics of one generation being repeated in 
the succeeding one; or, in other words, the tendency which 
there is in plant or animal to be in all essential characteristics 
like the parents. 

Two Ideas. — In the use of the word heredity, there are two 
conceptions in mind: First, a general conception that "like 
begets like," as grapes are not gathered from thistles, plum 
trees do not bear apples nor pears, neither do cats produce a 
family of dogs. Chickens produce chickens from eggs dropped 
from the body; the cat bears kittens from an egg retained in the 
body, each after its kind. This is one conception of heredity. 

But we also use the word in a more restricted sense. 

Different Races of Man. — As children we learned that the 
human family is divided into five general races; later in life we 
learned that these race features and characteristics are inher- 
ited, so that we never look for Indian children from negro par- 
entage, nor Chinamen from Caucasians. These races are again 
divided and subdivided, so that from the Caucasian or white 
race one may readily distinguish the different nationalities hav- 



226 



CHILDREN 



ing their peculiar form and features, traits and characteristics. 
By these they are distinguished from all other tribes and fam- 
ilies. The Irishman is as unlike the German as the Jew is 
unlike the Swede. The brawny, cautious Scot is the opposite 







DIAGRAMS SHOWING POSITION OF TWINS IN UTEBO. 

of the vivacious Frenchman, and the sturdy, slow-going English- 
man can not sympathize with the irascible Spaniard. 

The Bonrfoon Nose. — Then, again, in the use of the word, one 
recalls those striking peculiarities of the individual, such as the 



CHILDREN 227 

"Bourbon nose," which was repeated in successive generations 
of the royal family of France; also the inherited musical ability 
of the Bach family, which, in the range of two hundred years, 
produced more than fifty musicians. 

It is this last conception — the peculiarity of the individual — 
of which we desire to speak. Each individual has some dis- 
tinction of form or feature, mental trait or characteristic, by 
which we recognize his personality and which makes him unlike 
every other person. And should he become a parent, he will 
probably transmit his peculiarities in a modified form to his 
children, so that people will say, "How much those children 
resemble their father," or "These children inherited their gift 
of language from their talented father." (We say in a modified 
form, because the mother also bequeathes her peculiarities.) 

Heredity or Prenatal Influence.— We must also note the 
distinction between the laws of heredity and those of prenatal 
influences. 

Dr. Sidney Barrington Elliot states the difference in this 
way: "Heredity is that law by which permanent a?id settled qual- 
ities of the parents or more remote ancestors reappear in the 
child, while prenatal influence signifies the effect produced upon 
the future being by temporary conditions of the parents, as by 
temporary mental states (anger, fear, happiness), or by tem- 
porary physical conditions (activity, health, exhaustion of a 
part or of the entire body)." 

Like Produces Like.— The fundamental law is that "like 
produces like." Professor Riddell says: "This law is modified 
by a secondary law, namely, that the acquired characters of one 
generation are transmitted to the next. In a sense these two 
laws stand in direct opposition to each other. The terms 'fixed 
characters' and 'acquired characters' must be considered as 
only relative terms. There are in reality no 'fixed characters' 
in nature. Through the operation of the primary law the fixed 
characters of the species are reproduced and their established 
peculiarities maintained. Through the operation of the second 
law the acquired characters of each generation are transmitted 
to the next and become a part of its hereditary nature. 

"If the first were the only law of heredity, then the species 
must remain forever unchanged; both evolution and deteriora- 
tion would be impossible. If the second law were the only one 
or even the controlling factor, then the environment and condi- 
tions of each generation would so modify the next as to destroy 
all established types and finally exterminate the species." 

A Musician. — The following is in a mother's own language: 
"When I was first pregnant, I wished my offspring to be a mu- 
sician, so, during the period of that pregnancy, settled my whole 
mind on music, and attended every musical entertainment I pos- 
sibly could. I had my husband, who has a violin, to play for me 
by the hour. When the child was bom, it was a girl who grew 
and prospered, and finally became an expert musician." 



228 CHILDREN 

Murderous Intent.— The mother of a young man, who was 
hanged not long ago, was heard to say: "I tried to get rid of 
him before he was born; and, oh, how I wish now that I had suc- 
ceeded!" She added that it was the only time she had attempted 
anything of the sort; but, because of home troubles, she became 
desperate, and resolved that her burdens should not be made 
any greater. Does it not seem probable that the murderous 
intent, even though of short duration, was communicated to the 
mind of the child, and resulted in the crime for which he was 
hanged? 

The Assassin of Garfield.— Guiteau's father was a man of 
integrity and considerable intellectual ability. His children 
were born in quick succession, and the mother was obliged to 
work very hard. Before this child was born, she resorted to 
every means, though unsuccessful, to produce abortion. The 
world knows the result. Guiteau's whole life was full of con- 
tradictions. There was little self -controlling power in him, no 
common sense, and not a vestige of remorse or shame. In his 
wild imagination he believed himself capable of doing the 
greatest work and of filling the loftiest station in life. Who 
will dare question that this mother's effort to destroy him while 
in embryo was the main cause in bringing him to the level of 
the brutes? 

Caution,— Any attempt, on the part of the mother, to destroy 
her child before birth is liable, if unsuccessful, to produce mur- 
derous tendencies. Even harboring murderous thoughts, 
whether toward her own child or not, might be followed by sim- 
ilar results. 

Inheritance of People of Note.— Dr. Lyman Beecher was a 
leading man in his day. As a scholar and an orator he was a 
man of force and he transmitted to six of his children such 
qualities as made them superior to himself and gave them a 
national reputation. • 

The parents of the Wesleys were noted for their scholarly 
attainments and high moral character. m 

The Harrison family were noted in four generations for their 
military achievements or statesmanlike abilities. m m 

Of musical genius, Mozart, Bach, Beethoven, Rossini and 
Bellini are noted examples of the workings of the laws of he- 
redity. 

Inheritance of Crime and Disease.— Crime and disease, vice 
and insanity are an inheritance of the human family, as well as 
virtue and genius. So are blindness and deafness. Scrofula 
and consumption are known to run in families for generations. 
The same is true of malformation. 

Blindness Inherited.— Ribot gives this instance: "In one 
family blindness was hereditary for three generations, and 
thirty-seven children and grandchildren became blind between 
their seventeenth and eighteenth year." 



CHILDREN 229 

Deafness an Inheritance.— -Take, for example, the eloquent 
and tragic story of Chilmarth, on the island of Martha's Vine- 
yard. Here, among the first settlers who came.^now twelve 
generations ago, were two deaf persons. To-day, one in every 
twenty-five persons in that section is deaf, while a large numbei 
of the inhabitants are blind, and several are idiots. A scholarly 
physician, in a recent essay, referring to this region, observes: 

"This community, isolated from the outer world, has not only 
retained its primitive customs and manners, but the physical 
taint in the original stock has also produced a plenteous harvest 
of affliction. At Chilmarth the mental and physical progress is 
downwards." 

Malformation.— From the New York World oi Aug. 23, 1896, 
we clip the following sketch of an intensely interesting and 

?[ueer people who live in the valley of the Cattaraugus, not far 
rom the city of Buffalo, N. Y.: 

"New York's Claw-Fingered People. — All the claw-fin- 
gered and claw-toed people of Zoar trace their descent from a 
man named Robbins, who settled there in the early part of the 
century. His neighbors noticed that his hands and feet were 
remarkably deformed, being so bent and twisted that they 
resembled claws more than human hands and feet. 

"He was not inclined to talk about the deformity, and it does 
not appear that he ever explained how he came by it or where 
he had lived before coming to Zoar. After his deformity reap- 
peared in his descendants, it became the general opinion that 
he himself inherited it. Some also believed what has now 
become a tradition in the valley, that Robbins belonged to a 
well-to-do Eastern family, and that he settled in this almost 
inaccessible spot because of his deformity. 

"Robbins had several children in whom the claw digits ap- 
peared, but in a very much modified form. In the third gener- 
ation, however, the deformity often reappeared in as marked 
a degree as it had existed in the original Robbins. 

"A peculiar thing about this strange heritage is that it is 
impossible to tell where or in what form it will appear. Some- 
times it is inherited from the father, sometimes from the mother; 
sometimes it appears in all the children of a family, a': others 
in only one or two in a large number. 

"Sometimes a father and mother who have well-formed hands 
and feet will bring up a large family of children, all of them 
badly and, perhaps, variously deformed; and, again, parents with 
unsightly digits will have children in whom no deformity ap- 
pears." 

Alcoholic Heredity. — Alcoholic heredity, or the transmission 
of a special tendency to use spirits or any narcotic to excess, is 
much more common than is supposed. In the line of direct 
heredity, or those inebriates whose parents or grandparents 
used spirits to excess, we find that about one in every three 
cases can be traced to inebriate ancestors. Quite a large pro- 

14 




LOVED AND PROTECTED 




ABUSED AND NEGLECTED 



232 CHILDREN 

portion of these parents are moderate or only occasional excess- 
ive users of spirits. If the father is a moderate drinker, and 
the mother a nervous, consumptive woman, or one with a weak, 
nervous organization, inebriety very often follows in the chil- 
dren. If both parents use wine or beer on the table continu- 
ously, temperate, sober children will be the exception. If the 
mother uses various forms of alcoholic drinks as medicines, or 
narcotic drugs for real or imaginary purposes, the inebriety of 
the children is very common. Many cases have been noted of 
mothers using wine, beer or some form of alcoholic drinks for 
lung trouble, or other affections, and the children born during 
this period have been inebriates, while others born before and 
after this drinking period have been temperate. 

Crime. — The hereditary nature of the criminal propensity is 
unquestionable. By this is not meant simply that criminals are 
children of criminals, but also that they inherit such traits of 
physical and psychical constitution as naturally lead to crime. 
Ribot says: "The heredity of the tendency to thieving is so 
generally admitted that it would be superfluous to bring together 
here facts which abound in every record of judicial proceedings, 
to prove it." 

Drink Makes Idiots.— One of the best proven and most dis- 
astrous examples of this is seen in children who have been con- 
ceived at the time the father was partially intoxicated. There 
is no doubt whatever that under such circumstances the child is 
pretty sure either to be idiotic, or to have epileptic fits, or to be 
of a feeble mind and irritable and nervous system. 

What a curse does the cup here entail upon the family! 
Think, oh, father and mother, how horrible to reflect in after 
years, that the idiot owes its wretched existence to the intemper- 
ate indulgence of the father! 

Alcoholism in France. — So serious have become the evils 
resulting from the use of alcohol by the people of France that 
the physicians and surgeons of the hospitals have issued a pub- 
lic warning, which is placarded over the country in the hope 
that it may help to reduce the evils of alcoholism. This placard 
is distributed by the public powers and posted conspicuously in 
the public hospitals. It reads, in part, as follows: 

"Alcoholics become insane easily and are liable to very 
painful forms of paralysis. We often treat workingmen who 
have been very robust and who have become rapidly consump- 
tive because they have regularly taken before each meal their 
aperitifs. 

" The children of alcoholic parents are almost always badly 
formed, weak -minded, insane, scrofulous or epileptic. They die 
often in convulsions. 

"Criminals are in large part alcoholics or the children of 
alcoholics" 

The italics are ours. 



CHILDREN 233 

Who People Our Almshouses ?— In the older portions of our 
country, the examples are abundant where vagabondism, pau- 
perism and crime have run in certain families for generations. 
In how many of our almhouses, for instance, may be found 
pauper families of three generations, grandparents, parents and 
children. 

From an annual report of the directors of the poor in the 
state of Pennsylvania, we find the following: 

"Go back to the time when this almshouse was built, and 
what has become of the children that were there with their 
parents? Their families are in the almshouse to-day, grand- 
parents and grandchildren. They are turned out at nineteen 
and come back again with a family of children, and they grow 
up and go out only to come back again." 

Tendencies, — These are terrible visitations upon the children 
of men, and if the actual sins were inherited we should be most 
miserable. But note this fact: it is only the tendencies which 
are inherited. As Rev. M. T. Lamb says: 

"The Scriptures teach that the sins of the fathers are visited 
upon the children unto the third and fourth generation. But 
thank God there is no fatalism in the sacred Word, for it is 
added — 'unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate 
Me.* The children are not punished for the sins of the parent 
except they follow their parent's example — 'hate Me' Through 
the mouth of the prophet Ezekiel, God most emphatically pro- 
tests against the fatalistic proverb — 'The fathers have eaten 
sour grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge.' " 

"As I live, saith the Lord God, ye shall not have occasion 
any more to use this proverb in Israel." 

Of the tendency to viciousness, Mr. C. Loring Brace, secre- 
tary of the Children's Aid Society of New York, says: 

"I believe that the tendency to viciousness may exist in the 
child, but very often it is dormant; the child is not yet old 
enough to allow it to have been developed. I believe if such a 
boy were to continue to live in the same environment to which 
he had been accustomed from birth — associating with the chil- 
dren of his class, many of whom might be worse than himself — 
I believe that under those circumstances the hereditary taint 
would, in course of time, show itself. But we get such boys 
when they are young; we transplant them to a wholesome farm 
life, where they soon learn something of the amenities of the 
family and domestic existence. If they had this dormant, 
hereditary tendency it is soon eradicated under the new and 
wholesome conditions in which they are placed." 

How to Avoid Having Diseased and Deformed Children.— 

For what purpose have we brought forward the above facts in 
regard to inheritance? Merely because of their relation to the 
important question of prevention. It is this alone which con- 
cerns the father who reads these pages, influenced by one of the 
noblest of all human motives, the desire to benefit his offspring, 



234 



CHILDREN 



The father's care over the health of his child should begin 
before its birth— nay, before its conception. Proper attention 
then may avert taints of the system which, once implanted, no 




A FORTUNATE YOUNGSTER. 



medical skill can eradicate. The truth of this statement is 
recognized by breeders of animals. Mr. Youatt, one of the best 
authorities upon the breeding of horses, observes: "The first 



CHILDREN 235 

Axiom we would lay down is this, like will produce like ; the 
progeny will inherit the qualities or the mingled qualities of the 
parents. We would refer to the subject of diseases, and state 
our perfect conviction that there is scarcely one by which either 
of the parents is affected that the foal will not inherit, or, at 
least, the predisposition to it; even the consequences of ill-usage or 
hard work will descend to the progeny. We have had proof 
upon proof that blindness, roaring, thick wind, broken wind, 
curbs, spavins, ring-bones and founder have been bequeathed 
both by the sire and the dam to the offspring. It should like- 
wise be recollected that, although these blemishes may not 
appear in the immediate progeny, they frequently will in the 
next generation. Hence the necessity of some knowledge of the 
parentage both of the sire and dam." 

Counteracting Influence. — The influence of one parent upon 
the other in counteracting or intensifying the degree and the 
certainty with which the physical qualities of one or both are 
transmitted must be borne in mind. If the same defects be 
possessed by each parent, they will be quite certain to appear 
m the children. If only one parent be affected, some or all of 
the children may escape the inheritance. 

It is most fortunate that the tendency of a disease to propa- 
gate itself by inheritance is often overpowered by the stronger 
tendency of a vigorous constitution to impress itself upon the 
offspring. If it were possible to apply this principle to its fullest 
extent in every individual case, by never mating a feeble consti- 
tution excepting with one of that healthful vigor best calculated 
to counteract its transmission, the heritage of disease would, 
doubtless, soon be unknown. 

Hope Held Out. — Disease is not eternal. The offspring of 
sinning fathers are not without all hope. The counteracting 
influence of one parent over the other with transmission of life, 
of which we have just spoken, does much to maintain healthful 
vitality and beauty in spite of the degrading tendencies which 
may be present. In addition, however, there is a force resident 
in our nature by which the diseased organization tends to return 
to health. 

Were it not for this beneficent law the human race would 
rapidly degenerate. The results of its operation can be seen in 
the faces of the children of squalor and vice who throng the 
narrow streets and wretched houses of our crowded cities. If, 
happily, time had not purified the debased organization and 
restored health, we should look in vain there for that comeliness 
of features, grace of figure, and strength of limb which are now 
frequently to be observed. As has been truly said, "the effects 
of disease may be for a third or fourth generation, but the laws 
of health are for a thousand." 

The Law of Inheritance Variable.— The law of inheritance is 
a certai?i but not an invariable one. Its force must not be over- 
estimated. For if it were always true that the child of a father 



236 CHILDREN 

tainted with insanity or consumption is born with these affec- 
tions, then moral law would imperatively forbid marriage. It is 
known that the offspring of a father who has too many or too 
few fingers sometimes escapes the transmission, when both par- 
ents have not been similarly affected. As the child inherits the 
peculiarities of the mother as well as those of the father, there 
is hope that nature will right itself. 

Consumption Inherited. — The most cruel of all the maladies 
which afflict us, pulmonary consumption, is the one which is most 
constantly seen in its hereditary form. 

That terrible and invincible foe to human life, cancer, is a 
markedly hereditary affliction. Where the taint exists, medical 
art has few resources either to prevent its transmission or to 
antagonize its effects. 

Gout, Asthma and Disease of the Heart are also transmis- 
sible. They are not, of course, exclusively the result of inherit- 
ance. They are often developed during the lifetime of individ- 
uals whose family record is a clear one. But once having made 
their appearance in a family, they have a greater or less prone« 
ness to recur. 

Of all the affections which are transmitted by inheritance, 
the various disorders of the nervous system are the most common. 
Hysteria, epilepsy, paralysis and insanity descend from the un- 
happy parents to the more unhappy offspring. 

Insanity. — Insanity furnishes another illustration of the 
greater disease-transmitting power of the mother. It is trans- 
mitted about one-third times oftener by her than by the father. 
Again, also, we have an illustration of the greater influence of 
the mother over the diseases of her daughters; for when the 
mother is insane, it does not affect the sons any more than 
insanity in the father would, but, on the other hand, the danger 
of the daughters is double what it would be if the father, instead 
of the mother, were the affected parent. 

The Laws of Inheritance and Disease.— Undoubtedly, judi- 
cious marriages would eradicate all hereditary affections. Dr. 
J. M. Winn, an English physician, who has elaborately studied 
the nature and treatment of hereditary disease, has drawn up 
an estimate of the amount of risk incurred under various cir- 
cumstances, as follows: 

"1. If there is a constitutional taint in either father or 
mother, on both sides of the contracting parties, the risk is so 
great as to amount almost to a certainty that their offspring 
will inherit some form of disease. 

"2. If the constitutional disease is only on one side, either 
directly or collaterally through uncles or aunts, and the contract- 
ing parties are both in good bodily health, the risk is diminished 
one-half, and healthy offspring may be the issue of the marriage. 

"3. If there have been no signs of constitutional disease fof 
a whole generation, we can scarcely consider the risk materially 



CHILDREN 



237 



lessened, as it so frequently reappears after bemg in abeyance 
for a whole generation. 

"4. If two whole generations have escaped any symptoms 
of hereditary disease, we may fairly hope that the danger has 
passed. 

Atavism. — As a rule, diseases are transmitted directly from 
the parents to the children, thence to the grandchildren, and so 
on uninterruptedly from generation to generation. In some 
cases the transmission takes place from the grandparents to the 
grandchildren, one generation escaping altogether. This resem- 
blance of a child to its grandparents or great-grandparents, 







TIME TO GET "UP. 



rather than its own father or mother, is known under the scien- 
tific name of atavism. 

It is owing to this influence that disease and deformity, as 
well as strength and beauty, pass by one generation to appear 
in another. A child resembles in form or feature its grand- 
father, or it inherits the epileptic fits or the consumption for 
whioh its grandfather is remembered, the father being entirely 
healthy. 

The likeness of a child to its grandparents rather than to its 
immediate parents is, although a noteworthy fact, one which 



238 CHILDREN 

does not excite much comment from us. But when, as is some- 
times the case, the child partakes of the characteristics of a 
very remote ancestor or of the traits of some far removed 
representative of a collateral line, descended from a common 
progenitor, then a feeling of astonishment arises. 

Children Otherwise Injured.— Then children of men who 
have exhausted themselves by excesses, or solitary vice, or insuffi' 
cientfood, or severe bodily and mental strain, are not what they 
would have been had the father not gone to this excess. 

"Very intellectual men rarely have large families, and though 
to some extent talent is an inheritance, the children of such are 
apt to be either quite below or quite above the average. 

Offspring of Late Marriages.— The offspring of men who 
marry late in life usually manifest some signs of the decrepitude 
which marks their senile father. They are not long-lived, and 
are rarely healthy. Their teeth and hair fall early, and they 
are perhaps never conspicuous for sturdy muscles and power of 
endurance. 

Pre-Illness of Either Parent. — Not unlike are those children 
which are conceived at a time when the father is recovering 
from or is threatened with a severe illness. A sound hygiene 
forbids conception when either parent is physically or mentally 
unfitted for the act of bringing children into the world. It is 
not only bad for the parent, but it may bring into the world a 
child condemned to an early death, or perhaps worse, a lingering 
and painful life. 

The Season of the Year. — The season of the year exercises a 
very manifest action on the secretions of the male element. In 
domestic and wild animals this is familiar to every one. To a 
less extent it is seen in the human race. In England there are 
about seven per cent, more conceptions during the spring months 
than during any other quarter of the year. The mortality of 
infants conceived in the spring time is decidedly less than that 
of those whose existence commenced at any other period of the 
year. 

It would thus seem that a well-defined law indicates that the 
male, as a rule, is more capable of perpetuating his species 
when the icy winter loses his hold of the land and the warm 
breath of the south wind evokes, as if by magic, sweet violets 
and gay daffodils from the dark and cold earth. 



SECTION FIVE— PRENATAL CULTURE 

Influences at Work.— There are two potent influences affect- 
ing the character of the child. We refer to the power of the 
mother's imagination over the physical and mental condition of 




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240 CHILDREN 

her unborn infant, and to the influence of the mother's mind on 
the child at her breast. 

Dr. Brittan, in speaking of the first of these influences known 
as prenatal, says: 

"The singular effects produced on the unborn child by the 
sudden mental emotions of the mother are remarkable examples 
of a kind of electrotyping on the sensitive surfaces of living 
forms. It is doubtless true that the mind's action, in such 
cases, may increase or diminish the molecular deposits in the 
several portions of the system. If, for example, there exists in 
the mother any unusual tendency of the vital forces to the brain 
at the critical period, there will be a similar cerebral develop- 
ment and activity in the offspring." 

In illustration and confirmation of this law, the same author 
gives th« following facts: 

"A lady who, during the period of gestation, was chiefly 
employed in reading the poets and in giving form to her day- 
dreams of the ideal world, at the same time gave to her child 
(in phrenological parlance) large Ideality and a highly imagina- 
tive turn of mind. 

"Some time since we met with a youth who had finely 
molded limbs and a symmetrical form throughout. His mother 
has a large, lean, attenuated frame, that does not offer so much 
as a single suggestion of the beautiful. The boy is doubtless 
indebted for his fine form to the presence of a beautiful French 
lithograph in his mother's sleeping apartment, and which pre- 
sented for her contemplation the faultless form of a naked 
child." 

A Schoolmaster's Testimony. — Many years since an old 
schoolmaster, in the course of his personal experience, observed 
a remarkable difference in the capacities of children for learn- 
ing, which was connected with the education and aptitude of 
their parents; that the children of people accustomed to arith- 
metic learned figures quicker than those of differently educated 
persons; while the children of classical scholars more easily 
learned Latin and Greek; and that, notwithstanding a few strik- 
ing exceptions, the natural dullness of children born of unedu- 
cated parents was proverbial. 

Eminent authorities are agreed that conditions influencing a 
pregnant woman make an indelible impress on the character of 
her child, modifying and even changing hereditary tendencies. 

A Mother's Influence. — It is rather too sweeping an assertion 
to say a mother has within herself the power to bring forth just 
such a child as she wishes, because not one woman in a thou- 
sand has the conditions she wishes for her own physical and 
mental comfort. The most intimate relation conceivable is that 
of mother and unborn babe. Each breath she inhales, the food 
she eats, the emotions she feels, have an immediate effect on 
the child. 

What the Father May Do.— The direct influence of the 



CHILDREN 241 

father is received at the time of conception. Not only the hered- 
itary or permanent characteristics but also the condition of 
his mind and body at that time are transmitted. After that his 
reflection will come through the mother. All other things being 
equal for the good of the coming child, it still remains that a 
healthy germ must come from a strong, clean, upright father 
before offspring can be such as desired. 

What Napoleon's Mother Did for Him.— The influence of the 
mother over the character of the unborn child is often referred 
to in the case of Napoleon I. Previous to his birth the mother 
accompanied her husband in expeditions of warfare. She not 
only became familiar with all the horrors and details of war, 
but enjoyed it, and herself helped to plan. She was on horse- 
back in the open air most of the time, and acquired perfect 
physical health. The babe at that time developing, afterwards 
astounded the world with his genius for warfare. 

Dante's Bequest.— The life of Dante was molded by the 
effect a vision had upon the mind of his mother, which is 
described in the language of Dr. Davis as follows: "During 
the important period immediately preceding the birth of Dante, 
his young mother saw a startling vision of grandeur and great 
depth of significance. She beheld a populated globe of sym- 
metrical proportions rise gradually out of the sea and float in 
midheavens. It was decorated with every conceivable element 
of natural and artificial beauty. Upon a high and grand moun- 
tain, which melted away in the distant horizon and sloped grace- 
fully into lands and lakes that spread out to the left, stood a 
man with a brilliant countenance whom she knew to be her 
son. She beheld a precipice of abrupt ascent, like the walls of 
an immeasurable gulf with depth unknown. Thereupon she 
thought she fainted with excess of fright. But the son was as 
serene as the morning star; and looking again, she saw no evil. 
After this thrilling and beautiful vision Dante's mother had only 
in view the greatness of her unborn child — whose genius as a 
scholar and poet, as a creator of fancies, is known throughout 
all lands of civilization." 

Burns' Legacy. — The mother of Burns gave to him a happy 
disposition and genius for putting into rhyme the legends and 
every-day life of the Scotch by the even tenor of her life before 
his birth. It is said: "It was her frequent pleasure to give wings 
to the weary nours by chanting old songs and ballads, of which 
she had a large store." 

May the Mother Determine the Character of Her Child?— 

Such facts seem to establish beyond question the conviction 
that the mother has it largely in her power, by the use of suitable 
means, to confer on her child (not, indeed, the knowledge which 
she may herself have acquired, but) such a tendency of??iind and 
conformatioti of brain as shall not only facilitate the acquisition 



242 CHILDREN 

of knowledge in any specific direction, but make it morally 
certain that such knowledge will be sought and acquired. 

Not only this, but they indicate also that any desired type of 
physical beauty may be conferred, even where the mother pos- 
sesses no such quality. 

And if this be true in respect to ordinary intellectual abil- 
ities and physical features, it must be equally true in regard to 
extraordinary mental gifts— the qualities of genius of every type 
—and of all moral dispositions and spiritual tendencies as well. 

The following is from the Arena, by Mme. Louise Mason: 

"At that time I had never known of prenatal influence; 1 
had been warned by an elder sister (my mother dying when I 
was very young) that I must be very^ careful not to 'mark' the 
unborn child by any unpleasant sight — that I must always 
think of my condition and never put my hands to my face in 
fright or grief. This was to me a revelation, and I thought, if 
a child could be 'marked' for evil, why not for good? 

' ' I would often sit alone in my room, overlooking scenes that 
were pleasant, and, in a peaceful attitude of mind perfectly 
passive, desire that my child should be a girl; that she should 
have a slight figure, chestnut hair and beautiful eyes; that she 
should be a musician, a singer, and that she should be proficient 
in everything she undertook; that she should be superior to all 
those I had ever known. Here is the result: a beautiful woman 
in mind and body, with chestnut hair, slight physique, and a 
phenomenal voice — contralto; she is a philosopher, a student in 
Delsarte, astronomy, astrology, and masters every study; is 
eloquent and has one of the most amiable dispositions. 

"My love for the unborn was so intense that it had created 
invisible lines which have grown with the years. She has 
returned that love a thousand-fold. She is all I desired, and 
more; and I am confident that with mothers educated in the law 
of prenatal influence, and properly surrounded, we could have 
gods upon the earth in the forms of men, created by the highest 
and purest thought. It should not be an intense longing on the 
part of the mother, but a quiet, passive thought given, that her 
child should become whatever her heart yearns for; then she 
should rest in the belief until the thought is forced upon her 
again. Be in the open air as much as possible. Do not eat 
meat; live upon fruit and grain." 

Influence of Mind of Mother on Form of Infant.— There are 

numerous facts on record which prove that habitual, long-con- 
tinued mental conditions of the mother, at an early period of 
pregnancy, induce deformity or other abnormal development of 
the infant. 

A Beggar's Hand.— Prof. J. Lewis Smith, of Bellevue Hos- 
pital Medical College, New York, has met with the following 
case: An Irishwoman, of strong emotions and superstitions, was 
passing along a street, in the first months of her pregnancy, 
when she was accosted by a beggar, who raised her hand, 



CHILDREN ?43 

destitute of thumb and fingers, and in "God's name" asked for 
alms. The woman passed on, but, reflecting in whose name 
money was asked, felt that she had committed a great sin. 
Harrassed by the thought of her imaginary sin, so that for 
weeks, according to her statement, she was distressed by it. 
she approached her confinement. A female infant was born, 
otherwise perfect, but lacking the fingers and thumb of one 
hand. The deformed limb was en the same side, and it seemed 
to the mother to resemble precisely that of the beggar. 

Bowels Protruding. — A woman who was present at the 
opening of a calf by a butcher, bore a child with all its bowels 
protruding from the abdomen. She was aware at the time, 
of something going on within the womb. 

Deformed Lip. — A pregnant woman fell into a violent pas- 
sion; she bled at the nose, and wiping the blood from her lip, 
bore a child wanting a lip. 

Form of Lizard on Breast. — A prospective mother became 
frightened at a lizard jumping into her bosom. She bore a 
child with an unnatural appendage exactly resembling a liz- 
ard, growing from its breast, adhering by the head and neck. 

Purple Swelling on Face. — Becoming suddenly alarmed from 
seeing her husband come with his face swollen by a blow, a 
pregnant woman bore a girl with a purple swelling upon the 
same side of the face. 

A Streak of Lightning. — A pregnant woman known to the 
writer was much frightened in a storm by a stroke of lightning. 
Her child bears a zigzag streak upon its forehead, supposed to 
be caused by the fright. 

In What Manner Does This Influence of the Maternal Mind 
Act? — Through the blood of the mother. Only a very delicate 
membrane separates the vital fluid of the mother from that of 
the infant in her womb. There is a constant interchange of the 
blood in its body with that in hers through this exceedingly thin 
membrane, and thus all nervous impressions which have pro- 
duced an alteration of either a temporary or permanent charac- 
ter in the circulating fluid of the mother are communicated to 
the child. Since the mother, as has been shown, can transmit 
through her blood certain characteristics of mind and body not 
her own — for instance, a disease peculiar to a male from her 
father to her son, or the physical and mental traits of her first 
husband to the children by her second — it does not seem at all 
strange that she should through this same medium, her blood, 
impart other peculiarities which have made a strong impression 
upon her mind. Anatomy and physiology, therefore, fully ex- 
plain and account for this seemingly mysterious influence. 



CHAPTER XIII 
THE YOUNG MAN 



SECTION ONE— THE ROAD TO SUCCESS 

Why the Young Mao Was Promoted.— "The greatest evils,* 
says Jeremy Taylor, "are from within us; and from ourselves 
also we must look for our greatest good." We are generally 
unconscious that we are creating an atmosphere that affects 
more than any other thing our material prospects as well as our 
happiness. Joe Arnols felt very much surprised and bitterly 
disappointed when Harry Tones was chosen as the foreman of 
a new branch of a manufacturing firm for which they both 
worked. At first sight it certainly seemed as if an injustice had 
been done. Joe had been with the firm longer than Harry and 
his work had given equal satisfaction. Why, then, had he been 
passed over? A few words with the employer answered the 
question. "I am sorry for Joe," he said, "and would like to 
nave pushed him forward. I know he is faithful and conscien- 
tious, and that he can always be relied upon to do his very best; 
but he wears such a long face and worries so about every trifle 
that he creates an unpleasant atmosphere. Judging others by 
myself, nothing, I believe, attracts people more than a cheer- 
ful face and a general air of happiness. Now, this is Harry's 
advantage over Joe — he always looks happy, and, as the busi- 
ness of the foreman of the new department will be largely with 
the public, he must be a man who will make a favorable impres= 
sion at the outset." 

Why the Young Man Was Not Promoted.— 

He watched the clock. 

He was always grumbling. 

He was always behindhand. 

He had no iron in his blood. 

He was willing, but unfitted. 

He didn't believe in himself. 

He asked too many questions. 

He was poisoned by a bad book. 

His stock excuse was "I forgot." 

He wasn't ready for the next step. 

He did not put his heart into his work. 

He learned nothing from his blunders. 

He felt that he was above his position. 

He chose his friends among his inferiors. 

244 



THE YOUNG MAN 



245 



He was content to be a second-rate man. 

He ruined his ability by half -doing things. 

He never dared to act on his own judgment. 

He did not think it worth while to learn how. 

He tried to make "bluff" take the place of ability. 

He thought he must take amusement every evening. 

Familiarity with slipshod methods paralyzed his ideal. 

He was ashamed of his parents because they were old-fash- 
ioned. , 

He did not learn that the best part of his salary was not in 
his pay-envelope. 




THE CENTER OF ATTRACTION — BACK ON FURLOUGH. 



Young Men Arise. — From the street corners, from the 
saloon, from the loafers' resorts, from the idlers' promenade, 
turn your steps into the highway of noble purpose and earnest 
work. There are prizes enough for every successful worker, 
crowns for every honorable head that goes through the smoke 
of conflict to victory. Though there are obstacles to be sur- 
mounted and difficulties to be conquered, yet with honesty and 
faithfulness for his watchword, the young man may crown his 
brow with imperishable honors. 

Beautiful lives have blossomed in the darkest places, like 
{rore white lilies on the slimy, stagnant waters. 

15 



246 



THE YOUNG MAN 



Work Necessary .—Whatever aptitude for particular pursuits 
aature may donate to her favorite children, she conducts none 
but the laborious and the studious to distinction. 




A FATHER'S ADVICE TO HIS SON. 



God puts the oak in the forest, and the pine on the sand and 
rocks, and says to man: "These are your houses; go hew, saw, 
^ame, build, make," God makes the trees; man must build 



THE YOUNG MAN 247 

the house. God supplies the timber; men must construct the 
ship. God buries iron in the earth; man must dig it, smelt it 
and fashion it. 

Young: Man, Dig for Success. — Great men have always been 
known as men of action in some line of service. As the great 
river owes its greatness to the hidden springs in the mountain 
nooks, so does the wide-sweeping influence of great men take 
its origin from hours of privacy, resolutely employed in efforts 
after self -development. The invisible springs of self-culture are 
the sources of every great achievement. 

Away, then, young man, with all dreams of superiority, 
unless you are determined to dig after knowledge, as we dig in 
the rocks for the hidden gold. 

Blind and Deaf to Home Courtesies and Cares.— "He is a 
number one boy," said grandmother, proudly. "A great boy for 
his books; indeed, he would rather read than play, and that is 
saying a good deal for a boy of seven." 

"It is, certainly," returned Uncle John, "but what a pity it 
is that he is blind." 

"Blind!" exclaimed grandmother, and the "number one boy' ; 
looked up, too, in wonder. 

"Yes, blind, and a little deaf, also, I fear," answered Uncle 
John. 

"Why, John! What put that into your head?" asked grand- 
mother, looking perplexed. 

"Why, the 'number one boy' himself," said Uncle John. 
"He has been occupying the one easy chair in the room all the 
afternoon, never seeing you, nor his mother when she came in 
for a few minutes' rest. Then, when your glasses were mislaid 
and you had to climb upstairs two or three times to look for 
them, he neither saw nor heard anything that was going on." 

"Oh, he is so busy reading," apologized grandmother. 

"That is not a very good excuse, mother," replied Uncle 
John, smiling. If 'Number One' is not blind nor deaf, he must 
be very selfish indeed to occupy the best seat in the room and 
let older people run up and down stairs while he takes his 
ease." 

"Nobody asked me to give up my seat or to run on errands," 
said "Number One." 

"That should not have been necessary," urged Uncle John. 
"What are a boy's eyes and ears for, if not to keep him posted 
on what is going on around him? I am glad to see you fond of 
books, but if a pretty story makes you forget all things except 
amusing 'Number One,' better run out and play with the other 
seven-year-old boys, and let grandmother enjoy the comfort of 
her rocker in quiet." 

The Little Words.— 

You'd be surprised, I'm sure, to know 
How far a little word can go. 



248 THE YOUNG MAN 

How many miles it runs away 

Up hill and down, a single day; 

How many angry hearts it wakes, 

How many pleasant friends it makes; 

What very wise things it can tell, 

What very simple ones, as well; 

How very busy, brave and true, 

How very false and lazy, too. 

So, take good care before that word 

By anybody else is heard, 

That it shall truly worthy be 

To join a happy company 

Of helpful words, that march with grace, 

And bear sweet sunshine in the face. 



SECTION TWO— SELF-RESTRAINT 

The Life of Chastity a Struggle.— A life of chastity in man 
Is a life of struggle, especially so with strongly-sexed men. 
Nature says: "Take what you want." But you must pay the price 
for it, even to the last cent. Our sexual nature, many times, 
leads us to accept the invitation, but we pay a tremendous price 
for what we receive, whenever we take what is sexually unlawful. 
We think we can defer payment indefinitely, and possibly cheat 
nature. But in due time payment is demanded, with interest. 

Our Nerves.— Our nerves are given us for the most exalted 
purposes and pleasures; but when poisoned, perverted, diseased, 
they become the avengers of nature. 

A Continent Man. — The man is continent who commits 
neither fornication, nor adultery, nor secret vice; but for all 
that, his nrind may be "foul as hell within," and he may nour- 
ish his fancy on vile imaginings. Such a^ one is not chaste. 
Only he, pure in thought and in life, who withstands and over- 
comes the promptings of his carnal nature, deserves this noble 
epithet; he it is who dwells in the condition of chaste celibacy. 

A False Theory. — We emphatically condemn, as a most per- 
nicious doctrine, one calculated to work untold evil, and to foster 
the worst forms of vice, the theory that any injury whatever 
rises from a chaste celibacy. 

The organs are not weakened, nor their power lost, nor is 
there a tendency to spermatorrhoea, nor to congestions, nor to 
any one of those ills which certain vicious writers and certain 
superficial and careless physicians have attributed to this state. 
No condition of life is more thoroughly consistent with perfect 
mental and physical vigor than absolute chastity. Those only 
suffer any ill results from celibacy who are impure in thought 
or act; and for them it is true, nature has devised bitter tor- 
tures, and inflicts them with pitiless severity. 

A Source of Intellectual Strength.— "It is important to know 



THE YOUNG MAN 



249 



there are other uses for the procreative element of man than 
generation of physical offspring; far better uses than its waste 
in momentary pleasure. 

"This element when retained in the system may be coined 
into new thoughts, perhaps new invention^, grand conceptions 
of the true, the beautiful, the useful; or into fresh emotions of 
joy and impulses of kindness to all around. This, in fact, 
is but another department of procreation. It is the procreation 




A FINE PROSPECT. 

of thoughts, ideas, feelings of good-will, intuition; that is, it is 
procreation of the mental and spiritual planes, instead of the 
physical. — A . E. Newton. 

How Appropriated.— Mr. Newton's theory is a fine one 
*nd well stated; but how does it come to pass? 

The amount of seminal fluid secreted differs greatly among 



250 THE YOUNG MAN 

men. As a rule, the glands testes secrete only in quantities 
during sexual excitement, either mental or physical. Ordinarily 9 
it will, if not ejected, be taken back into the general system by 
means of the lymphatic vessels. 

If, in healthy men, the secretions do occur without sexual 
excitement of any kind, the absorption by the lymphatics goes 
on naturally, and to the individual, unconsciously. 

Dr. Acton's Statement,— Dr. Acton says that it is the gener= 
ally received impression that the semen, after having been 
secreted in the testes, can be reabsorbed into the circulation, 
giving buoyancy to the feelings, and the manly vigor which 
characterizes the male. 

This powerful vital stimulant animates, warms the whole 
economy, places it in a state of exaltation and orgasm; renders 
It in some sort more capable of thinking and acting with ascend= 
ancy. 

It is not certain elements remaining in the blood, and not 
eliminated from it, which produce manly vigor or virility; if SO; 
castration would produce it, instead of preventing its develop^ 
ment. 

Manly Vigor. — For true manly vigor to be apparent, man 
must be in good health, with sound organs generally, the testes 
normal and equal to the secretion of semen, and to the retention 
of it so long as may be required for the natural reservoirs 
adapted to the purpose. 

Sex-Pow«r Retained tn the System.— To emphasize the idea 
of retaining the sex-power in the system, we quote a few lines 
from "A Child of Light," an excellent work, by Prof. N. N 
Riddell: 

"Sex-power, if retained in the system during youth and 
adult life, is converted into magnetism, vitality, energy, vivacity j 
memory, creative fancy, originality, aspiration, moral courage- 
sympathy, life, manhood and womanhood." 

A hint to the wise is sufficient. He who would improve any 
attribute of body, mind or soul, and wield the scepter of powers 
who would feel in mature years the buoyancy of youth, should 
learn and obey the law of sex. 

A Priceless Possession. — He who would thrill with the 
power of magnetism and inspire others with its subtle force? 
who would realize the romance of love and the poetry of an 
ardent soul; who would feel ambition "mount from weird earth 
to vaulted sky," and know the potency of noble aspirations 9 
should retain the force within his being. 

Self-Denial's Reward.— He who would be able to reason 
clearly and comprehend readily; who would vibrate with an- 
other's sympathy and feel another's woe; who would know what 
it is to be a free man and have that moral courage that will not 
bear a feather's weight of slavery's chain for small or great; who 




DAVID — A NOBLE YOUNG MAN OF LONG AGO. 



252 THE YOUNG MAN 

would stand in the presence of God and man an uncrowned king 
— resplendent with the glories of human achievement, conscious 
of the divinity there is in him — "let him deny himself" and fol- 
low the Christ in a life of chastity. 

Some Errors Corrected. — There is a common error among 
young men that health requires an emission of semen at stated 
periods. Many entertain the notion that to give way to venereal 
indulgences increases the energy and activity of the mind, 
sharpens the wit, gives brilliancy and power to the imagination, 
and beautiful and sublime flights to fancy. All this is wrong — 
entirely, dangerously wrong. 

Health does not absolutely require that there should ever b® 
m emission of semen from puberty to old age. 



CHAPTER XIV 
CHASTITY AND UNCHASTITY 



Definition.— Ctete.— Free from unlawful sexual intercourse; 
rirtuous. 

Chastity.— Sexual or moral purity; continence. _ 
Continence.— Self-restraint with respect to desires, appetites 
and passions; especially, self-restraint with respect to the sexual 
passion, either in the married or the unmarried. But according 
to the Great Teacher, it includes more than the mere outward 
act: "Whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath 
committed adultery with her already in his heart." This would 
include the act of secret vice. It will be seen that the idea of 
chastity is broad in its meaning and scope. 

Is Continence Possible ?— Can a well-sexed and healthy young 
man live a chaste and continent life from the age of puberty to 
the time of marriage, which may not take place before his 
thirtieth or even his fortieth year? 

Let it be remembered that the sexual'appetite is the strongest 
in our nature; there is no other appetite to compare with it; and 
herein we see the wisdom and goodness of God, for if it were 
not strong beyond compare the human race would soon become 
extinct. Witness the wretched devices of modern society to 
prevent conception and thus escape the trouble and expense of 
raising a family; but in spite of all these the population of the 
world is maintained, although in some localities these devices 
are blotting out the native population, and handing the country 
over to foreigners. 

A Chaste Young Life is Possible.— Many are ready to answer 
in the most positive manner that it is not possible for a young 
man to live a chaste life. We know that it takes a struggle to 
do so, but we answer most emphatically that it can be done, 
and in thousands of cases it is done. They have escaped the 
perils of masturbation and fornication because they were early 
instructed and cautioned. It is only when a man gives license 
to his passions that they become regnant and lead him captive 
at their will. 

Don't Judge Others by Yourself.— When you hear one de- 
clare that no unmarried man can live a continent life, and that 
in fact all young men have sexual intercourse occasionally be- 
fore marriage, you may set that man down as an impure man. 
He judges others by himself; he associates with young men like 
himself, snaps his fingers and curls his lip, and says: "They all 
do it." He is a liar, and libels thousands of pure men who 

253 



254 CHASTITY AND UNCHASTITY 

would sooner pluck out the right eye than defile themselves by 
illicit intercourse. 

Thousands Pure. — Human nature is sufficiently degraded, 
and sensuality is sufficiently rampant, but, thank God, all are 
not vile and impure- There are thousands of men who never 
know what sexual intercourse is until marriage, and who struggle 
heroically against their passion and conquer manfully. There 
are well-sexed men who never marry and yet live a pure, chaste* 
continent life to the day of their death. But if a young man 
gives reins to his imagination, and associates with vulgar, foul- 
mouthed companions, whose conversation is principally about 
women, no wonder that he can not control his passion, for he 
is pouring oil on the fire all the time. 

Dr. Acton's Experience. — The following is a statement oi 
Dr. Acton, the noted English surgeon: 

"You may be surprised by the statement I am about to make 
to you, that before my marriage I lived a perfectly continent 
life. During my university career my passions were very strong, 
sometimes almost uncontrollable, but I have the satisfaction of 
thinking I mastered them.^ It was, however, by great efforts, 
I obliged myself to take violent physical exertion. I was the 
best oar of my year, and when I felt particularly strong sexual! 
desire I sallied out to take my exercise. I was victorious always, 
and I never committed fornication. You see in what vigorous 
health I am; it was exercise that saved me. H 

Where to Begin to Conquer.— A horse that has run away a 
few times can never more be trusted. He has acquired the 
habit, which, perhaps, nothing but death will break him of. 

Sexual passion has its origin in the mind. It is true that 
physical conditions may be constantly, persistently pulling at 
the skirts in order to draw the attention of the mind to sexual 
things, and as these appeals are pleasing, it is difficult to reject 
them. But after all, by a persistent refusal of the will to con= 
sider the lascivious appeals, the victory is won. 

Rioting in Visions. — Dr. Dio Lewis says: " All overt sins and 
crimes begin, we know, in the thoughts or imagination. A 
young man allows himself to conjure up visions of naked fe= 
males. These become habitual and haunt, until at last the 
sexual passion absorbs not only his waking thoughts, but his 
very dreams. Here is one of the great fountains of our woes. 
Although we may outwardly present a blameless life, how many 
of us could wear a window in our breasts without covering our 
faces for shame?" 

Put Out the Fire or Bank It.— It would be folly, if we wished 
to keep down the pressure in a steam boiler, to keep up the 
fires; so if we want to be chaste in both thought and act, we 
must keep down the fires of passion or "bank" them. 

Here, again, is what Dr. Lewis says: "Rioting in visions of 
nude women may exhaust one as much as an excess in actual 
intercourse. There are multitudes who would never spend the 



CHASTITY AND UNCHASTITY 255 

night with an abandoned female, but who rarely meet a young 
girl that their imaginations are not busy with her person." 

The Fountain of Vice.— Continuing, Dr. Lewis says: "This 
species of indulgence is the source of all the other forms — the 
fountain from which the external vices spring. * * * Believing 
that this incontinence of the imagination works more mischief 
than all other forms of the evil— that indeed it gives rise to all 
the rest— I am astounded that it has received so little attention." 

Cleanse the Inner Man.— Unchastity has contributed above 
all other causes to the exhaustion and demoralization of the 
race. We shall not be likely to conquer this monster, even in 
ourselves, unless we make the thoughts our point of attack. So 
long as we indulge in this mental sexual abuse, we are almost 
sure, when tempted, to commit the overt act. If we can not 
succeed within, we may pray in vain for help to resist the 
tempter outwardly. In fact, it is one of the laws of our being 
that we can not be successfully tempted unless there is answer 
to the appeal from within. 

Dr. Dio Lewis' Recipe.— "Fix it in your mind that a sensual 
idea is dangerous and harmful; then the instant one comes it 
will startle you. _ By an effort you change the subject immedi- 
ately. You can, if you are in earnest, set such an alarm in your 
mind that if a lascivious thought occurs to you when asleep, it 
will waken you." 

Fight the Enemy.— Says Dr. Lewis: "If when you are 
awake the enemy enters your mind, you will be aroused, and 
expel it at once without a very serious effort. If there is a 
moment's doubt, spring up and engage in some active exercise 
of the body. 

"Each effort will be easier, until after a week or two you will 
have, in this particular, complete control of your thoughts, and 
that will soon make you feel a good deal more like a man." 

Obey Health Laws. — The fever and excitement of voluptuous 
revery wear out the nervous system, emasculate manhood, 
and shut cut all the noblest visions in this and the world to 
come. 

One must observe health laws. It is the idle, over-fed peo- 
ple who suffer most from all animal excitements. Work hard, 
or by brisk walks and gymnastics give yourself two or three 
good sweats every day. 

Live Plainly. — Eat plain, nourishing, unstimulating food. 
Go without supper. Retire early. Drink freely of cold water 
both on rising and on going to bed, and sleep in pure air. But 
don't forget to keep the mind pure. 

Strong Drink, even in its mildest forms, inflames the pas- 
sions, and tobacco is only second to strong drink, and both 
should be rigidly abstained from. All rich and highly seasoned 
foods must be avoided. With proper diet and bathing, constant 



256 CHASTITY AND UNCHASTITY 

employment or hard study will consume the vitality which each 
day supplies, keep the mind free from lascivious thoughts, and 
make sleep sweet and refreshing. 

The Wife Not a Prostitute to the Husband.— It is both dis- 
graceful and dangerous for a man to use his wife as a libertine 
does a prostitute. How can he suppose that she will remain 
pure if he practices corrupt arts and artificial excitation? 

Husbands should know that when they abuse their wives 
by lascivious actions and discourses, they injure themselves and 
violate the purpose of marriage, and if their wives fail in fidelity 
in consequence of such corruptions, husbands have no right to 
demand redress, for they have brought this punishment upon 
themselves. 

Too frequently, we fear, young men regard the sacred union 
of marriage as merely a safe and easy means of indulging their 
appetites. If they carry out such an idea, they may discover 
too late the magnitude of their folly. 

Illicit Love. — It is a vicious and vulgar error which pretends 
that the unnatural ardor, the anxiety and the sweetness of the 
stolen fruit, which are associated with illicit love, tend to pro- 
duce a more felicitously constituted being. Illegitimate children 
are notorious for their mortality. The deaths among them 
during the first year are far greater in proportion than among 
the progeny of the married. Some celebrated bastards there 
have been, it is true, but they are the exceptions, and generally 
they have a taint of viciousness or of monomania running in 
their blood which spoils their lives. 

True, a certain amount of passion is eminently desirable, 
and in all likelihood does beneficially affect the offspring; but 
here again the judicious man will always remain master of 
himself. 

A Remedy for a Desire of Over-Indulgence. — If an unmarried 
man finds himself troubled with concupiscence, let him be more 
abstemious, and less stimulating and heating in his diet; let him 
take more active exercise in the open air; let him use the cold 
bath under proper conditions, and he will be greatly helped. 
But that is not all. He must have a proper chastity of mind; 
he must avoid lewd images and conceptions of his mind and 
imagination. 

Let every young man's motto be: The mind away from sexual 
thoughts, and the hands away fro?n the parts. And if a married 
man finds himself inclined to an excess of sexual indulgence, let 
him adopt the same regimen, and he will soon find that he has 
no reason to complain of what he calls his natural propensity. 
All men can be chaste in body and in mind, if they truly desire 
it, and if they use the right means to be so. But it is a perfect 
mockery to talk about our inherent and ungovernable passions, 
while we take every measure to deprave our instinctive propen- 
sities, and to excite our passions, and render them ungovernable 
and irresistible. 



WHAT 
WILL HER 





At 26 
Immoral and outcast. 





*T*HE above bright little 
girl represents 
thousands in our homes to- 
day. Happy, loving and 
sunny-dispositioned. Par- 
ents, what responsibilities 
are yours! If not wisely 
trained and taught she 
may follow the course pic- 
tured to the left and bring 
down your gray hairs with 
sorrow to the grave. 

At fifteen, in the com- 
pany of boys of question- 
able character; at twenty, 
modesty and self-respect 
lost ; at twenty-six, im- 
moral and an outcast from 
home and society; and at 
forty, prematurely old. 
•with life wrecked, hope 
gone, and poverty and 
■wretchedness her lot. 

On the other hand, wise- 
ly trained, she may be for 
the rest of your days a 
source of joy and pride. 
At fifteen, modest (a girl's 
rarest quality) and studi- 
ous; at twenty, victorious 
in her studies and pure as 
a sunbeam; at twenty-six, 
a proud mother in her own 
home; and at seventy, well- 
preserved, loved and hon- 
ored. 



FUTURE 
BE? 




At 15 

Studious and modest 




At 20 
Virtuous and intelligent. 




At 26 
A happv^pother. 




At 40 
In poverty and wretchedness. 



At 70 
An estimable grandmother. 



THE WIDE AND THE NARROW WAY. 



CHAPTER XV 
SELF-POLLUTION 



By far the worst form, of venereal indulgence is self -pollu- 
tion, or, as it is called by medical writers, onanism or mastur- 
bation. And it is incomparably the worst for several important 
reasons. 

Its Evil Effects. — It is wholly unnatural, and, in every 
respect, does violence to nature. The mental action, and the 
power of the imagination on the genital organs, forcing a vital 
stimulation of the parts, which is reflected over the whole nerv- 
ous system, are exceedingly intense and injurious; and conse- 
quently the reciprocal influences between the brain and the 
genital organs become extremely powerful, irresistible and 
destructive. The general, prolonged and rigid tension of the 
muscular and nervous tissues is excessively severe and violent. 
In short, the consentaneous effort and concentrated energy of 
all the powers of the human system to this single forced effect 
cause the most ruinous irritation, violence, exhaustion and 
debility to the system. 

Youth Suffers Most.— All who are acquainted with the 
science of human life are well aware that all excesses and in- 
juries of every kind are far more pernicious and permanent in 
their effects on the youthful and growing body than when all 
the organs and parts are completely developed, and the consti- 
tution and general economy fully and firmly established. This 
is the great reason why many men who fall into ruinous habits, 
after they are twenty-five or thirty years of age, will live on, in 
spite of those habits, by the virtues of a well-established and 
vigorous constitution, till they arrive at what we commonly call 
old age; while the children of the same men, following their 
fathers' evil example and forming those ruinous habits when 
very young, become early victims and fall prematurely into the 
grave. 

Where Boys Frequently Learn.— The common notion that 
boys are generally ignorant in relation to this matter and that 
we ought not to remove that ignorance is wholly incorrect. Most 
boys do know about this, even if they do not practice it. 

Servants and people of loose morals often become the secret 
teachers of children in this debasing sin. But it is more fre- 
quently communicated from boy to boy. One corrupt boy will 
corrupt many others. 



258 SELF-POLLUTION 

No Second Person to Bestrain.— It is a secret and solitary 
vice, which requires the consent of no second person, and there- 
fore the practice has little restraint as to its frequency. The 
general conditions are such that the practice becomes more and 
more frequent. 

Destroys Both Body and Mind.— It impairs the intellectual 
and moral faculties and debases the mind in the greatest degree, 
and causes the most deep and lasting regret, which sometimes 
rises to the most pungent remorse and despair. It would seem 
that God, as an instinct law in the innate moral sense, remon- 
strates against this filthy vice; for, however ignorant the boy 
may be of the moral character of the act or of the physical and 
mental evils which result from it; though he may never have 
been told that it is wrong; yet every one who is guilty of it 
feels an instinctive shame and deep self-loathing even in his 
secret solitude, after the unclean deed is done! — and that youth 
has made no small progress in the depravity of his moral feel- 
ings who has so silenced the dictates of natural modesty that 
he can, without the blush of shame, pollute himself in the pres- 
ence of another, even his most intimate companion! Hence all 
who give themselves up to the excesses of this debasing indul- 
gence carry about with them, continually, a consciousness of 
their defilement, and cherish a secret suspicion that others look 
upon them as debased beings. They can not meet the look of 
others, and especially of the female sex, with the modest bold- 
ness of conscious innocence and purity; but their eyes fall, sud- 
denly abashed, and the glow of mingled shame and confusion 
comes upon their cheeks, when they meet the glance of those 
with whom they are conversing, or in whose company they are. 

A Want of Self-Respect. — They feel none of that manly con- 
fidence and gallant spirit and chaste delight in the presence of 
virtuous females which stimulate young men to pursue the 
course of ennobling refinement and mature them for the social 
relations and enjoyment of life; and hence, they are often in- 
clined, either to shun the society of females entirelyor to seek 
such as is by no means calculated to elevate their views, or to 
improve their taste or morals. And if, by the kind offices of 
friends, they are put forward into good society, they are con- 
tinually oppressed with shrinking embarrassment, which makes 
them feel as if they were out of their own element, and look for- 
ward to the time of retirement as the time of their release from 
an unpleasant situation. A want of self-respect disqualifies them 
for the easy and elegant courtesies which render young men 
interesting to the other sex; and often prevents their farming 
those honorable relations in life, so desirable to every virtuous 
heart; and frequently dooms them either to a gloomy celibacy 
or an early grave. This shamef acedness or unhappy quailing 
of the countenance, on meeting the look of others, often follows 
them through life; in some instances, even after they have en- 
tirely abandoned the habit, and become married men, and 
respectable members of society. 



SELF-POLLUTION 259 

Desire Developed.— One of the first effects of the abuse of 
the genital organs is the development in them of an unhealthy 
degree of their peculiar sensibility — rendering them far more 
susceptible of excitement and establishing something like an 
habitual desire for indulgence. Of course, this state of things 
can not be carried very far without considerably affecting the 
whole nervous system and disturbing the functions of the sev- 
eral organs, more or less, according to their relative importance 
to the immediate welfare of the whole body. 

Sexual Excess on the Nervous System.— The nervous system 
is the grand medium of injury to all the other tissues and sub- 
stances of the body. Not only are the nerves generally debili-= 
tated and the nerves of organic life tortured into a diseased irri^ 
tability and sensibility, but there is also a great deterioration 
and wasting of the nervous substance. The special nervous 
properties suffer in due proportion — varying in different persons 
with different peculiarities. The sense of touch becomes obtuse 
and less discriminating, and in some instances a numbness of 
the extremities and limbs, and even of the whole body, is experi- 
enced, sometimes actually reaching that state which is called 
numb palsy. 

Effect on the Senses. — The sense of taste is equally blunted, 
and loses that delicate perception of agreeable qualities on 
which the delightful relish of proper and healthful food depends* 
and hence the unnatural demand for vicious culinary prepara- 
tions and stimulating condiments, and the utter distaste for 
simple diet. The sense of smell becomes impaired, and loses 
its nice, discriminating power, and but faintly perceives the rich 
fragrance which the vegetable kingdom breathes forth for 
man's enjoyment. The ear grows dull and hard of hearing, and 
oftentimes a continual and distressing ringing, like the knell of 
ruined health, and the prognostic of evils yet more fearful, is 
the only music which occupies it. 

Effect on the Sight. — But, of all the special senses, the eyes s 
more generally, are the greatest sufferers from venereal abuses. 
They become languid and dull, and lose their brightness and 
liveliness of expression, and assume a glassy and vacant appear= 
ance; and fall back into their sockets, and perhaps become red 
and inflamed, and weak and excessively sensitive, so that wind, 
light, etc., irritate and distress them. The sight becomes feeble, 
obscure, cloudy, confused, and often is entirely lost, so that 
utter blindness fills the rest of life with darkness and unavail- 
ing regret. 

Effect on the Brain. — The brain is neither last nor least in 
these terrible sufferings. Associated as it is with the genital 
organs, it participates largely in all their direct excitements. Its 
extreme irritability, and its morbid sympathy with the alimen- 
tary canal, heart and lungs, as a mere animal organ, cause it 
not only to suffer excessively from all their irritations, but to 



260 



SELF-POLLUTION 



reflect those irritations back upon the same organs, and through* 
out the whole system, mental and physical. 

Doctors Differ. — There have been, unfortunately, many 
wretched books put forth upon this topic filled with overdrawn 
pictures of its result, and written merely for the purpose of 
drawing the unwary into the nets of unscrupulous charlatans. 
There is also a wide diversity of opinion among skilful physi- 
cians themselves as to its consequences. Some treat the whole 
matter lightly, saying that a large proportion of boys and 
young men abuse themselves thus without serious or lasting 




INNOCENT CHILDHOOD. 



injury, and hold, therefore, that any special warning is uncalled 
for. On the other hand, the large majority of practitioners are 
convinced that not only occasionally, but frequently, the results 
are disastrous in the extreme. 

Quotations from Noted Physicians.— " I could speak of the 
many wrecks of high intellectual attainments, and the foul blot 
which has been made on the virgin page of youth, of shocks 
from which the youth's system will never, in my opinion, be 
able to rally, of maladies engendered which no after course of 
treatment can altogether cure, as the consequences of this 
habit." 

"I would not exaggerate this matter or imply that those who 



SELF-POLLUTION 261 

have occasionally gone astray are necessarily incurably dis- 
eased, or their souls irretrievably lost. But I do consider that 
the effect upon the constitution is detrimental in the extreme. 
Enfeebling to the body, enfeebling to the mind, the incarnation 
of selfishness, hardly the person exists who does not know from 
experience or from observation its blighting effects." 

"The deleterious, the sometimes appalling, consequences of 
this vice upon the health, the constitution, the mind itself, are 
some of the common matters of medical observation. The vic- 
tims of it should know what these consequences are; for to be 
acquainted with the tremendous evils it entails may assist them 
in the work of resistance." 

"Nothing is more certain than that continued self -abuse will 
produce an enervation of nervous element, which, if the ex- 
hausting vice be continued, passes into degeneration and actual 
destruction thereof." 

"I myself have seen many young men drop into premature 
graves from this cause alone." 

"I consider this one of the most certain means which short- 
en and derange life." 

These are the well-considered views of the ablest men in the 
profession of medicine. 

The Other Side. — That there are physicians who treat lightly 
this censurable indulgence is not surprising. We could readily 
quote equally high authorities who see no great dangers in the use 
of alcohol, of opium and of illicit amours. There are many, 
say they, who yield to all these temptations, and yet do not 
obviously suffer, and ultimately reform. Is the counselor wise 
who therefore pooh-poohs their perils? Certainly not; for our 
part, we shall not, can not, follow their example. 

Its Prevention. — It is in childhood, and in early boyhood, 
that in most cases it is commenced. But it is more frequent 
about the age of puberty, when the passions become stronger, 
and local irritations of various kinds lead the thoughts and 
suggest the act. In childhood, degraded companions and vicious 
domestics instruct in bad practices; at puberty the natural pas- 
sions often prompt, without the need of bad examples. In both 
cases an utter ignorance of danger is present, and this is the 
first point that the parent and teacher must make up their minds 
to face. 

Children Must Be Tanght.— Children must be taught purity. 
There is no doubt that in many of them an improper tone of 
thought is established even before the period of puberty. For 
a boy to reach his teens without learning from his associates 
something of these matters is simply impossible. 

We urge, therefore, parents and teachers not vo permit a 
natural, and under other circumstances very proper delicacy, to 
restrain them from their bounden duty to warn their charges of 
these dangers. If wisely done, there is no risk whatever of 

16 



262 SELF-POLLUTION 

exciting impure thoughts; and if there is any risk, it is infinitely 
less than that of leaving children in ignorance. 

Beading' and Dancing. — The regimen should be plain, and 
the imagination allowed to remain in abeyance. Sensational 
love stories, and even such warmly colored pictures as are pre- 
sented in the Arabian Nights and the amorous poets, had better 
be tabooed. 

The growing custom of allowing very young people of both 
sexes to associate at parties, balls, dances and similar amuse- 
ments can not be approved on the score of health. It is nearly 
certain to favor precocity. 

Its Cure. — Many a victim with flagging body and enfeebled 
will is ready to cry out: Who shall deliver me from the body of 
this death? Let them know for their consolation that very 
many men, now hale and happy, have met and conquered the 
tempter; that so long as the mind itself is not actually weakened, 
there is good hope for them; that the habit once stopped short 
of this point, the system recovers from its prostration with sur- 
prising rapidity; and that we come provided with many aids to 
strengthen their wavering purpose. 

Purity of Mind. — First and most essential, is the advice that 
they must resolutely strive for purity of mind. All exciting liter- 
ature, all indecent conversations, all lascivious exhibitions must 
be totally renounced. Next, all stimulating food and drink, and 
especially coffee and alcoholic beverages, must be dropped. 
The mind and body must both be constantly and arduously 
employed, the diet plain and limited, the sleep never prolonged, 
the bed hard, the room well ventilated, the covering light, and 
the habits as much broken into as practicable. Generally the 
temptation comes at some particular hour, or under some espe- 
cial and well-known circumstances. At such times extra pre- 
cautions must be taken to occupy the thoughts with serious 
subjects, and to destroy the old associations and opportunities. 

Medical Aid. — There are also medical means which can be 
employed in some cases with good success, such as the admin- 
istration of substances which destroy desire, and local applica- 
tions, and even surgical operations which render the action 
physically impossible, but these means we do not propose to 
enter into, as they can only be properly applied by the educated 
physician, and do not form part of a work on hygiene. 

Hopeful Cases. — When the habit is not deeply rooted, an ear- 
nest endeavor, backed by rigid observance of the rules we have 
laid down, will enable a youth to conquer himself and his un- 
natural desires. 

Will Marriage Help?— Certainly marriage need not be recom- 
mended to the confirmed masturbator in the hope or expectation 
of curing him of his vice. He will most likely continue it after- 
wards, and the circumstances in which he is placed will aggra- 



SELF-POLLUTION 263 

vate the misery and the mischief of it. For natural intercourse 
he has little power or no desire, and finds no pleasure in it; the 
indulgence of a depraved appetite has destroyed the natural 
appetite. Besides, if he be not entirely impotent, what an out- 
look for any child begotten of such a degenerate stock! Has a 
being so degraded any right to curse a child with the inheritance 
of such a wretched descent? Far better that the vice and its 
consequences should die with him. 

Man May Recover. — We wish most clearly to be understood 
that even after great excesses of this nature, a young man may 
recover perfect health, and that where the habit has been but 
moderately fostered, in nearly every case, by simply ceasing 
from it, and ceasing thinking about it, he mill do so. Therefore 
there is no cause for despair or melancholy. 

Bad Advice. — It is hardly credible, and yet it is true, that 
there are medical men of respectability who do not hesitate to 
advise illicit intercourse as a remedy for masturbation. In other 
words, they destroy two souls and bodies, under pretence of sav- 
ing one! No man with Christian principle, or even with a due 
respect for the statutes of the commonwealth, can approve for a 
moment such a course as this. 

Careful regulation of life according to sound hygienic rules 
aided perhaps with appropriate medication which the physician 
can suggest, will generally effect good results. 

When Everything: Else Fails, then What ?— When everything 
else fails we have no hesitation in recommending surgical treat- 
ment. This is of various kinds, from repeated blistering to thai 
ancient operation which Latin writers tell us was practiced 
upon the singers of the Roman stage, called infibulation. This is 
of such a character as to render the act impossible or nearly so : 
Castration, which some have suggested, need never be resorted 
to. By one means or another we can say that there are exceed- 
ingly few cases, except the actually insane, who can not be 
broken of their habit, and considerably or wholly relieved of its 
after effects. 

A Great Stumbling 1 Block.— A serious obstacle in the way of 
such reform is the unwillingness of sufferers to ask advice for 
fear of disclosing their weakness. They are ashamed to tell the 
truth about themselves, and, when they do apply to a physician, 
conceal the real cause of their debility, and deny it when it is 
asked. To such we may say that if they can not have implicit 
faith in the honor as well as the skill of a medical adviser 5 
they had better not consult him, for on their frankness his suc= 
cess will often depend. 



CHAPTER XVI 
DISEASES PECULIAR TO MEN 



SECTION ONE— SPERMATORRHEA 

Men Should Know. — There are certain derangements and 
diseases peculiar to the male sex, concerning which every man 
should have some knowledge. A man should be able to detect 
the various affections to which he is liable in their earliest 
stages, not only that he may be able to himself apply simple 
remedies with effect, but that he may seek medical advice be- 
fore the golden moments of a cure have forever flown. Some 
unfortunate individuals, from a natural modesty, postpone their 
call upon the doctor until driven to him by the pain and distress 
of their malady, and find, when it is too late, they are beyond 
the power of help. 

Seminal Emissions — Spermatorrhoea.— Spermatorrhoea is 
exceedingly disastrous in its effects upon the mind, and most 
destructive in its action upon the body. It destroys the vigor 
of youth, and is ruinous to the energy and vivacity of manhood. 

We do not include under spermatorrhoea those occasional 
involuntary seminal emissions which occur during sleep, with 
individuals of sound physical and mental health. These emis- 
sions occasionally occur in every man in the very best of health, 
and, instead of exerting a deleterious influence, they are, on the 
contrary, indicative of sexual vigor. There are many young 
men, however, who are thrown into a state of alarm whenever 
an emission takes place, and imagine themselves the victim of 
all kinds of maladies. 

Unnecessary Fear. — There is no danger in such discharges 
when moderate. They are not a sign of weakness but of 
strength. They are natural to every healthy young man, and 
rarely lead to any bad results. They do not constitute the dis- 
ease spermatorrhoea, and there is no necessity for a moment's 
anxiety about them. 

A "Very Rare Disease. — Spermatorrhoea itself is a very rare 
disease, although it is undoubtedly a very serious one when it 
does occur. The patient can not recognize it for himself, and it 
is therefore useless and foolish for him to worry his mind about 
it. If he feels his health running down, and fears this may be 
the cause, let him frankly state his case to some physician in 
whom he has confidence, and not worry his own mind about it, 

264 



DISEASES PECULIAR TO MEN 



265 



Symptoms. — The loss of the secretion takes place frequently 
without dreams, and on very slight provocation. It is associ- 
ated with all the symptoms of an enervated nervous system, 
extending to a loss of memory, of mental power, and even of 
epilepsy and insanity. The countenance is pale and sallow; the 
features drawn; the eyes dull; the spirits depressed. Exercise 
of the functions is impracticable, or nearly so. Profound mel- 
ancholy, altered sexual feeling — often an aversion to society of 




HONORED AND RESPECTED. 
The reward of pure and upright living. 

either sex — and impotence, may also present themselves. When 
a man feels one-half of the disturbances of system that sperma- 
torrhoea brings, he should have medical advice. If it is be- 
yond doubt a clear case of spermatorrhoea, unless there are 
severe general symptoms of depression, there is still nothing at 
which to be frightened. 



266 DISEASES PECULIAR TO MEN 

Daily Losses. — Men have lived for years in perfect health 
with daily losses of the kind. An habitual escape of semen when 
straining at stool occurs to most men during some period of 
their lives without producing bad results. 

"What Brings It About ? — Undoubtedly in most instances this 
is self-abuse. It is another of the bitter penalties which nature 
has attached to this unnatural crime. What is more, these 
cases are the most hopeless, simply because the victims can not 
break the fatal chains which bind them. The tongues of men 
or angels, the solemn warning of the gospel itself, are unavail- 
ing. The only choice that is left is death not very remote, or a 
surgical operation which absolutely prevents them handling the 
parts. This last resort has succeeded when everything else 
has failed. But such is the state of mind of most victims that 
they can not nerve themselves to submitting to it. 

A Second Cause is Excess in Indulgence. — This may be in 
the marital relation, but far more frequently it occurs in the 
unmarried, who are more apt to indemnify themselves for long 
self-government by renouncing all restraint when opportunity 
offers. Not a few wretched old bachelors wreck themselves in 
this manner. This class, too, are particularly exposed to an- 
other cause which leads to the same result — secret diseases. 
The after-consequences of these, when neglected or ill-treated, 
often enough produce a weakening of the part and a loss of 
power to retain the secretion. So, too, the indulgence in impure 
imaginings and allowing the passions to become frequently 
excited surely bring about a similar debility with a like tend= 
ency. 

Some Are Blameless. — All these are causes which imply a 
degraded mind and disgraceful habits. But it must be under* 
stood that this disorder may arise where no blame whatever 
attaches to the individual. The change in the urine which takes 
place when the substance termed oxalic acid is secreted in large 
quantities renders the fluid irritating, and may lead to sperma- 
torrhoea. So unquestionably may stone in the bladder, ulcers 
and worms in the lower bowel, and some local inflammations 
arising from colds. Prolonged diarrhoea, neglect of cleanliness, 
certain skin diseases, the inordinate use of coffee, alcohol or 
tobacco, excessive mental application to the neglect of exercise, 
and a hereditary predisposition may, jointly or singly, lead to 
the same result, without the individual being the least in fault. 

Fearlessly Seek Aid. — The judiciouB physician always bears 
this in mind, and we mention it, so that no unfounded fear, lest 
he should be suspected or convicted of debasing practices, may 
restrain the young man who fears he is suffering from this much- 
dreaded complaint from candidly laying bare his anxieties to his 
medical counselor. 

And if it be these habits which are the source of his suffer- 
ing, he should have no hesitation in making a frank statement, 



DISEASES PECULIAR TO MEN 267 

for the physician's office is as inviolable as the confessional, 
and he knows too well that ignorance is at the source of this 
habit to condemn or despise one who is, or has been, under its 
fell sway. 

How to Prevent It. — When the water or adjacent irritations 
are to blame, these can promptly be remedied by any intelli- 
gent physician, and when the habits of food or drink are injuri- 
ous they must be amended. 

Even when there is a natural weakness which leads to over- 
frequent losses, very much can be accomplished by cold bath- 
ing, regular exercise, an unstimulating diet and rigid purity. 

It is safe to say that this is one of those diseases which never 
occur in a person who submits his life to thorough hygienic 
regulations; and it is, therefore, a disease whose speedy ex- 
tinguishment is earnestly hoped for. 

For treatment of Spermatorrhoea, see Medical Department of this 
Dook. 



SECTION TWO— SECRET DISEASES 

Their Effects and Frequency. — A masked pestilence, a sub- 
tle infection, is stealing upon the health of the nation, poisoning 
its blood and shortening its life, spreading from husband to 
wife, from parent to offspring, from nurse to infant, working 
slowly but with a fatal and an inexorable certainty. This pes- 
tilence is the specific contagion of diseases which arise from 
impure intercourse. 

Were this its only source, and did it stay its ravages with the 
guilty parties, we might say it is a just penalty, and calls for 
little sympathy. But this is not so. By the inscrutable law of 
God, which decrees that the sins of the father shall be visited 
on the children, even unto the third and fourth generation, these 
diseases work attainder of blood, become hereditary, and blight 
the offspring. They pass from the guilty to the innocent by 
lawful intercourse, by vaccination, by circumcision, by nursing, 
by utensils — even by a kiss. Hundreds of examples are recorded 
in medical literature, where the infection has spread by just 
such means. No physician of experience but has witnessed wife 
and children poisoned by the husband's infidelity. This is no 
imaginary evil we combat, nor is it any paltry or insignificant 
one. 

Statements of a Public Document. — The following is, in 
part, a statement of the Board of State Charities of Massa- 
chusetts: 

"With slow, painless, insidious, resistless march, it pene- 
trates into the very marrow of the bones, and poisons the foun- 
tain of life beyond purification. All may look fair without and 
feel fair within, but the taint is there, and it affects the off- 
spring. The effects of this disorder in corrupting the human 
stock, and predisposing offspring to disease, are more deadly 



268 DISEASES PECULIAR TO MEN 

than is usually believed. They are hardly exceeded by the 
effects of alcohol. Nature readily 'forgives unto the sons of 
men other sins and blasphemies wherewith soever they may 
blaspheme,' but this one, like 'him that blasphemeth against the 
Holy Spirit, hath never forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal 
damnation, for he hath an unclean spirit.'" 

Nature of Yenereal Diseases. — The contagious diseases which 
are propagated by the sexual relation are two in number, and 
are technically known as gonorrhoea and syphilis. They both 
commence by some local manifestation, and may not proceed 
further; but about as often they rapidly extend to the whole 
system, and produce effects upon it which are as permanent in 
character as those by vaccination or other specific virus. 

History of Syphilis. — By far the most insidious and destruc- 
tive is syphilis. This is supposed by some writers to have been 
unknown in Europe until about the period of the discovery of 
America. And not a few historians maintain that it was con- 
veyed from the natives of the West Indies to the inhabitants of 
the Old World by the sailors of Columbus. Certainly, about 
that time it broke out with unparalleled virulence in the camps, 
courts and brothels of Spain, Italy, France and England. No 
country was willing to father it, so the English called it the 
"French disease;" the French, "le mal de Naples;" the Italians, 
"la mallattia della Spagna." 

Ancient Leprosy. — There is good reason, however, to believe 
that neither Columbus, the Indians, nor any one of these nations 
was solely to blame in the matter. Probably it had lurked 
unrecognized and under comparatively innocent forms through 
all races and ages. At the epoch referred to, the massing of great 
armies by Francis I. and Charles V., and the increased com- 
merce, acting together with some change in the human constitu- 
tion itself, led to a violent outbreak in its most virulent form. 
Some have imagined that the ancient leprosy, so often referred 
to in the Old Testament, was one of its forms; and others, that 
it was derived from the glanders in the horse, transplanted into 
the human economy. But these theoretical views are of little 
public interest, and it is enough to remember that, about the year 
1500, a very malignant type of the disease arose and spread 
with fearful rapidity, and that since that time it has been 
rightly deemed one of the scourges of the human race. 

Gonorrhoea an Old Disease. — The other form of secret disease, 
gonorrhoea, was well knowa to the ancient Romans, and to the 
lawgivers of the middle ages, and old English statutes of the 
fourteenth century concerning brothels distinctly refer to it as 
"the perilous infirmitie of burnynge." 

The Fool and the Wise Man.— We believe that if the public 
generally, and especially young men, were better aware of the 
dangers they incur from illicit indulgence, there would be a 
determined effort at reform both in municipal and personal life. 



DISEASES PECULIAR TO MEN 269 

We can not think that sane, intelligent men, to say nothing of 
morality, would, for the gratification of an ephemeral desire, 
risk the well-being of their whole lives and the health of their 
offspring. It must be ignorance of danger which blinds them. 
Fools rush in where the wise men fear to tread. 

Gonorrhoea and Gleet. — Gonorrhoea is conspicuously a con- 
tagious disease, and may be acquired from any person having 
it, simply by the contact of the discharge with the mucous mem- 
brane of the urethra. The causes, therefore, are sexual inter- 
course, when the disease already exists in one of the individ- 
uals. In the male, it may arise from having intercourse with a 
woman who has gonorrhoea. It is said that certain conditions 
of the natural secretions of the vagina may produce it, as it has 
been known to occur in the man when no disease could be rec- 
ognized in the woman. But we doubt the correctness of this 
statement or belief, as the disease is now known to be the result 
of a vegetable microbe, known as a "gonococcus," singular, or 
"gonococci," plural. Something similar to gonorrhoea may be 
developed from pure women; but we suspect that no gonococci 
will be seen under the microscope, which is the positive test of 
the disease. 

Effects of Gonorrhoea.— The only membranes of the body 
capable of taking on gonorrhceal inflammation, from contact 
with the pus of gonorrhoea, are the urethra, the lining membrane 
of the bladder, of the vagina, the eye, and the rectum. 

The after-effects of gonorrhoea are much less severe than 
those of syphilis, and are confined wholly to the individual. It 
does not leave any hereditary taint. But it may bring about 
life-long suffering. The passage from the bladder becomes 
inflamed and contracted; that organ itself is very apt to partake 
of the inflammation, and become irritable and sensitive; sperma- 
torrhoea and impotence with all their miseries may follow, and 
the whole economy may partake of the infection. An eruption 
on the skin and an obstinate form of rheumatism, both wholly 
intractable to ordinary remedies, are more common than even 
many physicians imagine. 

Chronic Rheumatism and Gomorrhoea. — Not infrequently 
those troublesome chronic rheumatic complaints which annoy 
men in middle and advanced life are the late castigations which 
Nature is inflicting for early transgressions. 

No Occasion for Jokes.— Ask the multiplied thousands of 
persons who have gone through life blind from birth, caused by 
gonorrhoea in their parents; ask the innocent, unsuspecting 
wives whose wedded lives have been one of suffering from gon- 
orrhoea caught from their diseased husbands; ask the thousands 
of sufferers themselves, if there is any material from 1 hich 
jokes can be manufactured. 

A Poisonons Partner.— The testimony of Dr. Scott is as fol- 
lows; "For the ex-gonorrhceal patient who is contemplating 



270 DISEASES PECULIAR TO MEN 

marriage, and for the married man who has broken the pledge 
of fidelity and constancy implied in his solemn marriage vow, 
and has become infected, it is exceedingly important that they 
shall distinctly understand that they are, in all seriousness, 
venomous and poisonous and deadly to whatever woman they 
approach in the sexual relation, until pronounced safe by a 
skilled specialist, and that many of them never can be cured." 

Effect on Wife and Children.— Dr. Scott says, further: 
"Death does not follow in their path at once, but countless 
numbers of innocent women pay for their husbands' dirty and 
illegitimate acts with their shipwrecked health and life. Unlike 
the cobra's bite, the immediate results of infection are not 
usually seen to be dangerous to life; but gonorrhoea is charac- 
terized often by an infinitely long period of convalescence and 
quiescence, so that wives and children will suffer terrible con- 
sequences, even years afterward, unless the patient be no longer 
a gonococcus -bearing animal." 

A Strong Statement. — A famous German physician makes 
this bold statement: "About ninety per cent, of sterile women 
are married to husbands who have suffered from gonorrhoea 
either previous to or during married life." If this statement 
anywhere approaches the truth, it shows a fearful condition. 

Gonorrhoea a Local Disease. — Gonorrhoea is purely a disease 
of the parts; hence, during the whole course of inflammation, 
there is but little if any constitutional disturbance. There may 
be some slight fever, but even this is rare. The duration of the 
disease is, as a rule, from three to six weeks, when the patient 
returns to complete health. In some cases, however, the dis- 
charge, instead of disappearing, may continue for months and 
even years; it is then called glee.. 

Syphilis the Scourspe.— There are three steps in the develop- 

ment and progress of syphilis — first, the local attack, which com- 
mences as a small ulcer on the part touched by the virus. 

Second Stage. — Next in order of time are the secondary symp- 
toms; they may show themselves in three or four weeks, and 
may lurk unnoticed for that many months; the poison attacks 
the skin and soft parts of the body, producing rashes, ulcera- 
tions, swelling of the glands, sore throat, disorders of the 
stomach, liver and other internal organs ; the hair loosens and 
falls out, the spirits are depressed, and the brain may be at- 
tacked, leading to imbecility, epilepsy or insanity. At this 
stage, shallow ulcers are apt to form on the tongue and just 
inside the lips. The discharge from them is a poison, and can 
convey the disease, and so can a drop of blood from the infected 
person. 

May Bo Transmitted.— During the second stage the disease 
is extremely contagious. Let one in this condition kiss another, 
or drink from a cup, or use a pipe or a spoon, and pass it to 



DISEASES PECULIAR TO MEN 271 

another, the danger is great that the disease will thus be trans- 
mitted. An instance is recently reported in a French medical 
journal, of a glass-blower who was suffering from such ulcera- 
tions. As is usual, in all respects he appeared in goc d health, 
and was received into a manufactory. In these establishments 
the workmen are accustomed to pass the tube through which 
the glass is blown, rapidly from mouth to mouth. He had been 
there only a few weeks when the physician to the factory was 
applied to for "sore mouths," and found, to his horror, that this 
single diseased man had infected, in the process of blowing 
bottles, nine others. Let such an example be a salutary warn- 
ing to neatness and caution, as well as an illustration how often 
innocent persons can become the victims of this loathsome 
complaint. Let it also be an admonition to charity, and against 
hasty condemnation of the sufferers. 

The Third Stage. — The third step in the progress of the dis- 
ease is when the bones are attacked. They often enlarge, be- 
come painful, and may ultimately ulcerate. Especially between 
the knee and the ankle and on the head is this the case. By 
this time the whole body is poisoned, and an ineradicable taint is 
infused into the system. The constitution, though still appar- 
ently strong, is liable to give way at any moment. There is no 
longer the same power to repair injuries which there once was. 
The bones are brittle, and slow to heal. 

A young man of promise was in this condition. One day, in 
merely attempting to pull off his boot, he snapped his thigh- 
bone, so weakened was it by the disease. For nearly two years 
he lay on his bed, and was only released by death. Let any 
one who wishes to see a picture of what a human being is who 
is brought to this wretched condition by his vices or his misfor- 
tunes study this subject carefully. 

Consnlt Yonr Own Physician.— As a rule, these sufferers 
avoid telling their family physician, and prefer to consult some 
distant and unknown adviser. Hence they often fall into the 
hands of bad men, who play upon their fea~s, swindle them out 
of their money, do them no good whatever, and when all else 
fails to satisfy rapacious demands, levy blackmail, under threat 
of disclosing their condition. This course of rascality is so 
common that we warn all our readers against trusting their 
health, fortune and reputations with any man, no matter what 
his claims, of whom they have no better guarantee of his honor 
and skill than his own word therefor, and some dozens of fraud- 
ulent certificates from unknown parties. 

The Sin of the Father Tisited On the Children.— If there 
is any field where the philanthropist and reformer are most 
urgently demanded, it is to limit the infant mortality which 
prevails to such an alarming extent in our great cities. In New 
York, Boston and Philadelphia over one-fourth, in Cincinnati 
nearly one-third, of all the children born alive perish within the 



272 DISEASES PECULIAR TO MEN 

first year of life! What a portentous fact is this! What are the 
causes of this frightful mortality? 

A physician of wide experience has calculated that fourth on 
the list of causes is hereditary syphilis. But even this state- 
ment does nDt at all convey an adequate idea of the effect of this 
disease on limiting and corrupting population. 

Still-Births. — Of the infants which are still-born, the num- 
ber is very great, and of these the most frequent cause of death 
is syphilis. 

But even if the child survives its first year, the danger is not 
past. It may be the picture of health till five or six years of 
age, or to the period of puberty, or even to adult age, and then 
first reveal the long-concealed poison which has lurked in the 
system ever since its life began. That poison shows itself 
under a hundred protean forms. 

Shocking Legacies. — It may be in eruptions on the skin and 
foul ulcerations, or in obstinate "colds in the head," in swell- 
ing of the bones, in a peculiar affection of the eyes leading to 
blindness, in brittle and loose teeth, in the symptoms of scro- 
fula, in idiocy, in stunted growth, and in insanity. Such are 
the legacies which parents who have been cursed with this dis- 
ease, through vice or misfortune, have to hand down to their 
offspring. 

Laws of Transmission. — 1. It is possible for a man in whose 
constitution the taint of disease exists, but is latent, to have 
perfectly sound offspring. 

2. But if he has any symptoms of syphilis in any stage, it is 
probable, nay, almost certain, that his children will show the 
effects of it, although their mother remains healthy. 

3. Much more generally the mother takes the disease either 
from the father or from the unborn child in whose body lurks 
the father's taint. 

4. When both mother and father display unequivocal signs 
of the disease, the case of the child is desperate. 

5. When ti?e child is born, it is a dangerous source of infec- 
tion for all around it. The nurse who applies it to her breast, 
the friend who kisses it, the attendants who handle it, are in 
imminent danger of becoming in turn victims of the loathsome 
disease. 

6. The only person who can nurse or even touch it without 
danger is the mother who bore it. 

Infection from Infants.— It is in this form of infantile syph- 
ilis that the disease is most easily communicated. The readi- 
ness with which syphilis in infants can be communicated by 
contact can not be exceeded by any other disease. It is equally 
infectious with the itch itself. A common mode by which the 
syphilitic infant spreads the disease is by being kissed by the 
girl who carries it, or by others. 

If this is so — and there is no doubt of it — is it not time that 



DISEASES PECULIAR TO MEN 273 

the public received some warning about it? Are we to shut our 
mouths and see these perils to public health hourly increasing, 
and say nothing, do nothing? 

To the Third and Fourth Generation.— Let such a child by 
careful attention and sound hygiene survive to adult life, and 
become in turn the father or mother of a family, even then 
unrelenting nature may not be satisfied. There are undoubted 
cases on record where the disease was handed down, in spite of 
every care and strict virtue, to the third generation, and per- 
haps to the fourth. 

Other Diseases Originate in Syphilis.— It appears in multi- 
plied forms of disease. A very considerable proportion of those 
chronic diseases of the eyes, skin, glands and bones, to which 
the epithet scrofulous has been applied, are really the results of 
inherited syphilis. 

And all this misery, all these curses long drawn out, these 
consequences so dire to innocent generations, are the penalties 
of one moment of illicit pleasure, the vengeance of a violated 
law which knows justice, but no mercy. 

A Contagious Disease. — The household utensils, cups, 
spoons, and the like, passed from one mouth to another, may act 
as the medium of contagion; the virus may be transmitted in 
kissing, as a minute mucous patch in the mouth of one person, 
so small as to be hardly perceptible, may poison any fissure on 
the lips of anyone with which it may come in contact. 

The Poisonous Touch. — The following incident is known to 
the writer: A young lady of superior ability in a small city had 
ambitions in the direction of the dramatic art. She went to a 
large city in order to study and to make herself proficient for 
work on the stage. She succeeded for a time, but only for a 
short time. She returned to the small city after a year or two, 
and reported herself to the leading physician of her home town. 
He quickly saw that she was tainted with syphilis. He frankly 
told her the facts. She positively denied that she came to the 
foul disease through any improper conduct. It came out that 
she had been kissed (on the stage, I think) by a man, supposed 
to be a gentleman. There are several lessons in this, but we 
will let the reader find them. 

Precautions.— 1. Make it a rule never to sit on the seat of a 
water-closet so as to allow it to come in contact with the skin. 
Spread a paper over it by all means. If no paper is at hand, 
use your handkerchief and then burn it up. 

2. All keepers of good hotels never pat a guest in a bed 
whose sheets and pillow-cases have been used by another guest 
without washing. 

3. For the same reason careful housekeepers change the 
bedding after a single night's use by even a guest of the family. 

4. Sometimes matter forms in the eyes of a syphilitic pa- 
tient, and a handkerchief is used; that handkerchief can impart 



274 DISEASES PECULIAR TO MEN 

the disease to another through the eyes, or nose, or chapped 
lips. 

Its Terrible Nature—There is no tissue or organ of the 
body exempt from the ravages of general syphilis. The skin, 
from the crown of the head to the sole of the feet, is liable to 
be affected. 

The whole glandular system may be involved. The mucous 
membranes, the appendages of the skin, the hair and the nails; 
the eyes, the testes and all the internal organs; the muscles, the 
cartilages, the bones, the nerves and the brain, are all open to 
its attacks; nothing is spared; yet, notwithstanding its far-reach- 
ing, all-embracing and formidable character, syphilis is to a 
large degree manageable, and consequently, under proper treat- 
ment, not so incurable as it is commonly regarded. Though a 
terrible malady, it is rarely directly fatal. 

CantheYiras he Entirely Eradicated ?— Although the ter- 
rible disease of syphilis is known to be manageable, the ques- 
tion as to whether it may be completely cured is not so well 
decided. Cases have been reported, however, which demon- 
strate pretty clearly that the virus of syphilis has been and may 
be completely eradicated from the system. 

It is believed now by many of the best authorities that the 
symptoms, in the great majority of cases, disappear for good 
after a few years, and that, especially under proper treatment, 
the complete cure of syphilis may be often looked for. 

It is furthermore believed that while a patient who has once 
had a syphilitic chancre is liable to have general symptoms at 
any time during his life, yet there is a tendency for the violence 
of the disease and its contagious properties to disappear in time. 

Can a Syphilitic Person Ever Marry 2— There is one question 
which the physician is frequently called upon to answer, and in 
the reply to which are involved matters of the most stupendous 
importance; that is, if a patient has chancre, at what time, if 
ever, may he marry with safety? We may state that it is gen- 
erally conceded by the best authorities of the day, that marriage 
is quite safe one year after the disappearance of all syphilitic 
symptoms. Ordinarily, syphilis ceases to relapse after this 
time, though there are exceptional cases where late tertiary 
symptoms appear after long years of absence. 

It would be much better for the race if all who have in any 
way been tainted with this foul disease would refrain from hav- 
ing children. Never mind the appearance; take no chances, 
though you may seem to be well. 

For treatment of Syphilis, see Medical Department of this book. 




THE MUSCLES. 



PIG. 129. 
Anterior View or the 
Muscles op the 
Body. 

1. Frontal Bellies of the Oc- 
cipito-Frontalis. 

2. Orbicularis Palpebrarum. 

3. Levator Labii Superiors 
Alseque Nasi. 

4. Zygomaiicus Minor. 

5. Zvgomaticus Major. 
*. Masse ter. 



7. Orbicularis Oris. 

8. Depressor Labii Infe- 
rioria. 

9. Plniysma-Myodea. 

10. Deltoid. 

1 1. Pectoralis Major. 

12. Axillary portion of the 
L'atissimua Dorsi. 

13. Serralus Major Ami- 
cus. 

14. Biceps Flexor Cubiti. 

15. Anterior portion of the 
Triceps Extensor Cu- 
biti. 



16. Supinator Radii Lon- 
gus. 

17. Pronator Radii Teres. 

18. Extensor Carpi Radi- 
alis Longior. 

19. Extensor Oasis Meta- 
carpi Pollicis. 

20. Annular Ligament. 

21. Palmar Fascia. 

22. Obliquus Extemus 
Abdominis. 

23. Linea Alha. 

24. Tensor Vagina; Fc mo- 



Section of the Sperm* 

tic Cord. 

Psoas Magnus. 

Adductor Long-JS. 

Sartorius. 

Rectus Femori9. 

Vastus Extemus. 

Vastus Internus. 

Tendon Patell*. 

Gastrocnemius. 

Tibialis Amicus, 

Tibia. 

Tendons of ihe Exten 

so: Communis. 



FIG. 130. 




THE MUSCLES. 



FIG. 130. 

Posterior View ofthe 

Muscles op the Body. 

1. Temporalis. 

2. Occipital portion of the 
Occipito-Frontalis. 

3. Complexus, 

4. Splenius. 

5. Masseter. 

6. Sterno • Cleido -Masioi- 
deus. 



Trapezius, 
Deltoid. 
Infra-Spinatus. 
Triceps Extensor. 
Teres Minor. ' 
Teres Major. 
Tendinous portion of 
the Triceps. 
Anterior Edge of the 
Triceps. 

Supinator Radii Lon- 
gus. 



Pronator Radii Teres. 
'Extensor Communis 
Digitorum. 
Extensor Ossis Meta- 
carpi Pollicis. 
Extensor Communis 
Digitorum Tendons. 
Olecranon and Inser- 
tion of the Triceps. 
Extensor Carpi Ulna- 
ris. 
Auricularis. 



23. Extensor Communis. 

24. Latissimus Dorsi. 

25. lis Tendinous Origin. 

26. Posterior part of th« 
Obliquus Externus. 

27. Gluteus Medius. 

28. Gluteus Magnus. 

29. Biceps Flexor Cruris. 

30. Semi-Tendinosus. 

32 ' I Gastrocnemius. 
33! Tendo Achillis. 



CHAPTER XVII 
THE SOCIAL EVIL 



Prostitution. — In the preceding pages we have shown the fear* 
ful results flowing from venereal diseases. But back of these 
diseases, is prostitution. There could be no such thing as ven- 
ereal disease if there were no indiscriminate sexual intercourse. 
A chain must be formed in order to perpetuate these foul dis- 
eases. The husband and wife are two links, and if the connec- 
tions stop here, no chain can be formed. Continence — universal 
sexual purity — is the only remedy that will banish these evils 
from the world. 

The Brothel. — The brothel is the common clearing-house for 
all these evils. What are the effects on man himself? We al- 
ready know some of its physical effects. Let us see what King 
Solomon said: 

"The lips of a strange woman drop as an honey-comb, and 
her mouth is smoother than oil; 

"But her end is bitter as wormwood, sharp as a two-edged 
sword; 

"Her feet go down to death, her steps take hold on hell; 

"Remove thy way far from her, and come not nigh the door 
of her house; 

"Lest thou give thine honor unto others and thy years unto 
the cruel; 

"Lest strangers be filled with thy wealth, and thy labors be 
in the house of a stranger; 

"And thou mourn at the last when thy flesh and thy body are 
consumed." (Proverbs v.) 

"Whoso is simple, let him turn in hither: and as for him that 
wanteth understanding, she saith to him: 

"Stolen waters are sweet, and bread eaten in secret is 
pleasant; 

"But he knoweth not that the dead are there; and that her 
guests are in the depths of hell." (Proverbs ix.) 

Who Are the Guests? — And who are the guests? The gam- 
bler, the thief, the policy dealer, the ruffian; and with these the 
college student, the bank clerk, the member of the fashionable 
club; aye, and also the father of the family, the husband of a 
pure wife, the head of the firm, the member of church; all these, 
every night in all our great cities. Can any of these think to es- 
cape the contamination? Vain chimera. It is as certain as 
death. If nothing else remains, the moral stain is inaeuole. 

275' 



276 THE SOCIAL EVIL 

Diseases Among the "Strange Women."— But often tnera 
are physical consequences more immediately troublesome than 
this. The prevalance of contagious disease among these women 
is shocking. It is safe to say that one in three or four is suffer- 
ing under some communicable form of them. How fearfully is 
the wrath of God seen in these physical consequences! The 
most loathsome sight which the diseased human body, in man or 
woman, exhibits, the most horridly disgusting, are the living 
corpses in which victims of lust are putrefying to their graves. 

The Motives for Life of Shame, — We ask, therefore, what is it 
leads so many women, usually almost necessarily young, healthy 
and handsome — for they must be all these to ply that trade — to 
open or secret sin? Some with no excuse; others, if not with ex- 
cuse, yet with palliations either in their bringing up apart from 
Christian influences, and amid constant exposure to temptation; 
or, from their having been the victims of seduction; or from the 
extremities of destitution. 

Passion Not the Motive. — It is popularly supposed among men 
that in the greater number of cases it is the strong passions, the 
insatiable lusts of these women, which lead them to take up this 
mode of life. Such an opinion displays entire ignorance of 
woman's nature and of facts. It is, probably, the rarest of all the 
causes which lead to public immoral life. It is true that many 
of these women claim and pretend to exhibit great erotic passion, 
but this is nearly always fictitious, adopted as an attraction s 
merely a ' 'trick of the trade. " The excessive frequency with which 
the}'- indulge blunts their sensibility and precludes the possibility 
of much real feeling. 

Is It Money? — Probably the most common and fatal tempta- 
tion to young women is simply money. They can gain more, and 
can, consequently, dress finer, live more idly, and fare better 
for a while by this than by any other means at their command. 

Is It Seduction % — Seduction and violence are constant, but 
not the most important sources of supply. Country girls and 
female immigrants are not infrequently allured to boarding- 
houses where scoundrels, with lying promises, or with lures of 
money, with the baits of vanity, with the stupefying cup, or with 
violence, rifle them of their all, and leave them, lost strangers in 
a strange land, for other harpies to devour. 

Snares for the Unwary. — It is notorious to those familiar with 
the vices of our cities, that there are so-called "employment 
offices," or "intelligence offices," which are, in reality, snares for 
the unwary, and that the proprietor (male or female) is in connec- 
tion with a house of ill-fame, and sends to such places those 
whom he thinks will be entrapped. 

Opulent satyrs, cloyed with ordinary means of vice, and bent 
on provoking exhausted senses with novelty, offer large bids for 
youth and virtue; stimulated by them, a class of evil old women 
make it their business to be on the watch for giddy and vain 



THE SOCIAL EVIL 



277 



girls, and set before them every temptation to forsake the path 
of chastity. 

From these various sources the numbers of the lost are con- 
stantly maintained in our great cities, and constantly increased: 




REFINEMENT. 

Satan's Pottage. — We have failed to find a single redeeming 
feature in the vice of prostitution, without it be that there are 
women wretched enough, friendless enough, desperate enough, 
to be forced to this mode of life to escape starvation. And thie 

17 



278 THE SOCIAL EVIL 

ts indeed sorry praise to give it. It only gives them a 
chance to sell their birthright to heaven for a mess of the devil's 
pottage. 

What is the Remedy % — We have been casting about for a 
thousand devices by which we could thrust virtue down the 
throats of others, while ourselves continue our cakes and ale in 
peace. We have ever been ready to point the finger of shame at 
the erring sister; we have ever been eager to rush forward and 
cast the first stone, but have we ever pondered for a moment on 
the words: "He that is without sin among you?" 

Thou Art the Man. — Ah! here we touch the heart of the mat- 
ter. Would you learn the only possible method of reforming sin- 
ful women? Three words contain the secret: Reform the men. 
In them, in their illicit lusts, in their misgoverned passions, in 
their selfish desires, in their godless disregard of duty, in their 
ignorance of the wages of sin, in their want of nobleness to resist 
temptation, in their false notions of health, is the source of all 
this sin. Teach them the physiological truth that chaste conti- 
nence is man's best state, morally, physically, mentally; correct 
the seductive error which talks of indulgence as "natural," 
venial, excusable; show them that man is only manful when he 
sees the right and does it; train them to regard self-government 
as the noblest achievement of all; educate them fearlessly in the 
nature and regulation of those functions which pertain to the re- 
lations of the sexes; do this, and we shall soon see that we have 
gained a vantage ground over against which the powers of evil 
can not stand. 

Man Must Act, — Every great social reform must begin with 
the male sex; theirs it is to take the step in advance, 
and they must do it with self-knowledge, with intelligence, and 
with no false sentiment. Here, especially, they must act. The 
sin is wholly of their own making. All the misery, all the lost 
souls, all the blighting consequences present and to come, of 
prostitution, are chargeable solely and wholly to the uncontrolled 
sexual instinct of the male. What duty, then, is more impera- 
tive to the clergyman, the educator, the statesman, the enlight- 
ened philanthropist anywhere, than to study this matter? 

It is quite time, therefore, that we lay aside this most mis- 
chievous and dangerous modesty, or pretended blindness, and 
set about some decisive measures if not to purge away, at least 
to limit, control and render as powerless as possible this infect- 
ing ulcer. 

We can prevent the open tempting on our public streets, the 
fearful facility of vice which now prevails; and we can limit 
the spread of contagious disease. 

We can require police regulations, firmly carried out, forbid- 
ding the accosting of men on the streets, indecent behavior in 
public and immodest dress. 

We can warn and instruct, as we L*.ve been trying to do ia 
§his book. 



THE SOCIAL EVIL 279 

A Warning to Young Men.— There are men of low grade o* 
morals who justify the unmarried man in seeking the prostitute, 
to gratify his lustful passions. The excuse is that it is a neces- 
sity of nature. The wily tempter is ever ready to suggest reasons 
and formulate arguments in harmony with man's desires, particu- 
larly so when those desires are debasing and would drag him 
down the more surely and swiftly to the pit where the tempter 
reigns. 

But by the highest authority we have shown in other parts of 
this book that the sperm retained in the system, instead of being 
an injury, is a positive benefit, and is necessary to man's high- 
est, most vigorous, manly attributes. 

Wild Beasts Safer Companions.— One medical authority of 
high rank says that for himself he would prefer to take his 
chances to pass a night unprotected amidst wild beasts and 
venomous reptiles than to pass a night with harlots. 

The Fall of Nations.— Bishop Warren comments as follows on 
I. Peter, iv., 3: 

"Looked at period by period, the history of the race seems one 
long catastrophe. Nations rise to eminence only to rush to ruin. 
Of course a survey of the whole history shows a real advance, 
but what are the causes of such world-wide catastrophes? The 
Bible must certainly show these causes. They are given in 
verse 3: 

1. Licentiousness — that is, sexual degeneracy — whereby most 
nations have perished. They have made a religion of debauchery 
and enthroned prostitutes as divinities. All vigor of manliness 
is sapped, all ambition enervated, all possible greatness lapsed 
into effeminacy. 

2. Lusts. All other sorts of mere pleasures, as opposed to 
duties and virtues. 

3. Winebibbing. It is not 'excess of wine,' as our Authorized 
Version has it. It is any wine drinking. The Greek is a single 
word, and 'winebibbing' well translates it. 

4. Revelings. Furious frolics. 

5. Carousings. Drinking bouts. 

6. Abominable idolatries. Since the so-called.gods were char- 
acterized? by every ' ist and crime, it is not strange that their 
votaries should be. 

That the early Christians should set themselves against all 
these sins at once, and worship a pure God and be pure them- 
selves, not running into excess, surrendering self and means s 
made men think strange of them. 

As an incentive to right living, Peter lifts the curtain and 
shows in the future the day of judgment. He presents the oppo- 
site virtues: (1) Live according to God; (2) be of sound mind. 
not insane by drink, be sober; (3) pray; (4) have ceaseless love: 
(5) use hospitality; (6) speak as the oracles of God. 

The summary of the vices is hell ; of the virtues, heaven. 
Anyone can choose which he will have forever." 



280 THE SOCIAL EVIL 

Effects of Prostitution. — Prof. Kelly, of Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, says : "To consort with prostitutes blunts a man's finer 
sensibilities; it lowers his respect for women; it leaves its indeli- 
ble marks in disease, for, sooner or later, every man who indulges 
his passions unlawfully contracts disease. It is not possible 
for either men or women who prostitute themselves freely to 
escape it. 

A Living Death.— "These diseases," says Prof. Kelly, "are not 
only the most loathsome and the most disgusting in their early 
manifestations, but they have the horrible characteristic of becom- 
ing latent. A man who contracts disease of this sort can never 
be sure that he is cured, for venereal disease is not a merciful 
disease like cancer, killing its victims within a certain time. 
Rather, it is death in life; such local lesion may occur as to destroy 
forever the sexual function, and the unchaste man finds that he 
is incapable of realizing one of the chief blessings of life — sur- 
rounding himself with a family of children." 

Blasted Hopes. — It is not alone that the body is diseased by 
associating with harlots. The whole man is made sick; the soul 
is wounded; the moral character is marred; manhood can never 
attain to so exalted an altitude after the contamination of the 
harlot. 

Statistics of Prostitution. — It is very difficult to obtain sta= 
tistics of prostitution. It is impossible to obtain exact statistics,, 
for this sin is committed in secret. 

Dr. Foote, of New York, bears this testimony to the individual 
and national effects of prostitution: 

. " The blood of the whole human race is becoming contami- 
nated with venereal poison. Do you question this? Look at the 
fact that in the United States there are not less than 100,000 har= 
lots, and in London alone nearly an equal number, nightly deal* 
ing out sensual pleasure and physical death to a still greater 
number of inconsiderate men. 

Multitudes Poisoned. — It is computed that in the ten chief 
cities of England there are about 300,000 prostitutes. But they 
are not all diseased, says one. Admit that; but it is safe to 
infer that one-third of the whole number are, and a little exercise 
in simple division shows to us that the seeds of venereal poison 
are communicated nightly to over thirty thousand persons in our 
country alone, many of whom have wives or bed-companions to 
whom they are liable to impart the disease. 

Thirty thousand males are daily infected with venereal poi= 
son in the large cities of the United States, many of whom are 
residents of inland towns, whither they return to spread the seed 
of the loathsome disorder. 

In the public institutions of New York city about 10,000 cases 
of venereal disease are treated annually, to say nothing of those 
who seek the advice of their own physicians* 

The reader can not fail to see from the foregoing that prosti* 




HOMELESS AND FRIENDLESS, 



282 THE SOCIAL EVIL 

r 

tution is a prolific source of blood disease, and that it is rapidly 
converting the great fountain of life, as originally imparted to 
man by his Creator, into a slough of death. 

Of all blood impurities, there is none which leads to such end- 
less varieties of disease as those induced by the virus with which 
whoredom is inoculating the whole human family/' 

That Little Book. — It is said that for years past a little pam- 
phlet of less than twenty pages — price, one dollar — professing to 
give prescriptions and directions for the cure of venereal dis- 
eases, has sold at the rate of twenty thousand copies per month 
in the United States and Canada alone. Think of it! Two hun- 
dred and forty thousand copies a year ! That means two hun- 
dred and forty thousand new cases of these horrible diseases 
every year. And the victims who purchase this pamphlet 
represent but a fraction of the total contaminated each year. 

Does one need to present further proof that sensuality is sap- 
ping the very foundations of national life? When cholera or 
smallpox threatens the land, Congress and Parliament and 
boards of health rush to the rescue; but this deadly plague is 
going on by night and by day, and we close our eyes to its wide- 
spread desolation. 

More Facts and Figures.— The New York Medical Record 
contains the following facts and figures : 

"1. During the last twenty-seven years that he has been 
practicing, Dr. Fournier has been consulted by 887 women afflict- 
ed with syphilis. Of this number 842 cases were of sexual origin, 
and in 45 cases, which is already a proportion of five per cent., 
the disease was contracted otherwise than by sexual connection. 
As regards the social position of the 842 cases, the author divides 
the patients into three categories: First, women belonging to the 
demi-monde } 366; second, married women, 220; third, women 
whose social position was unknown, 256. In striking out from 
the figures 220 a certain number of the cases of married women 
who evidently got the disease from other sources than their hus- 
bands, there remain 164 infected by their husbands. 

"2. Regulating Prostitution. — Fournier asked 873 male syphi- 
litics how they had become infected. It was found that 625 got 
the disease from registered, licensed and regularly examined 
prostitutes, 100 from working women, 24 from domestics, 24 from 
married women, 46 from clandestine prostitutes. The inquiry 
showed that the licensed prostitute was the most serious source 
of infection." 

A Higher Motive. — We Plead for purity not only on 
national and patriotic grounds; not only on the grounds of 
self-preservation, but on still higher grounds as well. 

You are somebody's child. Somebody — to-day at the old 
home, it may be, or in the other world — used to call you 
"darling," and you called her "mother." She brought you 
into the world through the pangs of labor; from her breast 



THE SOCIAL EVIL 



283 



you drew the nourishment of your infant life, and she cared 
for you in childhood as none other could. 

Another's Honor. — Perhaps, too, you know what the word 
sister means, and what the word wife means. Tell me, then, 
what is the feeling which thrills through your whole being like a 
shock of electricity, and sends the blood galloping through your 
veins, as you think of the bare possibility of some man violating 
the honor of your mother or sister or wife. I know what your 
thought is. You say: "I would shoot him down like a dog." 




SOMEBODY'S DARLINGS. 

But you are the man who deserves to be shot down like a dog 
when you violate the honor of another man's mother or sister or 
wife. 

Once I Was Pure.— This is not all. Every poor, fallen 
woman, ready to sell her soul for money and jewelry and gav 
attire, is somebody's child. Some mother pressed her to her 
heart, and dandled her on her knee, and, perchance, some man 
of God sprinkled baptismal water on her brow. 

You do not stay to think of the anguish of that poor soul 



284 THE SOCIAL EVIL 

when the short career of shame is ended, and the past haunts 
the memory like a dismal ghost, and the future rises up with its 
fire of retribution, and the broken heart sobs out its pitiful 
wailings: 

"Once I was pure as the snow, but I fell — 

Fell like a snowflake from heaven to hell; 

Fell to be trampled as filth in the street, 

Fell to be scoffed, to be spit on and beat; 

Pleading, cursing, dreading to die; 

Selling my soul to whoever would buy; 

Dealing in shame for a morsel of bread; 

Hating the living and fearing the dead. 

Merciful God! have I fallen so low? 

And yet I was once like the beautiful snow.' 8 

You do not think of all these things, else you would say: Let 
who will contribute to a ruin so appalling, no hot passion shall 
make me accessory to an end like that. 



CHAPTER XVIII 
CLIMACTERIC PERIOD 



Seven- Year Periods. — Man's sexual life is divided up into 
years in groups of seven. Not, of course, absolutely unvarying, 
but sufficiently accurate to prove the law. From birth to 14 
years of age, childhood ; from 14 to 21, adolescence ; from 21 
to 49, the age of greatest virility in man, the child-bearing 
period of woman. 

Change of Life in Woman.— Somewhere between 42 and 49, 
averaging about 45 years of age, all women experience a physi- 
cal change, known as the "change of life." At this time the 
menses cease to flow and woman becomes barren; the child- 
bearing period has come to a close. The average time of prob- 
able motherhood is about 28 years ; of possible motherhood, 
about 35 years. 

Change of Life in Man*— The change of life in man comes 
from ten to fifteen years later than in woman. Most men do not 
know, or at least do not realize, that man experiences a change 
similar to that of woman. The change is not so marked as in 
woman and is more gradual than in the other sex. Man may 
still become a father, but there are physical changes that are 
serious, and unless a man is very careful serious results may re- 
sult from over-indulgence or overwork, or want of care in method 
9f life. 

New Lease of Life. — After the change, which may take from 
one to three years to accomplish, both in men and women, there 
is a new lease of life to both mother and father, provided, of 
course, all has gone well. In both cases it may be the beginning 
of a decline which leads to decrepit old age or to death. 

Life insurance companies are more ready to insure a woman 
after the change of life than immediately before it. 

A Husband's Solicitude. — During this critical time, when cer- 
tain organs are resting from their labor and physiological changes 
are going on, the husband should be very watchful and careful 
of his wife's health and comfort. This change may mark the 
continuation of a life of misery, whose end is the grave ; or, it 
may be the beginning of a glorious afternoon of life, whose west- 
ern skies shall be all aglow with the radiant tints of a beautiful 
sunset. Undue care, severe labor, anxiety, mental worry should 
all be banished until robust health is fully restored. This is a 

285 



286 CLIMACTERIC PERIOD 

time when solicitous care on the part of the husband is repaid 
many fold. 

Dr. Sperry's Testimony. — Dr. Lyman Sperry, in his Hus- 
band and Wife, says : "Men do undergo a decided change near 
the threshold of old age, and sometimes it is just as marked as 
that which takes place in women ; but, as a rule, the loss of 
sexual appetite and power experienced by males is more gradual 
and not nearly so definite as the change experienced by most 
females. 

"Some students of the phenomenon of sexual decline in males 
call it a 'change of life' and assert, that it is attended with 
almost as much physical disaster as the corresponding epoch in 
the physical life of woman." 

Old Men Complain. — Dr. Acton says: "It is somewhat curious 
to notice the naivete exhibited by elderly gentlemen. Patients 
from sixty to eighty come to me, complaining that they are not 
sexually so energetic as they were; that the sexual act is no longer 
attended with the same degree of pleasure as formerly. They 
grumble because desire does not come on so frequently, or be- 
cause, when they attempt the act, they no longer experience per- 
fect erection. 

"It can not be concealed that there are persons moving in 
good society (although fortunately they are few) who come to the 
surgeon ostensibly for other reasons, but virtually under the be- 
lief that he will prescribe something that will excite their flagging 
powers. I tell them that it is a better guarantee for their life 
and happiness to remain invalids as they are than to have their 
organs strengthened and then to kill themselves by inches through 
fresh fits of excitement. I need hardly say that every upright 
practitioner refuses to be an accomplice in any way whatever to 
mere excitement. Libertinage in the elderly man is a crime. 
This language held to elderly men is good in more ways than one. 
It proves to them that their weakened condition depends upon 
themselves and not upon a medicine or a physician. 

"The impunity with which some elderly men continue the 
practice of sexual intercourse is certainly surprising: still, abuse 
or excess, whichever we may term it, must sooner or later tell its 
tale. 

"Many of the affections of the brain, under which elderly per- 
sons suffer, and to which a certain proportion annually succumb, 
are caused by excesses committed at a time when the enfeebled 
powers are unequal to supporting them." 

Crime Against Nature.— Blessed should the old man deem 

himself who can put up with calmness, happiness and reason in- 
stead of craving after those senile accessions of delirium too of- 
ten the parents of regret and remorse without end. The chas- 
tisement of those who love the sex too much is to love too long. 
Is Nature silent? 

It is a crime against her — a crime for which she may some day 
claim a deep revenge. Why, then, not listen to the voice of 



CLIMACTERIC PERIOD 287 

Wisdom— for those who sit at her feet, and listen to her awful 
counsels, shall be delivered from strong passion, and many sore 
straits, and much folly? 

Let the elderly man, then, pause and reflect, that a human 
sacrifice, either male or female, is generally bound to the horns 
of the altar that sanctifies such marriages. In the present state 
of society, with our manners, passions, miseries, man does not 
always die — he sometimes destroys himself. 

No Fool Like an Old Fool.— Unfortunately there are those 
who, either more infatuated, more helplessly drifting on the tide 
of passion, or more depraved, use all their endeavors to realize 
desires which it is no longer possible to satisfy, unless by a forced 
compliance of the organs. Not only has the energy— the super- 
fluous vitality of early days— disappeared, but the organic power 
of reproduction is nearly obliterated. The imagination, polluted 
with impurities, seeks pleasures which reason and good sense 
repudiate. There are instances of debauched and shameless old 
age which, deficient in vital resources, strives to supply their 
place by fictitious excitement: a kind of brutish lasciviousness, 
that is ever the more cruelly punished by nature, from the fact 
that the immediately ensuing debility is in direct proportion to 
the forced stimulation which has preceded it. 

There are such old libertines who are constantly seeking after 
the means of revivifying their withered, used-up organism, as if 
that were possible without imminent danger. The law of nature 
is without appeal. To submit to it is the result of great good 
judgment, and the reward is speedy. But submission is no 
invariable rule, and persons of prudence and chastity have but 
faint conception of the devices to evade it, of the folly, caprice, 
luxury, immodesty, the monstrous lewdness and indescribable 
saturnalia of the senses which are the result. 

Nevertheless, let it be remarked, it is seldom— very seldom— 
that punishment comes at once; old age which disease changes 
every day into decrepitute — often sudden death, and death that 
lingers for years, a consequence of cruel infirmities — prove the 
justice of Nature. 

A Moral Basis for Reform. — It may, perhaps, be thought 
singular to suggest a moral based upon such vile practices as the 
above, but allusion to them may not be without benefit to those 
beginning life; let those persons take warning who with an active 
imagination once enter upon a career of vice, and dream that at 
a certain spot they can arrest their progress. 

It is an old tale, and often told, that, although the slope of 
criminality be easy and gradual, he who launches himself on 
such a course, will acquire, as he goes, velocity and force, until 
at last he can not be stayed. 

The Painter's Skill. — The following quotation may apply not 
only to sensuality, but to any and all of those practices which 
bind the individual in chains of sin : 

"Persons not accustomed to examine the motives of their 



288 CLIMACTERIC PERIOD 

actions, to reckon up the countless nails that rivet the chains of 
habit, or perhaps being bound by none so obdurate as those I have 
confessed to, may recoil from this as from an overcharged pic- 
ture. But what short of such a bondage is it? 

"I have seen a print after Correggio in which three female 
figures are ministering to a man who sits fast bound at the root 
of a tree. Sensuality is soothing him, evil habit is nailing him to 
a branch, and repugnance at the same instant of time is applying 
a snake to his side. In his face is feeble delight, the recollection 
of the past, rather than the perception of present pleasures, 
languid enjoyment of evil with utter imbecility to good, a Sybar- 
itic effeminacy, a submission to bondage, the spring of the will 
gone down like a broken clock, the sin and the suffering co-in- 
stantaneous or the latter forerunning the former, remorse pre- 
ceding action — all this represented in one point of time. When 
I saw this I admired the wonderful skill of the painter. But 
when I went away, I wept, because I thought of my own con- 
dition. 

"Of that there is no hope that it should ever change. The 
waters have gone over me. But out of the black depths, could I 
be heard, I would cry to all those who have but set a foot in the 
perilous flood. Could the youth look into my desolation, and be 
made to understand what a dreary thing it is when a man shall 
feel himself going down a precipice with open eyes and passive 
will — to see his destruction and to have no power to stop it, and 
yet to feel it all the way emanating from himself; to perceive all 
goodness emptied out of him, and yet not be able to forget a 
time when it was otherwise; to bear about with him the spectacle 
of his own self -ruin; could he feel the body of death out of which 
I cry hourly with feebler and feebler outcry to be delivered." 

There is a terrible truthfulness in this description of the 
depths of long-indulged evil habit. There is. perhaps, only one 
lower depth; that in which no remorse, no longing after past self* 
restraint or purity is felt any more. 



CHAPTER XIX 
DIETETICS 



l. Or 



SECTION ONE— FOODS 

Attention to Diet in Disease. — Diet is of the greatest impor 
lance in the treatment of all forms of diseases. In some few 
diseases it takes precedence of even the treatment by drugs. 

Composition of the Human Body. — The body is formed of 
many substances, which are composed chiefly of the four ele- 
mentary substances, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen^ 
combined with very much smaller quantities of other elements, 
such as sulphur, phosphorus and the like. In order to keep the 
body in health and well nourished, all of these elements must be 
present in the food. The following table gives at a glance the 
most convenient form of classification: 

Nitrogenous, or 1. Albuminates or Proteids j f £^ 

KJl " • < XT (2. Fats or Hydrocarbons ( u«»* 

game Non- \ 3 gt h J J Heat 

1 nitrogenous \ * C arbohydratls ( formers « 

2. Inor- j 4. Water. 

ganic \ . . 5. Salts. 

Firstly, they are divided according to whether they belong to 
the organic or inorganic substances. The organic are divided 
into those which are composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen 
— (1) combined with nitrogen, and (2) without it, called respec- 
tively the nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous. The non-nitroge- 
nous are again placed in two classes — the fats or hydrocarbons 
and the starches and sugars, called the carbohydrates. The in- 
organic substances are placed in two divisions, the first contain- 
ing water only, and the second various 6alt6. There are thus five 
distinct classes or kinds of food — 1, nitrogenous foods; 2, fats or 
hydrocarbons; 3, starches and sugars, or carbohydrates; 4, water; 
and 5, salts. 

Food Forming Tissue! and Organs. — The nitrogenous foods 
or albuminates include all those in which nitrogen forms an 
important part; they chiefly consist of animal substances. The 
most important is albumen, which is found in its purest form as 
the white of egg, and also in other forms, as fibrin, or the chief 
part of lean meat; caseine, or the curd of milk; and gluten, which 
forms a large part of grains and vegetables, being the one nitrog- 
enous food obtained from the vegetable kingdom. 

All these substances are very similar in composition, pass into 

289 



290 DIETETICS 

the body by digestion in the same form, are useful for the same 
purposes as regards nutrition, and may therefore for the future 
be considered as identical. All of them become solid or coagu- 
lated by the action of acids, and by exposure to temperatures of 
180° F. or over; and their purpose in the body is to form and 
nourish the various tissues and organs, such as the muscles and 
nervous structures, and on this account they have been called 
flesh-formers; but it has been proved that they also assist in 
forming the fat of the body, maintain the heat of the blood and 
produce force. 

Heat and Force Producing Foods.— The fats, or hydrocar- 
bons, include all fatty substances, such as the fat of meat, the 
butter and cream of milk, and the oils produced by the vegetable 
kingdom. Their chief uses are the production of heat and main- 
tenance of the body temperature, and also the production of 
force. They form a special structure or tissue of the body, 
which gives to it its smooth and rounded outline, serves to retain 
the animal heat, and makes the various movements easy and 
free from friction. 

The sugars and starches are produced almost entirely by the 
vegetable kingdom, in which they are found in great abundance. 
The former are found in three chief forms — grape, cane and milk 
sugar; while starch is found in almost all vegetable substances, 
especially the various forms of grain. The special uses of this 
class of food are to produce heat and force in the body, and to 
some extent to form fat; but their power of producing fat is not 
so great as that of the hydrocarbons. 

Inorganic Foods. — Water is one of the most essential ingred- 
ients of food, and is required in large quantities. It is taken in 
the form of drink and with other foods, most of the ordinary 
articles of diet containing a very large quantity. Its uses are to 
dissolve the food and carry it from one part of the body to 
another; to carry off waste products, to moisten the tissues, to 
equalize the body temperature by evaporation, and to assist in 
the general nutrition. 

The salts which are chiefly needed for the organism consist 
of common salt or chloride of sodium, and salts of potash, lime, 
iron and many other substances. They are introduced com- 
bined with other foods naturally, or as table m salt. They are 
present in all the tissues of the body, and aid in the absorption 
and transference throughout the system of the organic ingredi- 
ents of the food. 

Amonnt of Food Required. — By experiments and general ob- 
servations, it is found that a healthy man of average size and 
weight will require in this country, while doing a moderate 
amount of work, in order to keep the body in health and free 
from wasting, about twenty-three ounces of food in the four and 
twenty hours. The following table shows the weight of each 
variety of food necessary, and it must be understood that the 
amounts here stated are of food entirely free from all water. 



DIETETICS 291 

Dry Food Required Daily. 

Amounts. Relative 

Ounces avoirdupois. Proportions. 

Nitrogenous food 4.587 1 

Fats or Hydrocarbons 2.964 0.6 nearly. 

Starches and Sugars or Carbohydrates 14.257 3 

Salts 1.058 0.2 

Total water-free food 22.866 

Milk, the Typical Food.— Milk may be looked upon as a typ- 
ical food; it is capable of sustaining life in itself, and contains a 
certain proportion of each of the five classes into which foods 
have been divided. It is supplied by nature for the nourish- 
ment, development and growth of the human infant and of the 
young of many animals, and may well, therefore, be taken as 
our guide in studying the varieties of food. The composition of 
milk is as follows: — 

Cow's Milk. Human Milk. 

Water 87 # 86J4 

Curd or caseine (Albuminates) Z% 2 

Butter or fat (Hydrocarbons) 3>£ 4 

Sugar of Milk (Carbohydrates) 4)4 7 

Ash (Salts) 1 Vt 

100 100 

Cooking Foods.— Why do we cook food? 

First, cooking makes food more pleasant to the eye, more 
agreeable to the taste and more digestible to the stomach. 

Second, it divides the food into small particles and dilutes 
it with water, thus aiding mastication and digestion. 

Third, it destroys any disease germs which may be present 
in food. 

Fourth, it removes unpleasant taste. 

When starch is cooked the cellulose coat is softened, the 
granule swells and bursts, and the starch is exposed and can be 
freely acted upon by the salivary and other fluids which con- 
vert it into soluble and easily absorbed sugar. This is the 
reason for boiling potatoes and the like. A properly boiled 
potato is "mealy" because the starch cells have been broken up. 

Cooking Meats. — Heat when first applied to meat makes its 
fibers contract, and squeezes out some of its juice from the 
superficial portion. This becomes coagulated, as it contains al- 
bumen, and thus closes up the pores on the surface and retains 
the juice in the meat. The internal parts are cooked by the 
juices becoming heated and turned to steam, a sort of internal 
steaming process being carried on. Well-cooked meat should 
therefore be full of gravy. To roast it scientifically, it should 
be exposed first to a hot fire, that the surface may be acted on 
rapidly before the juices escape, and it should then be moved to 
a distance and be allowed to cook itself by its own steam. In 
boiling, the same principles should be carried out. The meat 
should be placed directi T into boiling water, which not only pre- 
vents the juices escaping but also insures that no water shall 



292 



DIETETICS 



soak into the meat and dilute the juices. The boiling tempera- 
ture should be maintained for five or ten minutes, and then the 
remainder of the cooking process should be carried out at a 
lower temperature of about 160° to 170° F. 

Cooking Eggs. — To boil or poach an egg, it should be placed 
in boiling water, and then the saucepan should be immediately 
taken off and placed where it can be left for five or even ten 
minutes before the egg is removed. In this way the white of 
the egg is made soft and creamy, and never becomes tough, hard 
and indigestible, as it would if left in boiling water. The egg 
cools the water in contact with it, and the interior is never raised 
to the boiling point. 

Salting If eat. — The effect of 9alting meat is very similar to 
that of heat. It contracts the fiber and squeezes out the juices; 
the salt may penetrate so deeply that as much as half the juices 
may be driven out, and the meat become much less nutritious 
than when fresh, and more tasteless. Salting, however, pre- 
serves the meat by preventing decay. 

Times Taken in the Digestion of Tarious Foods.— Much 
depends, in the treatment of disease by diet, upon whether the 
various articles of food are digestible or the reverse. Those 
foods which remain for a long time in the stomach must be 
looked upon as difficult to digest; while those that are 'rapidly 
dissolved and broken up and passed on by the stomach into the 
intestines as easy to digest. The following is a list of the most 
common articles of diet and the time they take in digestion: 



Food. Time in Stomach. 

Tripe 1 hours. 

Lamb - 2^ " 

Mutton, Boiled 3 «' 

Roast 3% " 

Beef, Boiled, Salt... ,2% M 

44 Roast Zy z M 

Beef-steak, Broiled... 3 " 

Veal, Broiled 4 

44 Fried 4j£ •• 

Pork, Salt, Boiled . . . A l A " 

" Roasted 5# " 

Pig, Sucking, Roast. ..2# " 
Suet, Beef, Boiled.... 5 

Sausage, Fresh, Boiled 3% * * 

Liver, Broiled 2 44 

Hashed Meat and 

Vegetables 2 T A 44 

Turnips, Boiled 3)4 4 * 

Cabbage, 44 4}£ " 

Milk, 4I 2 " 

44 Raw 2% " 

Butter, Melted 3 l A " 

Cheese, Raw 3% " 

Eggs, Whipped, Raw.l^ " 



Food. Time in Stomach, 

Goose, Roast 2 x /z hours 

Turkey, 44 2% " 

Chicken, Fricassee. .2% li 

Fowl, Roast or Boiled 4 4 4 

Duck, 44 4 

Venison, Broiled 1 >£ 4 4 

Apple, Dumpling.... 3 44 

Rice, Boiled 1 " 

Sago, 44 1% " 

Tapioca, Boiled 2 4I 

Bread 3% " 

Custard, Baked 2% 4i 

Sponge Cake Baked.. 2% 44 

Potatoes, Baked 2%, 44 

Boiled 3% 44 

Parsnips, " tyt " 

Carrots, 44 3% 44 

Eggs, Soft " 3 

" Hard " 3Yz " 

Trout, Fried 1% '« 

Salrorn, Boiled 4 

Oys' rs, Raw 3 44 

Cooked 3Vz 4t 



DIETETICS 293 

Deficiency of Certain Articles of Food.— Scurvy is pioduced 
by a deficiency for any length of time of fresh vegetables in the 
diet. The disease used to carry off thousands; half the crews of 
ships that went for long voyages were destroyed by this disease; 
now it is quite a rarity. Since its cause has been recognized, 
the disease only occurs accidentally during war, famine, or ship- 
wreck, or as the result of carelessness. 

Eating- Too Much. — It has been mo9t conclusively proved by 
the data collected regarding those who have lived to the age of 
one hundred years and over, that those who live long are those 
who have lived frugally, they were mostly spare people who 
both ate and drank sparingly, and maintained their organs in 
healthy condition by never overworking them. 

In many persons who habitually eat too much, symp- 
toms of indigestion are set up with a general feeling of 
lassitude and want of energy, both muscular and mental; head- 
aches are common, especially across the forehead; constipation 
or diarrhea, light colored urine, drowsiness, skin-eruptions 
(especially the disease called acne) and weakness of the heart's 
action, show themselves. 

Warnings of the injury that is being done to the body gener- 
ally occur in the form of frequent bilious attacks or sick head- 
aches; and at the same time the individual may rapidly increase 
in weight and put on fat. 

Improper Food. — Improper food is also a fruitful cause of 
disease, and by the term improper is meant that which is un- 
suitable to particular individuals. 

Poisonous foods may be taken by accident or from custom. 
Foods may be poisonous simply as the result of decomposition; 
from the presence of parasites, animal or vegetable; from the 
animal's having eaten poison before being killed, or from diseased 
condition by accident or otherwise. 

Spoiled Food. — Rotten or over-ripe vegetables and green or 
over-ripe fruits, t when eaten, especially in hot weather, may pro- 
duce severe attacks of diarrhea and vomiting. 

Tainted meat is eaten by some persons in preference to fresh, 
and as the result of disinfectant properties of the gastric juice, 
may be eaten with impunity. ^ In China rotten eggs are looked 
upon as a luxury.^ Occasionally these foods cause severe 
symptoms of poisoning, such as diarrhea and nervous troubles, 
and sometimes even death has resulted from eating bad German 
sausage. The symptoms are severe stomach-ache, vomiting, 
diarrhea and great collapse. < 

Some kinds of fish, especially in warm weather, may produce 
many severe symptoms of poisoning; those which most often act 
thus are the common shell-fish, lobsters, crabs and mussels. 
The symptoms are: severe nettlerash, affecting perhaps the whole 
body and causing swelling of the tongue, throat and eyelids, and 
irritation of the digestive organs, with vomiting and diarrhea. 

18 



294 DIETETICS 

How to Tell Good Meat. — It is wonderful how much w© 
have to depend upon our butcher in the matter of meat. If 
he chooses, he can send meat far from good, and yet which 
only those experienced in such things can recognize as unsatis- 
factory. Good fresh meat is red — not pale pink nor deep purple; 
it is marbled in appearance^ firm and elas tic to the touch, scarcely 
moistening the fingers, has a slight and not unpleasant odor, and 
when exposed to the air for a day or two should neither become 
dry on the surface nor wet and sodden. Fresh meat turns a piece 
of blue litmus paper red— that is, it is acid; but unsound meat is 
alkaline or neutral. Much of the meat that is sold in our 
markets comes from diseased animals, but cooking, when 
thoroughly carried out, makes this usually fit for food. 



SECTION TWO— DIETING 

Diet for Iadigestion. — Constipation may be the cause of this 
complaint, and should always be corrected without delay. It 
acts injuriously by interfering with the quick removal of waste 
products, which irritate the bowels and cause flatulency. 

It may also be the result of sluggishness of the liver and 
insufficient formation of bile. Dietetic treatment is more per- 
manently beneficial and satisfactory than that by drugs; foods 
should be eaten which produce a good deal of waste material, 
which will encourage the movement of the intestines. Vege- 
tables, brown bread, oatmeal porridge, and ripe and cooked fruit 
are useful; a glass of water, hot or cold, drunk the first thing on 
rising in the morning, has both a tonic and aperient effect upon 
the bowels. 

Diet for Dyspepsia.— All the food eaten by a sufferer from 
dyspepsia should be simple and easily digested. The meals 
should be served punctually, and at suitable intervals, never less 
than four or five hours apart. They should consist of only two 
or three courses, one of which, at the chief meal, should be a hot 
joint of butcher's meat. All rich, fatty, highly flavored dishes 
should be avoided; all raw vegetables are difficult to digest and 
require carefulmastication, salads, cucumbers and pickles being 
particularly objectionable. New bread is bad, and so is pastry. 
Most sweet dishes are liable to cause trouble by setting up 
acidity and fermentation. 

Diet for Diarrhea. — Diarrhea is sometimes caused, espe- 
cially in children, by errors of diet; if it is not caused it is sure to 
be kept up and increased by the food unless great care is taken 
in the choice of suitable articles. Complete abstinence from food 
for a short period is sometimes sufficient by itself to check an 
attack; the diet must always be limited to those articles which 
are bland, easily digested, and leave but little solid residue* 
Everything should be taken in small quantity, and tepid or cold, 



DIETETICS 295 

but never hot; hot food immediately excites the action of 
the intestinal muscles and is followed rapidly by an evacua- 
tion. 

Starchy food of all sorts can be permitted — arrowroot, sago, 
rice, tapioca, flour, toast and well-baked biscuits; they may be 
taken in milk, or in weak chicken and mutton broths and beef 
tea. Care should be taken in administering meat broths and 
extracts, for if they are given in too concentrated a form, or in 
too large a quantity, they are sure to aggravate the diarrhea. 
Simple drinks are always useful — iced water, rice, barley or 
arrowroot water, skimmed milk, white of egg in water or milk. 

A compound made by adding the whites of four eggs to one 
and three-quarter pints of water and flavoring with sugar and 
orange- flower water, or lime-water mixed with milk, is often 
beneficial. 

In Chronic Diarrhea dietetic treatment will do much; the 
patient's strength is being exhausted by the constant loss from 
the bowel, and our aim should be to administer those foods which 
are almost entirely digested and taken up into the stomach, and 
which leave very little to pass into and irritate the lower bowel. 

For this purpose an exclusively animal diet has been recom- 
mended, taken predigested — lightly cooked or raw mutton, lean 
veal, chicken, pigeon and game are allowed — pork forbidden. 

Here is a preparation for children: Take raw, lean beef or 
mutton and mince or pound in a mortar, squeeze through a sieve, 
and give either alone or flavored with salt, sugar, currant-jelly; 
or, it may be mixed with thin gravy, soup or chocolate made with 
water. ^ Children like it. The only drink that should be allowed 
with it is the water and white of egg mixture. 

Gout. — In health all the food is digested and burnt up, or 
oxidized, and much of the waste material thus formed is carried 
off by the kidneys. Urea, as the waste material is called, is 
easily soluble in water, and gives the kidneys very little trouble 
in its removal ; but in those who suffer from gout, urea is formed 
in much smaller quantities, and its place is taken by uric acid, 
which is far less soluble, and gives much greater labor to the 
kidneys ; it is, therefore, liable to collect in the body, and, com- 
bining with the soda contained in the blood, forms urate of soda. 
This salt produces the chalk-stones of gout and is deposited' in 
the joints and other parts of the body, at which time an attack of 
gout occurs. 

It is of the first importance, therefore, that a gouty person's 
diet should consist only of just as much food as can be used up 
and got rid of, without accumulation of uric acid. 

Diet for Gout. — The diet for this purpose must be curtailed 
in almost every particular. The individual, in order to keep 
free from his enemy, has to be most abstemious. He must limit 
his diet in the nitrogenous, sweet, starchy and fatty foods; he 
must never indulge his appetite, but eat just enough to maintain 
his strength and repair the waste that is taking place in the 



296 DIETE1 ICS 

body. There is no doubt that the more active exercise he 
takes, the larger can be the quantity of food; if he lives an 
indoor, sedentary life, the amount of food will have to be very 
small. 

As animal foods produce the chief part of the urea, they 
should receive first attention. Mutton is the most suitable, beef 
next, but pork, veal, dry or salted meats, and all rich made 
dishes should be avoided; white fish, chicken, fowl, game, eggs 
and a little butter are allowed. Foods containing starch and 
sugar should be taken in moderation. 

Bread — but not when new, toast, rusks, biscuits and vege- 
tables which are easily digested are permissible in small quanti- 
ties and when very thoroughly cooked, as potatoes, greens, peas 
and beans; celery is said to be actually useful. Very sweet fruits 
are objectionable, but strawberries, grapes and oranges may be 
eaten, pears and apples if cooked, and lemon- juice is good. Pas- 
try is entirely forbidden. Tea and coffee may be indulged in in 
moderation, and cocoa when made from the nibs; milk is harm- 
less, if it can be digested, and water may be drunk ad libitum; 
the more water that is taken the better; it washes out the body 
and clears away the waste; it should not, however, be drunk with 
meals, but a tumbler of hot or cold water night and morning, and 
one-half an hour before dinner can be recommended. 

Diet for Bright's Disease. — Chronic Bright's disease, or in- 
flammation of the kidney, is occasionally produced by errors of 
diet, as by excess of alcoholic stimulants, or of nitrogenous foods. 
One of its most important symptoms is the loss through the kid- 
neys of albumen, the most valuable nutritive constituent of the 
blood. The purpose of treatment by diet is to keep the body 
nourished without throwing any particular strain upon the 
kidneys. 

The best diet that can be taken is one formed exclusively of 
milk, and some medical men prefer skimmed milk, or buttermilk; 
almost an unlimited quantity can be taken, and it is found that, 
if the stomach will bear it, not only can patients be kept alive, 
but that they will thrive and the symptoms improve; six or seven 
pints a day are required, to get through which amount it will be 
necessary to take about a tumblerful every hour. Milk both 
nourishes the body and increases the flow of urine. If, however, 
this diet is more than can be borne, a less limited one must be 
attempted. Light food of all sorts must be allowed; farinaceous 
and peptonized foods, chicken, game and so on. But no beef 
and the like should be taken, because of the urea produced. 
Neither should any alcoholic drinks of any tend be taken, as 
these drinks act as direct irritants to the kidneys. 

Diet for Diabetes, — Diabetes entails a great drain upon the 
body by the constant loss of sugar through the kidneys. We, 
therefore, have to furnish a good supply of nourishment to the 



DIETETICS 297 

body by a generous diet, while as far as possible we must with- 
hold all those articles from which sugar can be produced. Starch 
and cane and grape sugar must be forbidden, with all substances 
which contain them. 

Meat of all kinds is allowed. If it were possible to feed the 
patient upon an exclusively meat diet, the problem would be 
solved. But few could bear this for any length of time. The 
rule is that all green vegetables or green parts of vegetables may 
be eaten. Ripe sweet fruits are, as a rule, unsuitable; but if 
cooked while green and unripe, they may be eaten. However, 
fruits are so universally beneficial to the human system, it is bet- 
ter, unless it be an extremely severe case, to let the patient eat of 
most of the ordinary fruits. 

Cheese, cream, butter and other fatty articles may be used. 
Green pickles are useful. It is possible in some cases, to make 
the diet too severe. Some physicians recommend a more liberal 
diet. Tea and coffee are allowed with cream or milk, and 
saccharine instead of sugar. One of the difficulties of saccharine, 
with some patients, is that they use too much. It takes but an 
infinitely small amount to sweeten a cup of coffee. 

A fresh egg beaten up in tea or coffee makes a good substitute 
for milk. Thirst is relieved by cold tea with slices of lemon, by 
rinsing the mouth with iced water, sucking ice, or sipping phos» 
phoric acid, twenty to thirty drops to the ounce of water. Cream 
and soda-water makes a pleasant drink. On the forbidden list 
are all sweet wines, most brandies, rum, gin, champagne, sweet 
beer, cider, porter and stout. It is doubtful if alcohol in any 
form should be allowed. 

Gluten Bread. — The great difficulty is to find something to 
take the place of bread. The best substitute which can be ob- 
tained is gluten bread, which is made from flour out of which 
nearly all the starch has been washed. It is prepared in several 
forms — rolls, slices, biscuits, soft loaves, etc. ; but the best are 
tough, and the patients soon tire of it. Some forms, too, keep 
good for only a few days. Soya loaves is another special prepa* 
ration. Bran bread is also sold; it is useful in constipation, but 
may have the effect of producing looseness of the bowels. There 
are also a variety of cakes and biscuits made on purpose for 
diabetics, such as almond cakes and biscuits, cocoanut biscuits, 
diabetic rusks, etc. Much ingenuity has been expended in the 
preparation of these foods and many delicacies and novelties are 
constantly being introduced in the form of flavoring essences, 
savories, soups and potted meats of all kinds, so that by the ex- 
ercise of a little forethought and with the help of a good cook, it 
is possible to obtain a considerable amount of variety, and a 
patient in comfortable circumstances need not fare at all badly. 

We may complete this description by adding a list of the 
things which are allowed and forbidden in diabetes. 



298 



DIETETICS 



Foods Allowed and Forbidden Diabetes Patients. 

Animal Foods. 



allowed. 

Butcher's Meat of all kinds. 
Ham, Bacon and Tongue. 
Poultry and Game. 
Fish of all kinds. 
Meat Extracts and Soups (if 
not thickened with Starch). 
Jellies without Sugar. 
Eggs prepared in any way. 
Cheese, Butter, Cream. 



FORBIDDEN. 



Liver. 
Oysters. 



Vegetable Foods. 



ALLOWED. 

Diabetic substitutes for Bread. 
Biscuits. 

Saccharine in Tabloids or 
Elixir. 

Cabbage, Endive, Spinach. 

Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts. 

Lettuce, Water-Cress, Cucum- 
bers. 

Mustard and Cress, Spring 
Onions. 

Nuts (except Chestnuts). 



FORBIDD2N. 



Sugar, Treacle. 

Bread. 

Oatmeal. 

Biscuits. 

Sago, Tapioca. 

Rice and Arrowroot. 

Macaroni, Vermicelli. 

Pastry. 

Farinaceous PuddingSc 

Potatoes, Carrots. 

Parsnips, Beans, Peas. 

Sweet and Preserved Fruits c 



Drinks. 



allowed. 

Tea, Coffee, Cocoa from nibs. 

Water. 

Soda, Vichy, Apollinaris 

Waters. 
Fresh Lemon- juice. 



FORBIDDEN. 



Sweet and Sparkling Wines 6 

Malt Liquors. 

Cider, Lemonade, Gingef^ 

Beer. 
Liqueurs. 

Cocoas and Chocolates. 
Sweet Spirits. 

Delirium Tremens. — Delirium tremens may prove fatal, but 
a majority of cases end in recovery; each successive attack, how- 
ever, becomes more dangerous and more liable to prove fatal. 

Treatment. — In the treatment, the two points which call for 
special attention are — first, to obtain sleep, and secondly, to give 
food. The patient should be placed in a darkened, quiet room, 
with some suitable person in charge, and everything should be 
done which will encourage sleep. 

Some narcotic drug must be administered. A teaspoonful of 
the preparation called Bromidia may be given every two hours 
until sleep is obtained, or ten grains of hydrate of chloral may 



DIETETICS 299 

be given every half hour or hour until the same result is gained. 
Opium and morphia may be employed — twenty drops or laud- 
anum, or half a grain of morphia every two hours — the patient, 
of course, never being roused from sleep to take his medicine. 
From the large and frequently repeated doses here recommended, 
it is evident that there is much difficulty in getting anyone suffer- 
ing from this disease under their influence. Nourishment should 
be given, if possible, before sleep is obtained; or it must be ready 
and administered directly he awakes, when he will be weak and 
exhausted. It should be given in small quantities, at frequent 
intervals, and in a fluid and highly nutritious form. Milk, arrow- 
root, beef-tea, broth and eggs are suitable. 

Occasionally it is necessary to allow small quantities of the 
drink that the patient has been accustomed to; but this should 
never be done unless the prostration is extreme. So important 
is the administration of food, that some doctors would even 
allow a beef-steak and glass of porter, if only they could be 
taken. 

Sometimes it becomes necessary to restrain the patient by 
force — tv fix him down in bed with a sheet across his chest, or tie 
his hands and feet to the bedstead, or to hold him in bed by the 
strength of two or three male attendants. This, however, should 
always be avoided if possible, and is not often required, a firm 
and competent attendant being usually able to exercise sufficient 
control. 

Obesity. — Obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat under 
the skin p.nd around the various internal organs of the body to 
such an extent as to produce symptoms of disease and to exercise 
prejudicial influence on the health, usefulness and comfort of 
the sufferer. Corpulence may be used in the same sense, or 
restricted to the condition of great stoutness which is short of 
becoming a disease. 

Causes of Obesity.— There are many causes of obesity. 
Hereditary tendency is common. Women are liable to obesity 
to a far greater extent than men, and age is a predisposing cause, 
also. Children are usually fatter than adults, and during the later 
years of adult life, corpulence is common; while during the active 
years of early adult life, and in old age, the fat disappears. 

Food is undoubtedly the most important. If the diet con- 
tains an excessive amount of fatty and oily substances, if very 
large quantities of sugar and starchy foods are taken, or if any 
form of food is indulged in to a greater extent than is required 
for the maintenance of the body, the superfluous material will 
very likely be stored away in the form of fat. We must from 
this point of view look upon an individual as overeating, when 
he takes more food than is required to keep the body in health 
and at a uniform weight. Some people can live on very little 
and lay by fat on a most moderate diet; others eat enormous 
quantities, and never have any to spare to produce fat. 

Drink is also of much importance; for, as a rule, fat people 



300 DIETETICS 

drink very large quantities of fluid. Beer is very fattening, 
especially if taken liberally, and many other forms of alcoholic 
drink act in the same way. 

Mode of Life.— An easy-going, quiet, sedentry life aids in the 
laying-on of fat Exercise, by using up the nutritive material, 
acts in the opposite way; and, unfortunately, the corpulent are 
by force of circumstances somewhat incapable of taking much 
active exercise. Ease of mind, repose of body, excessive sleep 
encourage, whilst anxiety, worry, hard work and wear and tear 
prevent the occurrence of this condition. 

What are the symptoms and objections to this form of dis- 
ease? The sufferers are slow, inactive in body and mind; the 
slightest exertion, as'going up-stairs, causes palpitation and short- 
ness of breath. They are liable to catch cold, to diarrhea and 
indigestion, and if they are attacked by acute disease they bear 
it very badly, as they have little reserve strength. Weak heart, 
from the formation of large quantities of fat in its substance, is 
a common trouble, and gout is easily acquired. Added to these 
symptoms of disease is the constant annoyance due to their 
unwieldiness: they can not stoop even to do up their boots, they 
can not hurry to catch a train, and they are subjects of raillerj 
and often of great inconvenience to their fellow- travelers. 

The Treatment must be carried out with care, so that while 
the fat is removed the health .and strength may not suffer; those 
with diseased hearts or kidneys are dangerous subjects to meddle 
with. Alteration of diet is the one thing needful. Many drugs 
have been vaunted as cures lof obesity, but they have all been 
found useless upon trial. In all cases it is necessary to reduce 
the amount of food taken; the patient must be in earnest, and 
must be prepared to suffer a good deal of inconvenience, and 
even hunger in the process of thinning. The meat, or nitroge- 
nous foods should be increased, but all articles of diet which 
contain fats, sugar or starch should be much diminished in quan- 
tity, or quite given up. 

For example, at breakfast he would allow five or six ounces of 
meat or fish, or a couple of eggs, a little biscuit or dry toast (six 
or seven ounces of solids in all) and a breakf astcupf ul of tea or 
coffee without either milk or sugar (nine ounces of liquid). 

At dinner (mid-day), fish or meat (not salmon, herrings, eels, 
pork or veal), poultry or game (five or six ounces), vegetables 
(except potatoes, parsnips, beets, turnips or carrots), a slice of 
dry toast, cooked fruit without sugar, the meal consisting of ten 
to twelve ounces of solids and less than half a pint of liquids. 

At supper, cooked fruit (two or three ounces), a rusk or two, 
and a cup of tea without milk or sugar. 

Diet for Fevers.— Diet for fevers should be plentiful, but given 
in very easily digested form. Beef tea, mutton broth, chicken 
or veal broth, arrowroot, gruel, eggs, milk and jellies are the 
most common articles for the diet of fever patients, and recipes 
for the preparation of most of these will be found at tbft end of 



DIETETICS 301 

this chapter. Vermicelli may be added to the beef -tea ; rice or 
bits of toast to the mutton broth ; eggs in custard or beaten 
up with milk; and blanc-mange made of isinglass, or ground 
rice. Beef -tea is a valuable food, and very widely used, but it 
must be properly prepared to be nutritious ; it lessens the waste 
of tissue, supplies salts and other substances, and is a good stim- 
ulant. Beef-tea may be given partially digested, or peptonized, 
or Armour's nutrient wine of beef peptone can be procured, the 
meat in which is predigested. 

Starchy foods are always of value in fever, and can usually 
be digested ; oatmeal gruel and arrowroot form staple articles of 
invalid fare, and should always be made with milk, if it can be 
digested. Malted milk is light and easily borne by the stomach. 
Milk must always be one of the chief forms of nourishment in 
illness, but it should be given with great care; it is liable to dis- 
agree by the formation of lumps cr curd, which are hard and 
irritating to the digestive organs. This objection may be met by 
adding barley water, or soda-water in equal quantity, or lime 
water — two tablespoonf uls to a tumbler — or the milk may be pep< 
tonized. 

Great thirst is one of the most trying symptoms of fever. 
The drinks must not be given in large draughts, or indigestion or 
diarrhea will be produced, but in' small quantities, often and 
cold. The addition of ice makes them more refreshing. Iced 
water, small pieces of ice to suck, lemonade, soda-water, barley- 
water and lemon, toast and water, cold weak tea, linseed tea, and 
milk and soda-water are all useful for this purpose. 

Diet in Typhoid Ferer.— There is probably no disease in 
which attention to diet is of greater importance, or in which more 
lives are lost by ignorance or carelessness in the feeding. The 
disease consists in an ulcerated or raw condition of the intestines, 
which sometimes spreads to such a depth as to make a hole 
through the bowel and allow its contents to escape into the cavity 
of the peritoneum, which is sure to result in very severe illness 
and most probably in death. If any articles of solid food are 
given they will irritate the sore spots, increasing the symptoms 
and the liability to perforate the bowels. There have been 
many cases in which an attack of typhoid fever progressing most 
favorably has suddenly terminated fatally through the mistaken 
kindness or wilful conduct of friends or nurses in giving solid 
food contrary to the direct orders of the physician in attendance. 
Plumcake, oranges, grapes, bread and jam, and a long list of 
similar articles have been given, and produced this dire result. 
The diet must be given in a fluid and easily digested form, so as 
to allow the bowel as complete rest as possible ; milk should form 
the chief or only food, and many a case of typhoid can be fed from 
beginning to end with milk only. It must be given in small quan- 
tities at frequent intervals, and as much as three or four pints 
in the twenty-four hours. It, however, the curd is found to be 
undigested and to pass away in the motions — a reason for care* 
Sully watching the appearance of the stools — the milk must be 




! 



&$STG '- 



302 DIETETICS 

flven mixed with soda-water, or Vichy waterj^br^eptonized milk, 
mall quantities of beef -tea or beef essence, chicken and mutton 
broth may be given, but if they are found to increase the diarrhea, 
they must be at once stopped. Eggs may be used, but never 
cooked ; they should be given raw, beaten up with boiling water 
or broth. 

The great thirst which is usually present in typhoid fever will 
require the various simple drinks mentioned for fevers in general. 

The patient is very anxious during convalescence to be allowed 
to eat solid food, but the safest rule is to allow not a mouthful of 
solid food to pass his lips until his temperature has remained 
normal for a week. Even then food should be given with extreme 
care. Bread-crumbs soaked in beef-tea, custards and jellies, 
eggs lightly cooked, boiled fish, chicken, and finally meat, would 
be the right order. 

SECTION THREE— PEPTONIZED FOODS 

Peptonized and Malted Foods,— For those suffering from 
very severe indigestion or extreme debility it is often of great 
advantage to give the stomach rest, and the patient easily ab« 
sorbed nourishment, by partially digesting the food outside the 
body, and the following are some of the most useful foods for 
that purpose: 

Peptonized Milk»— Dilute a pint of milk with a quarter of a 
pint of water, boil half of it, and when boiling add the other half, 
which will bring it to the required temperature (140° F.); add 
two teaspoonfuls of liquor pancreaticus and ten grains of bicar- 
bonate of soda, pour into a covered jug, and stand in a warm 
place near the fire or under a "cosey." At the end of an hour 
and a half, boil for a minute or two. The food is then ready. 
The last boiling is to prevent the digestive processes going too 
far and spoiling the taste; it is possible to know when it has gone 
far enough by tasting the food — a slight bitterness should just 
be perceived; the preparation is more pleasant if the milk is 
skimmed beforehand and the cream added to it when ready. 

To Make Peptonized Gruel. — Sago, barley, pea, or lentil, 
may be peptonized in the following way: Boil the gruel well, 
and make it thick and strong; pour it into a covered jug and 
let stand until lukewarm; add liquor pancreaticus, one dessert- 
spoonful to each pint of gruel; stand in warm place for two 
hours, then boil and strain. By this process both the starch 
and nitrogenous ingredients are partially digested; the gruel be- 
comes thinner, but does not get bitter, unless it has been made 
with milk. 

Peptonized Milk-gruel.— Make a thick gruel, and add to it 
while boiling an equal quantity of cold milk. Add, for each 
pint, two or three teaspoonfuls of liquor pancreaticus and ten 
grains of bicarbonate of soda. Keep warm for one hour and a 




c 



* 

< 

d 



304 DIETETICS 

half, then boil and strain. If bitter, too much liquor pancre* 
aticus has been added. 

Peptonized Soups, Jellies and Blanc-manges. — Soups may 
be peptonized in two ways: Add an equal quantity of "stock" 
to peptonized gruel or peptonized milk-gruel; or use peptonized 
gruel, thin and watery, instead of water, to make soups from 
shins of beef, and the like. 

To make jellies, add gelatine or isinglass to hot peptonized 
gruel, and flavor to taste. 

Blanc-mange may be made in a similar way with peptonized 
milk, ana cream added. The gruel or milk must be completely 
peptonized and boiled before being used, or the jellies will not 
set. 

Peptonized Beef-tea, — Mix one pound of finely minced lean 
beef with a pint of water, add ten grains of bicarbonate of soda. 
Simmer for one and a half hours in a covered saucepan. Pour 
off the beef -tea thus made into a covered jug. Beat up the 
meat left into a pulp with a spoon and put it in the jug also; 
when it is cool enough to drink, add one tablespoonful of liquor 
pancreaticus, and stir well. Put in warm place for two hours, 
stirring occasionally. Boil for two or three minutes and strain; 
add salt. The beef -tea is now ready. 

Beef4ea (1>. — Half pound of gravy beef, half pint of cold 
water, quarter teaspoonful of salt. Choose good gravy beef, 
such as steak or topside. Remove the fat and skin, cut into 
thin strips, and shred across with a sharp knife; or it may be 
passed through a mincing machine. Put the shredded meat, 
cold water and salt into a saucepan, and, if possible, let it stand 
for fifteen minutes to soak. Commence to heat slowly; stir 
gently all the time. The juice will come out of the meat, leav- 
ing it white. Cook gently until the liquid turns a rich red- 
brown. Strain through a fine wire strainer; remove any speck 
of grease by drawing a piece of paper across the top. It is then 
ready. N. B. — Beef-tea must never boil, or it will be spoiled. 

Beef-tea (2). — Made in a jar. Half pound of gravy beef, half 
pint of cold water, quarter teaspoonful of salt. Prepare the 
ingredients as in the foregoing recipe, then put the shredded 
meat, water and salt into an earthenware jar. Cover, and tie 
down with paper. Place the jar in a saucepan of boiling water, 
and keep it simmering for three hours; the contents should be 
stirred from time to time. Strain carefully, and remove all trace 
of grease. It is then ready to serve. 

Raiv Beef-tea. — One ounce of raw beef, one tablespoonful 
of cold water, pinch of salt. Shred one ounce of lean raw beef 
finely with a sharp knife. Place this in a basin with the cold 
water and salt. Cover, and let it soak for two hours. Carefully 
strain and press all the juice from the meat. Serve in a colored 
glass. The object is to obtain as much nourishment as possible 
m a small quantity of liquid; and also the albumen in this beef- 



DIETETICS 305 

tea, not being cooked, digests more quickly. Make this beef-tea 
in small quantities, as it does not keep well. One or two tea- 
spoonfuls to be given at a time. 

Chicken Broth.— Half of a chicken, one quart of water, 
pepper and salt Cut the chicken in small pieces; put it into a 
saucepan with cold water. Simmer gently for two or three hours; 
season and strain. If liked, an ounce of barley or rice may be 
cooked with it. A chopped onion would also make it more 
savory. Giblets may be used instead of a whole chicken. 

Mutton Broth. — One pound scrag end of mutton, one quart 
of water, one dessertspoonful of peari barley, one teaspoonful of 
chopped parsley, salt. Cut the mutton into small joints. Put it 
into a saucepan with the water. Add the salt, and bring to a 
boil. Skim well. Add the barley. Simmer gently for three 
hours, keeping it well skimmed; then shake in the parsley. If 
vegetable flavoring is allowed, this broth is immensely improved 
by the addition of an onion, carrot and turnip, cut into dice and 
cooked in the broth. 

Chicken Cream.— Quarter pound raw chicken or veal, three- 
quarters of an ounce of butter, one egg, one white of egg whipped, 
half gill of cream. Pound the chicken in a mortar, add the whole 
egg and seasoning. Rub through a sieve, stir in the whipped 
white of egg and the cream whipped. Place in small buttered 
moulds, steam gently for about fifteen minutes. Serve with a 
nice white sauce. Pheasant or game may be cooked in this way 
if wished. 

Arrowroot.— This may be made with either milk or water. 
The latter, however, would contain very little nourishment. A 
small dessertspoonful of arrowroot will thicken about half a pint 
of milk. The arrowroot should be placed first in a teacup or 
small basin, and should be thoroughly mixed with a small quan- 
tity of cold water until quite smooth. Then add by degrees the 
boiling milk, and continually stir the mixture. It may be flavored 
with sugar and a little nutmeg or other kind of spice, or some 
lemon-peel may be added. 

Lemon Jellj. — Half pint of lemon- juice, one and a half pints 
of water, six ounces of loaf sugar, one inch of cinnamon, four 
cloves, two and a half ounces sheet gelatine, the rind of four 
lemons thinly cut, two whites of eggs and the shells. Put all 
these ingredients into a saucepan together; whisk until it boils. 
Let it stand for five minutes. Strain through a clean cloth 
scalded; set in a mould when clear. When it is firm, turn out. 

It must always be remembered that gelatine and isinglass are 
of little or no value as nutrients and are simply used to stiffen 
jellies. 

Gruel. — One tablespoonful of groats or oatmeal, two table- 
spoonfuls of cold water, one pint of boiling water. Mix the groats 
smoothly with the cold water in a basin. Pour over them the 
boiling water, stirring it all the time. Put it into a very clean 



306 DIETETICS 

saucepan, boil the gruel for ten minutes, keeping it well stirred. 
Sweeten to taste, and serve. It may be flavored with a small 
piece of lemon-peel, by boiling it in the gruel, or a little grated 
nutmeg may be put in. If fine oatmeal is used, it requires rather 
longer boiling. 

INVALID DRINKS 

Lemonade. — Peel one lemon, or more, pour a small quantity 
of boiling water over the peel and cover it close. Squeeze the 
lemon and remove the pips. Pour some boiling water upon sugar 
in a separate vessel. When the sugar is quite dissolved, put the 
juice into it, add cold water to taste; then put in enough of the 
peel to flavor it. The sugar should be dissolved before adding 
the juice. 

Toast and Water.— Toast a piece of crust of bread till it is 
quite brown, or almost black, place it in a jug, and pour a little 
cold water upon it. After standing for a short time it is fit tc 
drink. 

Linseed Tea. — Put one ounce of linseed and a pint of boiling 
water into a jar with a cover; stand this for an hour before the 
fire, and then strain. It may be flavored with sugar or lemon- 
peel. 

Barley Water. — Wash an ounce of pearl barley in cold water 
three or four times, or boil it for a few minutes. Then place the 
washed barley in a pint and a half of water, with a bit of lemon- 
peel and a little sugar. Allow it to simmer, stirring it constantly, 
until it is of a nice thickness; then strain it and add lemon-juice. 
If a slight flavor of lemon is preferred with a very little acid, 
put a slice of lemon with the barley in the water; sweeten to 
taste. Care must be taken not to make the drink too sweet, as 
it will then clog the palate and produce flatulence. 

Imperial Drink. — Dissolve a drachm or a drachm and a half 
of cream of tartar in a pint of boiling water, and flavor with 
lemon-peel and sugar. When cold, it may be taken freely as a 
cooling drink. It acts slightly on the kidneys, increasing the 
flow of water through them. 

Peptonized Milk. — A pint of milk, a quarter of a pint of cold 
water and a zymine peptonizing powder should be well stirred 
together, and let stand for about twenty minutes in a moderately 
warm place. It should then be boiled, to prevent the digestive 
changes; if these are allowed to go on too long a time, the drink 
will become bitter and disagreeable. 

Nutritious Coffee. — Half ounce of ground coffee, one pint of 
milk. Let the coffee be freshly ground; put it into a saucepan 
with the milk, which should be made nearly boiling before the 
coffee is put in, and boil both together for three minutes; 
clear by pouring some of it into a cup, and then back again, and 
leave it on the hob for a few minutes to settle thoroughly. This 
coffee may be made still more nutritious by the addition of an 
egg well beaten and put into the coffee-cup. 



CHAPTER XX 
CARE OF CHILDREN 



SECTION ONE— FOODS AND FEEDING 

Food for Infant. — Without question the best food for an 
infant is that provided by nature — namely, its mother's milk. A 
child fed thus, so long as the mother is healthy, is more likely to 
thrive and grow healthy and strong, and is far less liable to 
cause worry and anxiety, and to suffer from the numberless 
little ailments of infants, than one fed in any other way. 

A Happy Mother. — A lady who decides to suckle her infant 
must forego some of the pleasures and all of the dissipations of 
fashionable life. A suckling infant, however, can impart more 
real Joy to a nursing mother than all the pleasures of so-called 
fashionable society are capable of bestowing. 

About the third or fourth day after delivery, the breasts 
usually become much distended with milk. In first confinements 
especially, there is, until the third day, but little milk. Much 
care and attention are now needed. At this period the milk fever, 
so-called, generally occurs, and from the time of delivery until 
the milk fever has passed away, none but the plainest and 
simplest food should be taken. 

Care of Nipples. — Nipples, like all other parts of the body, 
when newly used after long rest, become sore. A menth or two 
before the expected confinement, the mother should harden the 
nipples by means of thumb and fingers. 

After child-birth, they may be thoroughly bathed with a 
sponge or soft linen rag, after which a dusting powder of starch 
or arrowroot may be applied. 

It is advised in some cases where the breasts become hard, 
painful and knotty, to bathe them with warm sweet oil, or pure 
sweet oil and cologne water equal parts, well mixed when used. 
As a rule, however, the very best physician that the breasts can 
possibly employ is the baby, and in very many cases they need 
no other treatment than what they receive fr©m this source, and 
unless they become actually disordered, no interference should 
be permitted. 

Passions and Emotions are injurious to the milk, and conse- 
quently to the child. It is even believed by some that the baby 
inherits the temper or disposition of his mother or wet-nurse; 
however this may be, it is well known that sudden joy and grief 

307 



CARE OF CHILDREN 309 

often disorder the bowels of the infant. It is a fortunate thing 
that with mothers, usually, and especially with first mothers, 
this is the happiest and most serene period of their existence. 
This cheerfulness of heart and serenity of mind are doubtless 
due in a great measure to a good digestion, for during the nurs- 
ing period the stomach is in a sound state, and the general 
health is usually first class. 

The Mother's Diet.— The mother should restrict herself, both 
in quantity and quality, to the food that agrees with her. While 
a good nourishing diet is required, she should not force herself to 
eat more than her appetite calls for. There is no occasion to be 
extraordinarily particular in the selection of food, yet, at the 
same time, there are certain articles of food gross and unwhole- 
some, which are not desirable at any time, and especially not at 
this time. Her diet should be varied, embracing a wide range of 
both the animal and the vegetable. 

There are some few articles that nearly always disagree, and 
should be by most nursing women, if not all, let entirely alone. 
Among them we may mention highly salted beef, and, for the 
most part, goose and duck; the indigestible cove oyster should be 
tabooed, likewise salt herrings and the oil-smothered sardine. 
To be sure, these dishes in many instances are eaten, relished 
and digested with no apparent ill effects; but with the majority 
of people at this time they certainly disagree. 

Although pickles, greens and cabbages are frequently indulged 
in without apparent injury, with many they also disagree; the 
patient will therefore have to be governed by the effects produced 
an her own particular case. , 

Experience must necessarily guide the mother in the selection 
and use of very many articles of food; and, as in numerous other 
matters which concern the welfare of herself and child, she will 
have to depend upon her stock of common sense. If, in case of 
debility and depression, it is thought necessary to have recourse 
to stimulants, great care must be exercised, and in no instance 
is it really safe to indulge in or continue the use for any length 
of time of any kind of spirituous or malt liquors. 

Feeding Infants. — Civilization or some other cause seems to 
produce a very large number of mothers quite incapable of feed- 
ing the babe by the natural method. Fashion, ill-health, worry 
and hard work add to the number. 

The first two or three days the child requires hardly any food, 
very little milk is formed, but a thin watery fluid, which is called 
the "colostrum," and has a decidedly aperient action upon the 
bowels; on the second or third day, as the child's needs become 
greater, the flow of milk is established. 

At first the breast should be given every two hours, using each 

breast alternately; the interval between the meals should be 

gradually increased, first to two hours and a half and then to 

three hours. A longer time should, however, be allowed between 

♦the times of feeding during the night, so that the mother shall 

19 



310 CARE OF CHILDREN 

have several hours consecutive sleep. By careful management 
the interval can be extended to from four to six hours. 

Time of Feeding. — Great importance should be attached to 
the times of feeding ; regularity of meals should be carefully ob- 
served, and two or three hours interval always allowed to elapse 
before the next meal. It is a very common answer to receive 
from a mother, when asked the question how often she feeds her 
baby, that she does so whenever it cries. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, babies cry for many other reasons besides hunger : They 
may wish to explain in this way — their only means of communi- 
cating anything — that they are uncomfortable, or that they have 
a pin sticking into them, or that they have a stomach ache. Now, 
in the latter case, to feed the child may have the most unfortu- 
nate effect. The pain may be due to faulty digestion, some food 
remaining in and irritating the stomach. If more food is given 
it may for a time give relief to the pain, but this soon returns 
worse than ever, the addition of the food in the stomach having 
added to the trouble already existing and made bad worse. The 
proper treatment would have been to delay a meal for a short 
time, so as to give the stomach a rest, and an opportunity to get 
rid of the cause of all the trouble. 

The right thing, then, is for a mother to feed her own infant, 
for the child's sake ; it is well also for the mother ; for those 
changes which are necessary after the birth of the child go on 
more satisfactorily while the mother nurses her baby. 

Predigested Food — When, in spite of careful feeding, there 
is indigestion and fever, the temporary expedient of predigesting 
the milk must be tried. This is by a process of peptonizing the 
food by the use of pancreatin. That is, the food is made easier 
of digestion by the disordered stomach by being partially digest- 
ed in advance of feeding it to the child. Extraction pancreatis 
is accompanied by full directions. But a still simpler method 
of temporarily changing the food, and giving less trouble, is to 
use the peptogenic milk powder, under the directions furnished 
with it. This powder contains, besides its food ingredients, 
pancreatin, bicarbonate of soda and milk sugar. It is supplied 
by all druggists. 

Substitutes for Mother's Milk. — What foods can be employed 
as substitute* for the mother's milk? Cow's milk is most similar 
in its constitution and most easily obtained, though not quite the 
same composition as the mother's milk. The best plan to make 
cow's milk a suitable food for infants, and one which is scientif- 
ically correct, is to peptonize or partially predigest the milk. 

We can not approve of the idea of peptonizing (predigesting/ 
food constantly. Nature should be trained to perform its own 
processes by exercise, not relieved of all functions and en- 
feebled by purely artificial aid. 

Sterilized Milk is valuable to those who are at a distance 
from the supply; if is carefully purified and freed from all gernft 



CARE OF CHILDREN 311 

by the application of heat, and is supplied in hermetically sealed 
bottles. 

Patent Foods for Infants.— There are a number of patent 
infant foods in the market. Any of these may be used under 
certain circumstances. If an infant does not do well in spite of 
every effort to feed it, resort should be had to a healthy wet- 
nurse, stranger or friend, to save the life of the child. In that 
case it may recover and soon take prepared milk. 

A distinction should be drawn between infants* food and 
children's food. Infants' food should contain no starch; and chil- 
dren's food should contain starch. Mothers, be cautious in this 
matter. 

Food of the Child After Weaning.— The diet of infancy, 
after the period of nursing, should consist principally of good 
bread and milk, plainly and palatably cooked dishes made from 
unbolted wheat flour, apples, and nearly all kinds of fruit when 
in season. All kinds of animal food Bhould be taken in the form 
of broths and soups. 

Vegetables may also be prepared in the form of soup, and 
by using for the broth either beef, mutton or chicken, any of the 
vegetables, such as potatoes, beans, barley, rice, or tomatoes, 
may be used singly, to thicken it, and by being thus prepared, 
will be an agreeable variation in the dishes. 

The young child should not, of course, be allowed pastry; and 
sweet cakes, if eaten at all, should be used very sparingly. Both 
mother and physician frequently have much difficulty in select- 
ing the proper and most wholesome food for the child, as the di- 
gestive powers of children differ almost as much as in adult life. 



SECTION TWO— DISEASES OF INFANTS 

Errors in Diet. — There are many diseased conditions pro* 
duced by errors in the diet of infants, either due to the quantity 
of food being too small or too large; or from its being of unsuit- 
able quality. The fault in quality may be that the food is too poor 
in those articles which produce the bones, muscles, and other 
structures, in the fat, caseine or sugar of milk. Or, it may be 
due to the presence of indigestible material — the most common 
article under this head being starch. 

Vomiting in infants is sometimes only the safety-valve 
action of the stomach, which rejects a portion of the milk taken 
when it is over-filled. In these cases it is never excessive, and 
does the child no harm. Indigestible food or sour milk, by set- 
ting up fermentation and irritation of the stomach, sometimes 
produces the most troublesome and even dangerous attacks of 
vomiting. 

Diarrhea is another common result of bad feeding, and 
usually accompanies vomiting. Infants a few days old may be 



312 



CAKE OF CHILDREN 



affected by it as the result of foolish fads and fancies of ignorant 
nurses. With the idea that the child's bowels must be 
"cleansed" without delay, they administer a mixture of butter 
and sugar, castor oil, or some other nastiness, the result of which 
is violent purging, followed by the diarrhea which it has set up. 
Again, starchy foods present themselves, and sour milk also, as 
causes of diarrhea. In the latter case the acidity of the stomach 
is much increased, fermentation set up, and the motions are gen- 
erally found to contain curds of undigested milk. Such a case 
will soon improve if the diet is corrected and a small quantity of 
lime-water given after each meal. The injurious food may some= 
times be the milk of the mother, whose health has suffered, whose 




habits have been unsatisfactory, whose diet has consisted oi 
something injurious to the child, or whose bowels have become 
constipated. Here the fault in the mother must first receive 
treatment, and the child's indisposition will soon pass off. What- 
ever may be the cause, it should receive immediate attention, 
for, if neglected and allowed to run on for many hours, it will 
rapidly reduce the little patient to a condition of severe prostra- 
tion. 

Stomach ache would probably accompany the vomiting and 
diarrhea already considered, but the most frequent cause of this 
condition is the presence of flatulence, or "wind in the bowels," 



CARE OF CHILDREN 313 

a very common ailment of infants. The child cries as if in pain, 
has a pained expression; his face may have a bluish hue and the 
mouth and eyes twitch, the extremities get cold, and the legs are 
constantly drawn up to the body. Such symptoms would prob- 
ably be much relieved by giving a teaspoonf ul of dill water with 
two of hot water, or a little carroway, anise or peppermint water 
in the same dose. The next meal should be put off for a short 
time to give the stomach a rest, and the food carefully observed 
to find out anything faulty. 

Constipation in an infant is almost always due to some error 
of diet. In those brought up at the breast it depends upon a 
want of richness in the milk, which should be corrected by 
increasing the amount of fat in the mother's food. Rich milk, 
cream, oatmeal porridge and stewed fruit are all useful. 

In bottle-fed children, it may also be due to poverty of the 
milk, when benefit maybe derived from adding a little cream to 
each meal, or two or three of the meals may have a teaspoonfui 
of Mellin's food mixed with them. Cod-liver oil or salad oil 
sucked off the finger is useful for these cases. 

Much starchy food given to a young child is very likely to 
produce constipation, and if the treatment already recommended 
is not sufficient to correct it, some alteration must be made in the 
food. If barley water is being given with the milk it may be 
replaced by oatmeal water. 

Teething-. — The first teeth may appear at any time between 
the third and seventh month. Some infants have been known 
to cut their teeth as early as the third month; and cases are 
known where infants were born with teeth. On the other hand, 
there are cases on record of infants who have never had any 
teeth at all. 

First Dentation, or teething, commences between the third 
and seventh month. When the teeth have all appeared, they 
are twenty in number. They are usually cut in pairs, occupying 
a period of about two years in their coming. Hence a child at 
the age of two and a half years should have twenty teeth — tem- 
porary teeth, for by the time he is seven years old, they begin to 
loosen and fall out. 

Children Are Liable to Take Cold.— Children during teething 
are particularly liable to take cold, and the following symptoms 
frequently occur as a consequence: Vomiting from catarrh of the 
stomach, diarrhea from catarrh of the intestines, and cough from 
catarrh of the bronchial tubes. For this reason it is of great im- 
portance to keep the body warm, which can most effectively be 
done by applying a broad flannel bandage round the stomach. 

The cough requires some simple liniment rubbed on the chest, 
a few doses of ordinary cough mixture or one-drop doses of tinc- 
ture of belladonna every hour until the cough is relieved, either 
in a teaspoonf ul of water or as a tabloid. 

Certain skin diseases, such as eczema, red-gum, etc., are fre- 



314 CARE OF CHILDREN 

quent at this time, and are generally due to some irritation of 
the stomach and bowels. They can be cured by appropriate 
treatment applied to those conditions. 

Convulsions of Infants. — Convulsions, due to disorder of the 
nervous system, sometimes occur during teething and cause 
great alarm. They are often ushered in with slighter symptoms, 
such as squinting, twitchings, startings and restless sleep. When 
an attack of convulsions occurs, the child should as quickly as 
possible be put into a hot bath — temperature over 100° — a plan of 
treatment which can be advised for all the affections of teething. 
The bowels should be opened with a teaspoonful of castor oil, 
and cold should be applied to the head. The doctor should be 
called, as he may give relief by the inhalation of a few drops of 
chloroform or by lancing the gums. 

Convulsions sometimes occur in infants from over-feeding and 
from whooping cough. Mothers are prone to stuff their little one 
with other food, even though having at the same time an abun- 
dance of milk; one of the consequences of this is convulsions. 
A child under four months, fed exclusively on mother's milk, is 
seldom, if ever, troubled in this manner. Convulsions attending 
whooping cough are usually a very serious matter, and the phy- 
sician has need of all his skill to successfully treat them. The 
warm bath in these cases is a very important part of the treat- 
ment. 

Lancing the Gnms is thought by some people to be a panacea 
for all the ailments of teething, but it is only useful when the 
teeth are just through and the gums are swollen, hot and painful, 
and should not be practiced indiscriminately. 

Bromide of Potash is the best drug to overcome and prevent 
convulsions and all nervous symptoms. Two and a half to 
three grains should be given every four hours mixed with a 
little syrup and water, or half a five-grain tabloid may be used. 
Rubbing the mixture onto the tender gums helps to relieve the 
child's sufferings. 

Rest for Inflamed Stomachs. — If a man had a severe attack 
of cholera morbus, dyspepsia, diarrhea, constipation, colic or 
vomiting, would he not be disposed to stop eating and give his 
maltreated stomach rest for six, ten or twelve hours? Something 
of the same kind must be done if a baby is taken with similar 
disorders. The inflamed or irritated stomach must be given time 
to rest and heal, instead of keeping up the stuffing process under 
the delusion that the child will starve. It is a false and silly 
notion that every cry means hunger and must be quieted by addi- 
tional stuffing, when perhaps the cry is caused by the pains of 
surfeit. 

Whenever it is decided to withhold food from an infant foi 
some hours, as a relief from some diseased condition, it is very 
important not to forget that it can thirst as well as, or more 
than, grown people, and give a little water frequently. 



CARE OF CHILDREN 



315 



SECTION THREE— DISEASES PECULIAR TO 
CHILDHOOD 

How to Examine the Throat.— On first looking into the mouth, 
nothing but the tongue and palate meeting at the back can be 
seen. If, however, the tongue be pressed down at the back with 
the handle of a spoon, flat paper-knife, or handle of a tooth-brush, 
and the patient at the same time takes a deep breath, the throat 
becomes exposed to view. From the back of the roof of the 
mouth hangs the curtain of the soft palate with the fleshy mas?- 




WORN OUT, 

of the uvula. On either side of the palate is seen the tonslifc. 

The use of the tonsils still remains a mystery. They are bo^ie* 
rounded in shape, of about the size of a hazel-nut, covered with 
the soft lining of the throat and have a number of small glands 
which secrete a yellowish fluid. This secretion forms occasion- 
ally little yellow patches and lumps, which may cause much 
anxiety at first sight by being mistaken for the membrane of 
diphtheria. 

In Scarlet Fever all the parts in the neighborhood of the ton- 
sils, and the tonsils themselves, are swollen, red and sore; 



316 CARE OF CHILDREN 

patches of secretion form, and thick mucus is smeared over them, 
If sore throat occurs with sudden illness, high temperature, 
quick pulse and painful swelling at the angle of the jaw in a 
child who has not previously had scarlet fever, strong suspicions 
are aroused, and are very soon confirmed by the appearance of 
the rash. 

In Diphtheria the symptoms may be severe also, and the 
throat has the appearance of being covered with patches of false 
membrane. The menbrane can not be removed easily, and if 
forcibly detached, causes bleeding and leaves a sore surface. 

The throat in diphtheria is not as sore or painful in swallow- 
ing as a simple inflamed throat. 

The Symptoms of the Simple Sore Throat of children come 
on suddenly, with fever and pain in swallowing. Tonsils are 
swollen, red and covered with thick phlegm, or have patches of 
yellow secretion. 

Treatment of Sore Throat.— The child should be confined 
to bed or to his bedroom. Food should consist of milk, either 
warmed or iced according to fancy of the child; beef- tea, gruel, 
jelly and soft foods. Fomentations applied frequently to the 
throat, and painting the tonsils with glycerine and boric acid re- 
duce the inflammation. Sucking black-currant lozenges or jelly, 
or sipping warm drinks relieve the pain. 

For the fever, aconite is the best remedy: One drop, or a 
tabloid of one minim of the tincture in a teaspoonful of water 
may be given every hour for three or four doses, and then at 
longer intervals. 

Chronic Tonsilitis, or Enlarged Tonsils.— The tonsils may 
occasionally be seen of such a size as to touch each other and 
press upon the uvula and palate. They are hard, pale colored 
and quite free from pain. 

The expression becomes idiotic, vacant and heavy; the mouth 
is kept open, and on account of blocking of the nostrils at the 
back, no breathing takes place through the nose; even when 
awake there is some difficulty in breathing, and when asleep the 
child snores. 

The voice is thick and indistinct, as if the patient were "talk- 
ing through the nose." Usually the hearing is affected to some 
extent. 

Added to all these, attacks of sore throat are constant, this 
part being always affected whenever a cold is taken. These 
children sleep heavily and restlessly, starting in their sleep and 
dreaming, and are often troubled with difficulty in holding their 
water. As a result of the imperfect way in which the air enters 
the lungs, they become ill-developed, with pigeon-breasts and 
stunted growth. 

Treatment for Tonsilitis.— At first, when the ctndition is 
only beginning, painting glycerole of tannic acid over the 



CARE OF CHILDREN 317 

tonsils with a brush two or three times a day, and a course of 
cod-liver oil and steel wine or the syrup of the iodide of iron may 
produce a cure; but if this treatment has been persevered in for 
three months without any good results, no longer delay should 
be allowed, but the tonsils should be removed. This operation 
is not a painful or dangerous one. 

Adenoid Growth. — Adenoid growths at the back of the nose 
are very common affection of children. It consists in a very 
similar growth to that described as affecting the tonsils, and 
occurs in the small glands at the back of the nose. 

The symptoms are similar to those produced by enlarged 
tonsils. The passages of the nose are much blocked, so that air 
can not be drawn through one or both nostrils; the child has a 
chronic "cold in the head," with a curious pinched appearance 
of the nostrils, snores in his sleep, speaks through his nose, and 
is very deaf and stupid. The deafness probably causes the 
stupidity, with its vacant expression and great backwardness, 
especially shown by the late period at which the child learns to 
talk. We might almost repeat the remarks made about the 
operation for enlarged tonsils in strongly recommending early 
operation for these growths. 

Parents have in these cases a great responsibility; if they 
allow their natural reluctance to any operation upon their 
children to overcome their better judgment to comply with their 
doctor's advice, they may have to endure life-long regret and 
their children life-long inconvenience. There may be permanent 
deafness, great backwardness and much ill-health, all of which 
timely operation would have avoided. 

Cold — Catarrh.— A cold in a child should always receive 
treatment at once. The symptoms are familiar to all, and depend 
upon what part is chiefly affected, whether it be eyes, nose, 
mouth, throat, air passages or digestive organs. 

Treatment. — If the cold is only slight, the child should be 
kept at home, confined to a well warmed and ventilated room. 
But if it is at all bad and the fever high, he should have a hot 
bath and be put to bed. 

The food should be chiefly given in a liquid form. Milk, beef" 
tea, arrowroot, and, if thirst is troublesome, lemonade (hot), 
barley water and linseed tea may be used. The following: 

(For one dose.) 
Solution of the Acetate of Ammonia, 10 drops. 
Sweet Spirits of Nitre, 5 drops. 
Syrup, 15 drops. 
Water to the drachm. 
May be given in teaspoonful doses every two or three hours 
to a child of three, but smaller doses to infants. If the fever be 
high, this may be replaced by the tincture of aconite. This is 
strong medicine, and should be given with care. Four drops, or 
four of the one-minim tabloids, should be dissolved in two table- 



318 CARE OF CHILDREN 

spoonfuls of water and flavored with a little sugar and lemon- 
juice. 

Of this a teaspoonful may be given every two hours to a 
child of three years or over; half of this dose for infants. After 
four doses the intervals should be lengthened. 

False Croup, or "Child-Crowing."— False croup consists 
essentially of a convulsion or spasm, during which the small 
chink of the larynx by which all air enters the lungs becomes 
suddenly closed. 

Symptoms. — In the milder cases the child's breathing is 
simply accompanied with a crowing sound. This occurs each 
time the breath is drawn in, causes practically no inconvenience 
or pain, and disappears during sleep. In other cases, however, 
it continues even during sleep. In the severer forms the disease 
comes on in attacks, which occur at any time in the day or 
night, and are most alarming to parents and distressing to the 
little patient. The child is to all appearance in fair health, and 
without any warning, suddenly screws up its face as if it were 
going to cry, holds its breath so that no air can enter the chest, 
gets blue in the face and lips, with swelling of the face and 
head. Just as the obstruction seems as. if it were sufficient to 
cause suffocation — that is, after perhaps ten seconds or so— the 
air suddenly is drawn in with a rush, causing the peculiar crow- 
ing sound so characteristic of the disease, and from which it 
takes its name. 

The attacks of crowing are often accompanied by convul- 
sions of other parts besides the larynx. The body generally 
may be affected, but a far more common symptom is convul- 
sions of the hands and feet, in which the thumbs are turned 
inwards across the palms and the toes bent down and stiff. 
Occasionally this disease occurs in the form of sudden attacks 
of difficulty of breathing, without any crowing sound at all, and 
such cases are of ten the more severe. 

In the great majority of cases the little patients get perfectly 
well; but there is undoubtedly danger if the proper treatment is 
not at once adopted, and anxiety must be felt until the attacks 
of "crowing" have quite disappeared. Deaths occasionally 
occur, either during an attack or as the result of general con^ 
vulsions setting in. 

Treatment of Croup.— During an attack, efforts must be 
directed to restoring the respiration as soon as possible. This 
may be done by dashing a sponge well wetted with cold water 
in the face, by patting the back, or giving a vigorous shake. 

To check the attacks when they are frequent, the best drugs 
are bromide of potash and chloral. Of the bromide of potash 
five-grain tabloid may be given two or three times a day dis- 
solved in a teaspoonful of water; and of chloral, half a five-grain 
tabloid in a similar way. The two drugs combined act even 
better; a five-grain tabloid of each dissolved in a little water 



CARE OF CHILDREN 319 

may be given in two doses, making two and a half grains of each 
in a dose. 

False Croup also occurs under other conditions and forms. 
Besides the attacks of difficulty of breathing, there is a noisy, 
hard cough and hoarseness. Children of two or three years of 
age are most liable to it, and the attacks occur more frequently 
at night. They are very alarming, but usually pass off as sud- 
denly as they come on, and are seldom accompanied with much 
danger. The treatment recommended for "child-crowing" 
should be employed. 

The Third Form of Croup.— The two preceding affections 
are what mothers refer to when they say that their children are 
very subject to "croup." It is the curious noise, perhaps, to 
which this term is popularly given, rather than to any definite 
disease. 

The third form of croup is another name for acute inflamma- 
tion of the larynx, or laryngitis. This is quite a distinct disease 
from diphtheria. Generally it is best to treat the patient as if 
he were suffering from diphtheria, and to carry out all the pre- 
cautionary measures necessary in infectious disease. 

Bronchitis. — Capillary bronchitis (broncho-pneumonia) is a 
form of bronchitis which is of greater frequency in children 
than in adults. Its name is due to the fact that the inflamma- 
tion chiefly affects the smallest, or capillary air-tubes. It may 
occur as a complication of an ordinary attack of bronchitis. 

The temperature may rise to 103° F. or more. The pulse is 
quick. Rigors frequently occur. The respiration may rise to 
fifty a minute, and the difficulty of breathing is usually very 
severe. Cough is always troublesome, being continuous and 
distressing, with occasional violent paroxysms. The face be- 
comes blue, swollen and covered with a cold sweat, and the 
little patient soon passes into a most distressing and prostrate 
condition. 

Treatment for Capillary Bronchitis.— All cases of bronchitis 
in children should be treated with great care, for negligence 
may lead to an attack of capillary bronchitis, with the serious 
symptoms just enumerated. Bed is, undoubtedly, the best 
place. The strength should be maintained by plenty of fluid 
nourishing food, and small quantities of stimulants given fre- 
quently. First use tr. aconite, five drops; tr. ipecac, ten drops; 
dissolved in half a glass of water, giving one teaspoonful every 
half hour to two hours. Later, then, to aid in the removal of 
the expectoration, the best drug is carbonate of ammonia; one of 
the three-grain tabloids may be dissolved in water and syrup 
and a little lemon- juice added to the mixture when it is taken. 
For a child one year old, three teaspoonf uls of water should be 
added to each tabloid; while for a child of six or eight, one tea- 
spoonful would be enough. In each case the dose would be a 
teaspoonful given every three or four hours. 



320 CARE OF CHILDREN 

If the breathing is very hard, and the child appears to be 
getting suffocated by the accumulation of phlegm in the lungs, 
an emetic is sometimes of great use. For this purpose alum is 
recommended as the best drug — ten grains for a child of two 
years to thirty grains for one of ten years, with a teaspoonful 
of syrup of squills. Hot linseed and mustard poultices (one part 
of mustard to five of linseed) or hot fomentations should be 
applied frequently. The room should be well warmed and a 
steam kettle should be kept boiling so as to moisten the air of 
the room. The diet must be entirely liquid — milk diluted with 
barley water or soda water and a little beef -tea, gradually in- 
creased as the child improves, and solids added with great care, 
as the digestive organs are easily upset after such an illness. 

Constipation of Children.— Constipation is one of the most 
frequent troubles during infancy and childhood, and it is one 
which should never be neglected. In a healthy infant the 
bowels should naturally act two or three times a day, and the 
motions should be semi-solid and of a yellow or orange color. 
In constipation there may be only one action a day, or even in 
two or three days. 

Treatment. — It is important to bring up children in regular 
habits, so that the bowels may be trained to act sufficiently often 
and at suitable hours. By the administration of mild aperients, 
or better still, by attention to diet and other matters, regularity 
may be attained and much trouble avoided. 

If a child at the breast is affected with constipation, our first 
attention should be directed to the food, habits and health of 
the mother. 

If the child is being brought up on the bottle, the food should 
be altered. It may include too small a quantity of fat or too 
much starchy material. The fat may be increased by adding 
cream, half a teaspoonful to each bottle, or by giving a little 
olive oil or cod-liver oil twice a day. 

Mellin's food has a slightly laxative effect, and a teaspoonful 
should be added to two or three of the meals until the action of 
the bowels becomes satisfactory. 

In older children the diet may still be at fault. Pastry, salt 
meat and sweets should all be forbidden, and some of the fol- 
lowing articles may be given, all of which will prove useful: Oat* 
meal porridge and treacle for breakfast, cooked greeii vegetables, 
stewed fruits, as prunes and figs, baked apples, and oranges. 
Cold morning sponging, plenty of outdoor exercise, and only 
moderate hours at books are the hygienic precautions necessary. 

Injections of warm water or soapy water of about two or 
three ounces, which may contain a teaspoonful or two of olive 
oil or one of castor oil; a suppository formed of a piece of yel- 
low soap or an enema of half a teaspoonful to double this 
amount of glycerine with a little water, are all useful and safe 
measures. Friction with the hand and olive oil over the ab- 
domen in the proper direction — that is, upwards on the right 



CARE OF CHILDREN 



321 



and downwards on the left side — and a compress to the belly of 
warm water under oil-silk, give tone to the bowels. 

Diarrhea in Children. — Excessive looseness of the bowels 
sometimes comes on in infancy, as an effort of nature to free 
the system of some unhealthy material which, if retained, might 
be productive of harm. In such cases, therefore, it is an 
unwise plan to give astringent medicines. 




HIS MORNING STROLL. 



If the motions are not too frequent, not exceeding six or eight 
in twenty-four hours, if there is but little griping, and the child 
does not exhibit signs of pain and suffering, very little, if any, 
interference is necessary. 

If the stools become watery, frequent, double or more than 



322 CARE OF CHILDREN 

double the natural number, slimy green or curdled, of an 
offensive odor; if there is much pain or griping, and the child is 
fretful and restless, medicine is required. 

Treatment for Diarrhea. — It is not, however, the best plan 
to give any astringent medicines for a day or two, as the purg- 
ing may be merely the result of something obnoxious in the sys- 
tem, which is being worked off in this manner. 

If the baby is still at the breast, great care should be taken 
by the mother as to her diet. It is better not to allow the baby 
any artificial food for the time. A dose of castor oil given early 
will often effect a cure, by assisting nature to throw off what* 
ever unhealthy material there may be in the system. In case 
the diarrhea persists, medicine will have to be resorted to for 
the purpose of checking it. 

The following is admirably adapted to many cases: Castor 
ou\ two drachms; powdered sugar and powdered gum arabic, 
each two drachms: tincture of opium, twenty-one drops; cinna- 
mon water, enough to make four fluid ounces in all; dose for 
children, a teaspoonful every three hours. The following is 
successful in many cases: Bismuth and prepared chalk, each 
twenty grains; powdered opium, one-half grain; mix and divide 
into six powders; dose, one powder, to be repeated every three 
hours if necessary. The following prescription is a most effec- 
tive remedy: Castor oil, one drachm; deodorized tincture of 
opium, four drops; syrup of gum arabic, one ounce; tincture of 
peppermint, two drops; dose, one teaspoonful every two hours. 
In the treatment of diarrhea, it is always advisable to be gov* 
erned by the character of the stools. 

Cholera Infantum. — This malady is popularly known as 
44 summer complaint," and is one of the most destructive of dis- 
eases of young children, especially in large cities, where sanitary 
conditions are not always of the best. Medical aid is required 
in this disease from the very commencement. Hence it is 
important that the early symptoms be readily recognized, in 
order to give the little patient the benefit of the best medical 
aid as soon as possible. » 

Symptoms. — Among the principal symptoms are diarrhea, 
rejection of food, vomiting, debility, languor and sometimes 
stupor. The stools may become bloody, with an admixture of 
blood and slime. In this case, however, it is more of the nature 
of dysentery, in itself a very serious disease. In the early 
stages of cholera infantum, the head may be hot, the abdomen 
swollen, and, as the disease progresses, coldness and emacia- 
tion come on. The diarrhea may be copious, and the vomiting 
so persistent as to endanger life. In very grave cases, the head 
symptoms are prominent and endanger life in the course of a 
few days. 

Treatment. — The following are some valuable prescriptions 
lor cholera infantum: 



CARE OF CHILDREN 323 

(1) Calomel, one grain; bicarbonate of soda, twelve grains; 
powdered ginger, eight grains; mix and divide into eight pow- 
ders; dose, one powder every three or four hours. 

In the early stages, if there is much heat in the head, and a 
tendency toward stupor, cooling applications should be made; 
a cloth wrung out of cold water must be applied to the head and 
changed frequently, to keep down the temperature. 

The two principal morbid conditions to be treated are the 
diarrhea and vomiting. For the bowels, astringents are called 
for. 

(2) Sulphate of copper, one grain; deodorized tincture of 
opium, eight drops; distilled water, four ounces; dose, a tea- 
spoonful every two, three or four hours. 

The following has been found very useful where the diarrhea 
was troublesome: (3) Paregoric and tincture of rhatany, each 
one drachm; powdered sugar and powdered gum arabic, each 
one-half drachm; water, two ounces; dose, a teaspoonful every 
two, three or four hours. 

A spiced poultice should be kept over the abdomen as long 
as vomiting continues. Ice is better adapted to quench the 
thirst than water. Small pieces may be allowed to slowly dis- 
solve in the mouth, which in the case of quite young children 
should be pounded up in a rag and given to them in that way. 

The food should consist chiefly of milk and lime-water, 
arrowroot, chicken broth, beef broth, beef-tea, and, after the 
first stage, egg-nog; together with a tonic, if the strength is 
much reduced. In fact, summer complaint affords an oppor- 
tunity for exercising all our powers of contrivance in preparing 
suitable dishes for the little invalid. Raw beef scraped fine, 
and well-made beef-tea, are among the most strengthening 
articles of diet, and they are generally acceptable to the weak 
and sensitive stomach. 

Dysentery Among* Children. — Dysentery, or dysenteric 
diarrhea, is not an uncommon affection of childhood. It is 
sometimes a consequence of a neglected attack of diarrhea, or 
it may follow any of the infectious fevers. The difference 
between this affection and ordinary diarrhea is that in dysentery 
the bowels become much inflamed and even ulcerated. The 
motions, at first like ordinary diarrhea*, after a time consist 
almost entirely of slime and blood. Vomiting, stomach-ache and 
fever are all present, and there is great straining at stool. 

The Treatment requires the same care and limitation of food 
as has been mentioned for diarrhea; hot fomentations should 
be applied to the abdomen; the bismuth mixture may be given. 

At the commencement of the disease, if there be reason tc 
suspect the presence of any irritating substance in the intestines, 
it is advisable to commence treatment with the use of some 
simple evacuant, like castor oil. The occasional administra* 
tion of a laxative should not be neglected. If the stools be 
entirely or mainly muco-sanguineous, it should be employed sc 




MEDITATION. 



CARE OF CHILDREN 325 

as to prevent accumulation of the fecal matter in the colon. 
The dose should be small, merely sufficient to produce fecal 
evacuation and repeated as required. The laxatives commonly 
preferred are magnesia, rhubarb or castor oil. 
The following prescriptions may be employed: 

$ . Pulv. ipecac comp 1 drachm. 

Bismuth subnitrat 2 drachms. 

Misce. Divide into powders twenty-four. Give one every 
two to four hours to a child of five years. 

5 . Tinct. opii deodorat 24 minims. 

Bismuth subnitrat 2 drachms. 

Aq. menth. piperit 1 ounce. 

Syr. ginger 1 ounce. 

M. Sig. Shake bottle. Give one teaspoonful every two to 
four hours to a child of five years. 

In the first stages of the inflammation, rice or barley water, 
or arrowroot, and similar drinks should constitute the main diet 
More nourishing food should be given, should there be a tend- 
ency to prostration, milk and animal broths then being allowed* 
In protracted cases attended with symptoms of exhaustion, a 
stimulant should be given. 

Incontinence of Urine. — Incontinence of urine, or bed-wet 
ting, is a most troublesome and not at all uncommon affection 
of children; it may occur during both day and night, or only at 
night, the latter being the much more frequent. 

Treatment for Bed- Wetting. — Worms should be removed 
by injection, the tight skin by circumcision, the stone by opera- 
tion, irritating urine by alkaline medicine, as citrate of potash 
(ten grains two or three times a day). The diet should be reg- 
ulated, late meals avoided, and the amount of drink limited, 
especially for two or three hours before going to bed. The child 
should not be allowed to sleep on the back, or be covered too 
warmly. 

Belladonna may be given as a tincture or in the form oi 
tabloids; five drops may be given two or three times a day, the 
last dose at bed-time. If this does not bring about a change, it 
may be doubled. It should be given for some time, and not 
discontinued until some days after the trouble has disappeared, 
when the dose may be gradually lessened. At the same time, 
care should be taken that the child always passes his water the 
last thing before going to sleep, and that two or three hours 
after, when the nurse or parents go to bed, he is taken out of 
bed for the same purpose. 

Retention of Urine. — The reverse condition of the foregoing 
may occur, the urine collecting in and filling the bladder. This 
causes a good deal of anxiety to the friends, but may usually be 
relieved by very simple measures It may be caused by some 
malformation with which the child is born, by the presence of a 
stone in the bladder or an abscess blocking the passage, by 
tightness and unusual length of the skin, called phimosis. If the 

20 



326 CARE OF CHILDREN 

cause is evident, it must be removed; stone, malformation 
or phymosis requires operation, the last being cured by circum- 
cision. If no cause can be discovered, the child should be put 
into a hot bath, which, in the great majority of cases, brings 
about the desired result. _ This proving unsuccessful, a surgeon 
should be summoned, as it would then be necessary to draw off 
the water from the bladder by passing a hollow instrument called 
a catheter into it. 

Phymosis. — Phymosis is the name given to a condition which 
is not at all uncommon in male children, and consists in a 
superabundance of skin on the penis. This is long, usually 
very tight at the orifice, and can not be drawn back at all, or 
only with a good deal of pain and pressure. 

The orifice may be so tight as to cause interference in the 
flow of water, which is only passed with great straining, and 
may distend the skin before escaping; the straining leads to the 
formation of a rupture or to | 'falling of the bowel." The col- 
lecting of urine under the skin sets up irritation, inflammation 
and swelling of the parts, giving the child much pain, and may 
end in the formation of little stones in this situation or of 
inflammation of the bladder, and may in after-life engender 
unhealthy habits or produce serious disease. If the skin is 
drawn back by force, it may remain fixed in this position, and 
then produces what is called paraphymosis. The parts become 
very swollen, painful and inflamed, and, if the skin can not be 
replaced by gentle pressure, require the immediate attention of 
a surgeon, or very serious consequences may follow. 

Circumcision. — To prevent the various troubles mentioned, 
the operation of circumcision should be performed. It is sim* 
pie, the good results are seer at once, and the child will be all 
the better for it in after-life. No parent should put off the 
operation, if the unhealthy condition we are considering is pres- 
ent; any age is suitable, but the earlier it is done the better. 
Among the Jews the eighth day '"3 fixed upon by their religious 
laws and children of a few weeks old bear it well. 

For Tape Worm in Children.— 

3. Olei. filicis. mas 1 drachm, 

Mucilag. acaciae .q. s. ad. 1 ounce. 

M. Sig. Shake well and give a teaspoonful every hour, com= 
mencing early in the morning, until the whole mixture is taken. 
A large dose of castor oil should be given about noon or a 
little later, so that purgation will follow soon after the last dose 
is taken. If the bowels are not habitually costive, there is no 
necessity for the patient to undergo fasting or purgation. If 
they are costive, a saline cathartic should be given and a diet of 
milk allowed the day before administering the remedy. Thfl 
following prescription may be given instead of the above: 

8. Etherial ext. male fern 1 drachm. 

Syr. tolu ....... , .5 drachms. 



CARE OF CHILDREN 327 

M. Sig. Large dessertspoonful in the morning without any 
food. 

In two hours after, a good dose of castor oil should be given. 

For Round Worms in Children. — Treatment. — The bowels 
should be kept well opened by the use of castor oil or very small 
repeated doses of calomel, or one of the following prescrip- 
tions: 

5 . Fluid ext. spigelian 2 ounces. 

Fluid ext. sennae 1 ounce. 

M. Sig. One teaspoonful three to four times daily to a child 
of five years. 

The following is one of the best: 

3. Fluid ext. spigel et sennae 2 ounces. 

Santonin 15 grains. 

M. Sig. Teaspoonful three times a day, for three days; skip 
three days and repeat. 

The round worm resembles the common earth worm, and is 
familiar to every mother of a large family. 

It is probable that the round worm is not generally injurious 
to health. It may be said of most intestinal worms that they 
are not usually injurious to health. 

Thread Worms or Pin Worms. — Thread worms, pin worms 
or seat worms are found principally in the lower part of the 
bowels, especially in the rectum and anus. In females the worm 
sometimes passes over to the vagina. Their presence can 
usually be detected without difficulty by careful examination. 

Treatment. — These pin worms can usually be destroyed and 
expelled by injections of salt water, and the irritation of the 
parts may be soothed by applying vaseline or sweet oil. One 
of the prescriptions for the round worm may be used, if the salt- 
water injections fail. 

Rickets. — Rickets is a disease of children. Children may be 
born rickety, but the great majority of cases fall between the 
ages of one and three years. 

A symptom which is likely to attract attention more than any 
other is the peculiar softness and pliability of all the bones. 
They become bent and deformed in many ways; the skull is 
much lengthened from the front to the back, the forehead is 
high, square and prominent, and the head large — a condition 
which gives rise to the mistaken idea that the child is going to 
turn out a genius. 

A rickety child may grow up puny and stunted, and with 
deformed limbs and narrow, delicate chest. In girls, the de- 
formity produced in the bones of the pelvis may prove most 
dangerous afterwards by complicating child-birth. 

Rickety children are sometimes considered by their friends 
to give promise of great intellectual power. This is partly due, 
as has already been mentioned, to their heads being large and 



328 



CARE OF CHILDREN 



their foreheads high, and partly to the fact that, being weak and 
indisposed to play games with other children, they spend most 













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of their time with their elders, listening to their conversation and 
picking up their expressions. 



CARE OF CHILDREN 329 

The length of the disease depends upon the duration of its 
causes. When they are removed and suitable treatment is 
applied, the symptoms gradually disappear. Most cases recover, 
but death occurs sometimes — especially in infants — from 
some of the complications, an attack of bronchitis, diarrhea or 
convulsions rapidly carrying the child off. 

Treatment for Rickets. — The treatment should be com- 
menced as soon as the symptoms of the disease are recognized; 
the sooner the better, for early treatment may prevent alto- 
gether the permanent deformity and stunted growth. The 
unhealthy conditions of the child's surroundings must first be 
removed; both mother and child must be well and properly fed, 
the rooms must be ventilated, the child must be taken out regu- 
larly in the open air, warmly dressed and kept thoroughly clean. 

A suitable diet, of course, depends upon the age of a child; 
it must be both digestible and nutritious in every case. If they 
are being nursed at the breast, they should be weaned, and put 
upon good cow's milk, broths, bread and butter and the yolk of 
a lightly-boiled egg t according to their age. Over-suckling 
should at once be stopped, and starchy food given in all cases 
with great care, and at first in very small quantities. At about 
eighteen months much benefit is obtained by giving a small 
quantity of meat, well pounded up, and with all skin and gristle 
carefully removed. The meals should be arranged with the 
greatest regularity, and no food, cakes, sweets and the like be 
allowed during the intervals. 

Much may be expected of medical treatment aided by hygiene 
and diet. Cod-liver oil is the most important and generally used 
drug; it should be commenced at once, the bowels having been 
thoroughly unloaded of all undigested food. As at first some 
trouble may be found from indigestion, it should be given in 
small doses, which may be gradually increased as the child 
becomes accustomed to it and likes it. It may be given alone or 
as an emulsion, well mixed with some pleasant substance to con- 
ceal the taste, or with malt extract or maltine, or with steel wine. 
A dose of only ten drops may be used at first, as a trial, 
increased to a teaspoonf ul and then to a dessertspoonful three 
times a day. If oil is passed in the stools, too much is being 
given. Although children generally come to look upon the oil 
as a treat, others can never become accustomed to the strong 
fishy taste. 

Phosphate of lime is another valuable agent in this disease. 
The syrup of iodide of iron will be found of great service. As 
convalescence advances other tonics may be employed with 
benefit, such as quinine and the various vegetable tonics. The 
deformities may be prevented by not allowing the child to walk 
while the bones are still soft. 

St. Vitus' Dance. — St. Vitus' dance (chorea) is a peculiar 
nervous affection which is almost limited to the years of child- 
hood; infants are hardly ever affected by it, or even children 
under six years of age. 



330 CARE OF CHILDREN 

Symptoms.— Fretf ulness and impatience, promoted by slight 
causes, and unconscious movements of the hands and muscles 
of the face, are the first symptoms indicating the approach of 
chorea. Involuntary jerking motions of the hands and other 
portions of the body are next noticed, other muscles are soon 
involved, and in the course of a few days or weeks all control 
over the muscles of the face and movements of the extremities 
is lost. The action of the heart is irregular and tremulous; 
the speech is slow, thick and indistinct, in consequence of the 
muscles of the tongue and larynx becoming involved. In severe 
and long-continued cases, more or less impairment of the men- 
tal faculties occur. 

Treatment. — Fresh air and outdoor exercise, avoiding undue 
excitement, and a nutritious diet, are the first requirements in 
the treatment of chorea. A diet of milk, beef -essence, soft- 
boiled eggs, clam broth and raw oysters, etc., should be pro- 
vided. In exceptional cases, where the choreic movements are 
violent, the patient should lie in bed. Most cases of chorea art 
associated with anaemia. 

1$. Liq. potass, arsenit V/z drachms. 

Aquae q. s. 4 ounces. 

M. Sig. Teaspoonful three times daily, after meals, to a 
child of eight to ten years. 

Absolute rest is essential. In the milder forms a few hours' 
rest in the morning and afternoon may be sufficient to control 
the movements, but in all other cases the patient, no matter 
what age he or she be, should be put to bed at once. After a 
few days of quiet and rest a decided improvement is noticeable. 

Absolute rest for two weeks is necessary. Next important to 
rest is a diet which is nutritious and easily digested. It is 
important that the child should rest well at night. 

Change of scene and air, carefully managed gymnastic exer- 
cises and massage are all useful at the end of an attack, or in 
very chronic cases, but not in the early stages. Kindness and 
firmness must be combined in the management of the little 
patient, and she should be encouraged to do all she can to assist 
in her own cure. 

Scrofula, or Struma. — Scrofula, or struma, is a constitutional 
condition closely allied to, if not identical with, consumption. 
Consumptive parents are very liaole to have strumous chil- 
dren. Children who have manifested signs of struma are prone 
to be attacked with disease which is distinctly of a tubercular 
nature, and the various members of a family are often found to 
suffer from complaints, some of which are strumous, while 
others are tubercular. 

Scrofulous children are liable to many diseased conditions. 
They have very deficient resisting power to withstand external 
influences which predispose to disease. They are deficient in 
growth and development, and very prone to many affections 
produced by a slow form of inflammation. 



CARE OF CHILDREN 331 

Lymphatic Glands.— The great liability to enlargement of the 
lymphatic glands is the first peculiarity to be considered. This 
may affect the glands all over the body, but those situated in the 
neck and under the jaw are most commonly involved. Disfigur- 
ing scars and swellings in the neck can be seen daily in the 
streets of any large town. Very little irritation is sufficient to 
cause enlargement of the glands; eczema of the head, lice, a 
sore throat, decayed teeth, or any slight sore, may cause a swell- 
ing, which, gradually increasing, produces great deformity. 
After a time, matter forms slowly in the swelling, works its way 
by degrees to the surface, breaks through the skin, and pro- 
duces an ugly discharging sore, which only heals with great 
difficulty, and leaves behind a mark which lasts a lifetime. 
The swellings are seldom painful or acutely inflamed, and do 
not cause much inconvenience, except from their size. The 
constant discharge, however, reduces the strength. 

The Eyes Are Often Inflamed.— The edges of the lids get sore 
and red, a thick discharge collects, especially at night, sticking 
the lids so closely together that they can only be separated with 
difficulty when the child awakes. Little sores may occur on 
the eyes themselves, which leave behind white patches often 
sufficient to cause great disfigurement and interfere with the 
sight. 

Eczema of the Head and other parts is common; chronic 
enlargement and disease of the joints, especially the knees and 
hips, discharges from the nose and ear, and enlargement of the 
tonsils, are all manifestations of the same affection. 

Treatment. — All sources of irritation, however slight they 
appear, must be removed as soon as possible, so that the 
enlargement of glands which they produce shall be avoided; and 
the following general directions for health and diet must be 
carried out. 

The diet should be liberal and nourishing, and should con- 
tain abundance of the fatty foods, meat, fresh eggs, milk and 
cream. 

Of drugs, the best are cod-liver oil, maltine and malt 
extracts, syrup of the iodide of iron, and they should be continued 
for a long time, ringing the changes — cod-liver oil in the winter, 
maltine and iron in the summer, or any of them taken in com- 
bination with cod-liver oil. 

Iodide of potash, five grains, three times a day, when the 
result of syphilis. Tincture of iodine painted on the glands, 
when they are swollen and enlarged. Cod-liver oil in this dis- 
ease is a remedy and a nourishment. The best preparation is 
Scott's emulsion, containing fifty per cent, of cod-liver oil with 
the hypophosphite of lime and soda. It is palatable, and con- 
tains the remedies that act against the disease. 



CHAPTER XXI 
DISEASES PECULIAR TO WOMEN 



Amenorrhea. — Amenorrhea is characterized by a scanty flow, 
or complete absence of discharges, at the menstrual period. It 
is one of the frequent maladies of girlhood. It may occur at all 
ages and from a variety of causes either accidental or constitu- 
tional. 

Causes. — Among the accidental causes may be mentioned 
want of exercise, improper or insufficient food, a lack of pure 
air and sunlight, depressing mental influences, overwork, and 
any of those conditions which in any way deteriorate the gen- 
eral health. 

Among constitutional causes are such temperaments known 
as the sanguine or lymphatic, wherein there is a disposition of 
the organs of the body to congestion, in which case the blood 
is withdrawn from the womb. 

Intense excitement and excessive study will cause it; but 
unless the excitement or study be constant, the system reacts 
healthily and the trouble soon disappears. Many diseases of 
the womb, displacements and improper developments are also 
causes of amenorrhea. 

Symptoms of Amenorrhea.— The symptoms are local and 
general, and are numerous and often serious. Some of the local 
symptoms are pains and a sensation of weight in the pelvis, 
dragging feelings in the loins and groins, together with much 
weakness in the limbs. The general symptoms are such as 
languor and debility, heart palpitation, difficult breathing, dizzi- 
ness, shooting pains, cramps in various parts of the body, and a 
long train of both bodily and mental symptoms may ensue, 
indicating a derangement of one of the most important organs 
of the body. 

As far as possible the exact cause should be ascertained. A 
careful study must be made of the habits and mode of life. In 
many cases nothing more may be needed than proper attention 
to the general health. All such sports and pastimes as conduce 
to good health should be advised, and cheerfulness of mind and 
general tranquility of both mind and body be as far as possible 
promoted. 

Treatment for Amenorrhea. — So far as concerns medicine in 
this disease, iron in some form has the preference of most 
physicians. Some of the following prescriptions may be used: 
Sulphate of iron, one drachm; extract of gentian, two drachms} 
mix and divide into thirty pills; dose, one pill three times a day. 

332 



DISEASES PECULIAR TO WOMEN 333 

Or: Syrup of iodide o! iron, one ounce; dose, ten drops in water 
three times a day. If there are any indications of a scrofulous 
taint of the system, the last prescription is very good, as also is 
the following: Protiodide of iron, six grains; starch, twenty-four 
grains, and sufficient syrup to make it up; mix, and divide into 
twenty-four pills; dose, one pill morning and evening. 

< Electricity, if employed in time and in a proper manner, is 
said to seldom fail in amenorrhea. 

A mustard plaster over each ovary, taking a warm foot bath, 
drinking a cup of hot tea, and then retiring to rest, will fre- 
quently have the effect of bringing on the menses, when 
delayed, and very often no other medicines are required. 

Dysmenorrhea. — Dysmenorrhea is a painful and scanty con- 
dition of the menstrual flow. 

The usual symptoms are pains in the back, groin and abdo- 
men; burning heat and often intense itching in the parts, and a 
heavy, dragging feeling in the pelvis. 

Sometimes vomiting, headache, irritable temper, restlessness 
and great general debility are present. 

Discharge sometimes small; sometimes it is composed of 
clots, and in some cases it may be quite free and almost natural. 

It frequently disappears on marriage and very often after 
pregnancy. 

Treatment of Dysmenorrhea.— Painful menstruation, or sud= 
den arrest of the menstrual flow, whether caused by moral emo- 
tion or by cold, may be relieved and effects prevented by the 
following mixture: 

5 . Fl. ext. viburnum 1 ounce. 

Tr. acontie % drachm. 

Tr. Pulsatilla 1 drachm. 

Aquae q. s. ad. 4 ounces. 

M. Sig. Teaspoonful from one to two hours until relieved. 
For the neuralgic form of dysmenorrhea the following mix= 
ture may be given: 

3 . Tr. gelsemii 2%, drachms. 

Tinct. cimicifuga 2% drachms. 

Fl. ext. viburnum 1 ounce. 

Aquae q. s. ad. 4 ounces- 

M. Sig. Teaspoonful every two to four hours until ..elievedc 
If anaemia be present the tincture of iron should be taken in 
ten-drop doses three times a day. 

In congestive dysmenorrhea the following mixture should be 
fiven: 

^ . Fl. ext. ergot 2 ounces. 

Tinct. gelsemii 2 drachms. 

Tinct. aconite rad %. drachm. 

Aquae q. s. ad. 4 ounces. 

M Sig. Teaspoonful every two, three or four hours. 
The above preparation may also be given in amenorrhea 
when depending on plethora. 



334 DISEASES PECULIAR TO WOMEN 

Menorrhagia. — Menorrhagia is characterized by a too 
excessive, too frequent or too long continued discharge. The 
causes are over-fatigue, undue excitement of the organs, debil- 
ity, various derangements of the womb, constipation and violent 
exercise. The discharge varies in quantity, but in some cases is 
sufficient to cause fainting. 

The treatment at first must be directed toward the arrest of 
the profuse bleeding. The patient should lie on her back, with 
the pelvis elevated, be kept perfectly quiet, and the hands and 
feet made warm by friction or warm applications. If the bleed- 
ing persists, injections into the vagina may be used of ice water, 
vinegar and water, or alum water; and about thirty or forty 
drops of laudanum can be added to the injection. A full dose 
of opium is sometimes given, and the application of cold cloths 
to the abdomen and loins is often useful. 

To control the profuse menstruation the following mixture 
should be given: 

3 . Potassii bromidi 5 drachms. 

Fl. ext. ergotas 2 ounces. 

Aquae q. s. ad. 4 ounces. 

M. Sig. Teaspoonful every three to four hours. 

If the patient is debilitated from any cause the tonic should 
be given. As soon as the menses recur the tonic may be omitted 
and the above mixture again administered. 

General Statement. — It should be understood, as a part of 
the philosophy of discharges of any kind from any of the organs 
of the body, that motion always tends to increase them. Thus, 
when diarrhea occurs, the patient is advised to keep still; when 
hemorrhages from the lungs threaten, violent exercise or exer- 
tion is dangerous. Similarly, whether blood escapes freely after 
child-birth or on account of menorrhagia, quiet must be main- 
tained, and a reclining position observed until the symptoms are 
abated; the resumption of the usual exercise or employments 
must be very gradual. 

Leucorrhea, Whites. — This disease, being commonly known 
by the name of the whites, appears in the form of a discharge 
from the vagina, varying both in color and quantity. It may be 
white, yellow, greenish or colorless, and the quantity may be so 
small as to be barely appreciable, or as much as a half pint a 
day. The discharge is in itself very annoying, and causes 
much discomfort, and the constitutional symptoms are more or 
less severe. 

It depends upon debility and an inflammatory condition of 
the parts, and a long list of causes might be enumerated. All 
such influences as have a debilitating effect upon the system 
may give rise to whites. It seems to be constitutional in some 
persons, and the intimate connection between the uterine sys- 
tem and the nerve centers, and in fact with almost every organ 
of the body, lengthens the list of causes beyond all ordinary 
limits. 



DISEASES PECULIAR TO WOMEN 335 

In the treatment of leucorrhea, it should always be remem- 
bered that the mere drying up of the discharge does not always 
cure the disease. A wide variety of constitutional disorders 
may in different cases need correcting, and the first thing to be 
ascertained in any case, is, obviously, the cause, and then, 
again, if possible, this should be removed. 

Treatment of Leucorrhea.— In the acute form, when the 
discharge is profuse, and there is a good deal of inflammation 
and some constitutional disturbance, everything heating and 
stimulating in the food must be carefully avoided, and the drinks 
must be mucilaginous, as flaxseed tea, or such as lemonade, 
barley water and simple cold water. The bowels should be kept 
open. 

If the leucorrhea is the result of some disease of the womb, 
it will be absurd to try and stop the discharge, until the womb 
disease is cured. For example, falling of the womb is nearly 
always accompanied by this discharge. If it is falling of the 
womb, the treatment would be to replace it and introduce a 
supporter, and the trouble wrll be avoided with proper treat- 
ment. If it is caused from a debilitated constitution, give nour- 
ishing food, rest, tonics for the womb; in fact, everything that 
will build up the system is recommended for this disease. If 
the disease is simply some abnormal condition of the vagina, as 
catching cold, or the discharge that remains after the monthlies, 
the following medicines are of use: Take a teaspoonful of alum, 
put it into a pint of warm water, allow it to dissolve, and use 
for an injection; or you may substitute sulphate of zinc for the 
alum. Glycerine and tannin, in the proportions of fifteen grains 
of the tannin to one ounce of glycerine. This is best used by 
saturating a small piece of cotton with the mixture, and intro- 
ducing it into the vagina, leaving it there for twelve hours, which 
should be repeated every day until recovery. A solution of car- 
bolic acid is of use when the discharge is offensive. It may be 
used for an injection, in the proportion of one teaspoonful to a 
pint of warm water. Warm injections are always of service, the 
hotter the better, especially if there is inflammation. 

Chlorosis, or Green Sickness. — Chlorosis is the name applied 
to a peculiar affection usually associated with some one of the 
various uterine disorders. It is characterized by a swollen, 
puffy, pale and sometimes greenish color of the face. 

In addition to these, there is more or less general debility, a 
depraved condition of the appetite and some disturbance of the 
mind. 

Causes. — Among the causes some of the principal are insuf- 
ficient and improper food, impure air, indolent habits, self- 
abuse, and, in fact, many of the conditions that tend to enfeeble 
the body, the nervous system and the digestive or generative 
functions. 



336 DISEASES PECULIAR TO WOMEN 

It is almost essentially a disease of young women's life, 
though it occasionally occurs in pregnant women, or in those 
who have borne children. 

It is often seen in girls about the age of puberty, who are 
growing very rapidly, and it sometimes has its origin in a scrofu- 
lous taint of the system, in menstrual disorders, in mental excite- 
ment, in melancholy and in a sedentary and luxurious mode of 
life. 

Symptoms of Chlorosis. — These are very characteristic, and 
there is but little difficulty in distinguishing it from other dis- 
eases. The patient becomes dull and fretful; her sleep is 
broken, and her nervous system is so much disturbed that, on 
the slightest provocation, and often without cause, she is liable 
to fits of weeping and the most profound melancholy. There is 
swelling of the face, and dark circles form around the eyes; the 
lips are bloodless; the skin is often cold, clammy and almost 
colorless, with a peculiar greenish hue; this last remarkable fea- 
ture of the disease has given it the name of "green sickness." 
In blondes, the skin is almost white, the little color of health 
being almost entirely lost. The skin of brunettes assumes a 
pale yellowish -green hue. This discoloration is evidently due to 
the watery condition and to the deficiency of the red corpuscles 
of the blood; the blood of a chlorotic person is deficient in iron 
and solid matter; hence the wasting and flabbiness of the mus- 
cles; the increase of water accounts for the dropsical and puffy 
state of the various parts. 

The appetite is capricious, the digestion is much impaired, 
the bowels are commonly costive, and the evacuations have the 
appearance of white clay. The blood circulates with less force 
than in health, the heart is subject to palpitation on the least 
bodily exertion or mental emotion; the ankles swell as in dropsy, 
there is much languor and an almost constant disposition to 
sleep. 

As the disease progresses, the digestion becomes curiously 
deranged,the patient forming likes and dislikes for certain kinds 
of food, and sometimes exhibits the most depraved tastes. An 
unaccountable appetite may be created for slate-pencils, mag- 
nesia, chalk, dirt, plaster from thS walls, charcoal, or ashes. 

Vomiting sometimes occurs after eating, as does also pain at 
the stomach; there are flying nervous pains felt in the face and 
various parts of the body, as the spine, neck, shoulders and 
arms. She is liable to severe headache, trembling of the limbs, 
dimness of sight, ringing in the ears and twitching of the muscles 
of the face and body. 

Treatment of Chlorosis.— After removing the cause, what- 
ever it may be, the first thing is to place the patient in a situa- 
tion where she can breathe a pure and bracing atmosphere. 

Her diet should consist of ripe fruits, milk, sago, tapioca, 
rice, eggs, roast meats, brown bread, and only such articles ad 
agree with her and are easily digested. 



DISEASES PECULIAR TO WOMEN 337 

Great care must be taken to avoid everything that in the least 
disagrees with her digestion. Vegetables having a laxative ten- 
dency are of benefit, and celery especially is of great value. As 
a general drink, pure, cool water is the best Lemonade will do 
good, but tea and coffee must be avoided. 

A proper diet is almost as important in this disease as med- 
icine, and in many cases it will be overcome by diet alone. 

The clothing must be warm, and great benefit will be derived 
from the daily bath— a sponge bath, and, if the system reacts 
properly, a shower bath, every morning. 

Plenty of outdoor exercise is also an essential part of the 
treatment. Fresh air and sunshine will often do wonders. 
Indeed, in very many cases, a proper diet, warm and comfort- 
able clothing, fresh air and cheerful society, will be all that is 
necessary to effect a cure. 

Tincture of muriate of iron, ten drops, three times daily, in 
a half glass of water, is a good prescription. Another is as fol- 
lows: Syrup of the iodide of iron, ten to fifteen drops in a half 
glass of water three times daily. This is especially applicable 
if there is any scrofulous taint. Carbonate of iron may be 
made up into pills of five grains each; two of these three times 
daily will be found very serviceable. 

Here is a prescription said to rarely fail in curing any case 
of chlorosis: Citrate of iron, two drachms; sulphate of quinine, 
half a drachm; water, one ounce; mix these together, and take 
from twenty to thirty drops, in a half glass of water, three times 
a day, a half hour before each meal; if found unpleasantly bit- 
ter, the water in which it is taken may be sweetened to the taste. 

Inflammation of Valya — Tulyitis.— The external parts of the 
female organs of generation are liable to inflame from a number 
of causes. It sometimes arises in young people from a want of 
cleanliness of the parts. It may be caused in older women by 
injuries at child-birth. The irritation is often of the most an- 
noying character, and may lead to certain vicious habits. The 
patient, to obtain relief, is often compelled to rub the parts, 
which only aggravates the condition, increasing the discharge 
and causing a most disagreeable smarting. 

Treatment.— In the early stage, a very simple plan will fre- 
quently suffice. The first requirement is the most thorough 
cleanliness. Cooling lotions, or even cold water frequently ap- 
plied, together with a regular action of the bowels and perfect 
rest, will be all that need be done in some cases. 

There are many lotions used for the cure of vulvitis; but if 
thorough cleanliness is observed, and a simple solution of borax 
is applied as a lotion, no difficulty should be experienced in 
effecting a cure. A small piece, about the size of a hickory nut, 
may be dissolved in a pint of water, which will form the proper 
strength; if a piece of lint is saturated with this and placed be- 
tween the two lips of the vulva, the cure will not only be more 
rapid, but there will be no chance of the lips growing together; 



338 DISEASES PECULIAR TO WOMEN 

cases of this kind have occurred more than once, where there 
was much inflammation. 

Pruritus of the Vulva.— This is a most distressing disease. 
It consists of an incessant and intense itching of the parts, 
being so severe sometimes that the woman is in a state of the 
utmost misery. 

Its cause is somewhat obscure, but in any cases it originates 
in the same manner as do simple inflammations, which it often 
accompanies. In some women it occurs during menstruation; 
others are prone to it during pregnancy; it occasionally arises 
from the presence of parasites. There is usually no eruption; 
the parts are generally swollen and inflamed. 

Treatment. — The condition of the bowels must receive atten- 
tion, the diet must be plain and unstimulating, and cooling 
washes should be applied to the parts. The following is recom- 
mended as very effective: Hyposulphite of soda, four drachms; 
glycerine, two drachms; distilled water, six ounces; mix and use 
as a lotion. 

A lotion of borax is very serviceable in this affection, as well as 
in vulvitis. It may be combined with morphine, which in itself 
is powerful in allaying the irritability of the parts. This lotion 
seldom fails to effect a cure: Borax, three drachms; morphine, 
four grains; water, six ounces. It should be applied three or 
four times daily, by means of a soft rag. 

Care should be taken that the parts are kept scrupulously 
clean by frequent bathing with soap and warm water. Site 
bath of a mild temperature is often serviceable; the temperature 
of the water may be from seventy-five to eighty-five degrees. 
Some physicians advise the patient to sit in cold water, and 
others advise the application of ice. 

Inflammation of the Womb — Metritis. — This disease is com- 
mon among married women, and results more frequently from 
delivery than from any other cause. It may also arise from in- 
juries, such as blows, or from retention of menses, from difficult 
menstruation, stimulating food, certain medicines taken for the 
purpose of producing abortion, injections of an extremely irri- 
tating character and the like. 

Symptoms of Metritis. — These are dull and constant pains, 
both in the womb and the parts near by. Sensations of heat 
and uneasiness, with darting pains felt in the thighs, loins and 
back. 

There is sometimes a feeling of weight, causing the patient to 
strain and bear down. The pain is often much increased by 
hard pressure over the womb, or by coughing. In severe cases, 
the abdomen swells and becomes so tender and painful that the 
slightest touch can not be borne. There are usually chills, fol- 
lowed by fever, and more or less restless anxiety. As the dis- 
ease progresses, there is a discharge of mucus, scant or profuse, 
thin or purulent, according to the extent of the inflammation. 



DISEASES PECULIAR TO WOMEN 339 

In cases where the inflammation is chronic, or confined to 
some particular part in the neck, the symptoms are more of a 
local character, less severe and very insidious, often making con- 
siderable progress before attracting the attention of the patient. 
Usually there is a dull pain in the lower part of the abdomen, 
becoming more severe at every effort to open the bowels or 
empty the bladder. Sexual intercourse also increases the pain, 
and there is commonly a thin mucous discharge; if there is any 
ulceration of the parts the discharge may be tinged with blood. 

Treatment of Metritis.— This must first tend toward the 
reduction of the inflammation. Fomentations of hops applied 
to the abdomen are very useful; and the patient should be 
allowed plenty of cooling drinks. The bowels should be kept 
regular, the extremities must be warmed, the head cooled, 
and, if possible, the pores of the skin should be freely opened 
and perspiration induced. A vapor bath will answer the 
purpose of promoting perspiration, and the application of 
fomentations or poultices to the abdomen, if persevered in and 
frequently changed, will reduce the inflammation and allay 
the pain. 

Injections into the vagina of warm water, to which about 
one-half a teaspoonful of laudanum has been added, will give 
great relief; and tepid water injected into the rectum will prob- 
ably give better satisfaction than purgative medicines; a large 
spoonful of castor oil added to the tepid water injection will 
increase its effectiveness. 

Until the inflammation has subsided, all stimulants must be 
avoided, and the diet must be very scant; but little food of any 
kind should be taken until the inflammation has been some< 
what subdued. 

In Chronic Inflammation, the diet must receive especial 
attention; meat should be eaten sparingly and it should not be 
salted or smoked. Coffee, alcoholic and warm drinks are not 
allowed, but in their 'place may be substituted cooling bever- 
ages, such as lemonade, barley water, gum arabic water, or 
simple cold water. Frequent injections of cold water into the 
vagina should be employed. The great aim is to improve the 
general health; and if strict attention is' paid to hygiene, includ- 
ing bathing, exercise in the open air, warm clothing, diet and a 
regular state of the bowels, improvement will be very sure to 
follow sooner or later. 



CHAPTER XXII 
DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 



Outline of Diseases and Symptoms of the Respiratory Organs.' 



Disease. 



Bronchitis. 



Pneumonia. 



Pleurisy. 



Consumption. 



Asthma. 



Cough. 



Very 
severe 



Severe 



Slight 

Hack- 
ing or 
severe 

Suffo- 
cating 



Expecto- 
ration. 



Free. 

frothy or 

thick 

Blood- 
stained 
and sticky 

Scanty 
and;frothy 

Free, 
thick and 
with blood 

Scanty 



Pain. 



Soreness 
in front 
of chest 

Soreness 
in side 



Stitch in 
side 

Not 
severe 



None 



Fever. 



Mod- 
erate 



Very 
high 



Slight 



Hectic 



Absent 



Chief 
Symptoms. 



Cough and 
expectora- 
tion. 

Fever and 
difficulty ol 
breathing. 

Pain in 
side. 

Cough and 
wasting. 



Difficulty 

of 
breathing. 



Cough Remedies. — Note: — In ordering these mixtures, the 
prescriptions should be copied word for word and the amount 
required, as 6, 8, 10 or 12 doses, should be added, so as to 
include the amount wanted. Two tablespoonfuls equal as 
ounce. 

For the dry, irritable cough, some such mixture as the follow- 
ing is useful: 

(This is one dose.) 
Paregoric Elixir, 20 drops. 
Oxymel of Squill, 20 drops. 
Sweet Spirits of Nitre, 20 drops. 
Water, to 1 ounce. 
Mix. One ounce to be taken every four hours. 
This may also be given to children in teaspoonful doses; or 
for adults only, the following may be prepared: 
(This is eight doses.) 
Solution of Hydrochlorate of Morphia, 5 drops. 
Chloroform, 8 drops. 
Rectified Spirit, 72 drops. 
Glycerine, to 1 ounce. 
One teaspoonful to be taken every four hours in half a 
wineglassful of water. 

340 



ARTERIES AND VEINS IN MAN. 




£* 



2+ 
25 



Fig. 4. Portal Circulation. 



Fig. 5. Systemic Circulation of the Body 
(greater circulation). 



Fig. I. HEART. (Both Auricles and Ventricles opened according to regulation 
methods.) 1, Pulmonary Artery; 2. Right Ventricle; 3. Columnse Carnese; 4, Tricuspid 
Valve; 5, Right Auricle; 6, 3 Semi-I^unar Valves; 7, Coronary Artery; 8, Cardiac Vein; 9, Adi- 
pose Tissue; 10, 1,eft Ventricle; 11, Papillary Muscle and Chordae Tendineae; 12, Apex of the 
Heart. 

Fig. II. AURICLES. 1, Auricular Appendix; 2, Aorta, Semilunar Valve (closed) ; 3 
Pulmonary Artery; 4 Right Auricle; 5, Tricuspid Valve (closed); 6, I*eft Auricle with the 
Mitral (or Bicuspid) Valve closed. 



(continued on opposite page) 



Fig. III. Pulmonary Circulation (Lesser Circulation). 1, Arch of 
Aorta; 2, Vena Cava Superior; 3 Right Pulmonary Artery; 4, Two 
Trunks of Vein; 5, Right Auricle with the Veno-Auricular open- 
ings; 6, Right Lung; 7, Ductus Arteriosur (patent only in faetal 
life); 8, Trunks of Left Vein; 9, Pulmonary Artery; 10, Right Ven- 
tricle; 11, Left Lung; 12, Apex of Heart; 13, Vena Cava Inferior. 

Fig. IV. Portal Circulation, (The junction of the veins of the 
Stomach, Mesenterium, Spleen and Pancreas to form the Trunk of 
the Portal Vein is covered by the Stomach.) 1, Gall Bladder; 2, 
Portal Vein; 3, Ductus Choledochus; 4, Inferior Surface of Liver; 
5, Duodenum; 6, Omentum; 7, Caecum; 8, Appendix Vermiformis; 
9, Oesophagus; 10, Right Gastro Epiploic Artery; 11, Right Gastro 
Epiploic Vein; 12, Coronary Ventricular Artery and Vein; 13, 
Hepatic Artery; 14, Ductus Hepaticus; 15, Spleen; 16, Greater 
Curvature of the Stomach; 17, Splenic Vein; 18, Transverse Colon; 
19, Pancreas; 20, Superior Mesenteric Artery; 21, Trunk of the 
Mesenteric Vein before its junction with the Veins of the Spleen, 
Pancreas or Stomach; 22, Ileum; 23, Rectum; 24, Inferior Mesen- 
teric Artery; 25, Vein cut through. 

Fig. V. Systemic Circulation of the Body. (Greater Circulation.) 

(The Viscera of the Portal Circulation (Fig. IV) are removed 
from the Abdominal Cavity.) 1, Frontal Artery and Vein; 2, Tem- 
poral Artery; 3, Facial Vein; 4 Submaxillary Artery; 5, Carotid 
Artery (place for ligation); 6, Jugular Vein; 7, Subclavian Artery 
and Vein; 8, Innominate Artery; 9, Arch of Aorta; 10, Axillary 
Artery (place for ligation); 11, Pulmonary Artery (blue); 12, Su- 
perior Vena Cava; 13, Pulmonary Vein (red); 14, Brachial Artery 
(place for ligation); 15, Oesophagus (cut through); 16, Suprarenal 
Body; 17, Inferior Vena Cava; 18, Renal Artery; 19, Abdominal 
Aorta; 20, Ureter; 21, Division of the Abdominal Aorta into the 
right and left common Iliac Arteries; 22, Rectum; 23, Urinary 
Bladder; 24, Radial Artery (place for ligation); 25, Ulnar Artery 
(place for ligation); 26, Palmar Arch; 27, Iliac Vein; 28, Femorla 
Artery (place for ligation); 29 Femoral Artery Profunda; 30, Saph- 
enous Vein; 31, The place of passage of the Femoral Artery through 
the Adductor Magnus Muscle, becoming the Popliteal Artery and 
descending to the Popliteal space; 32, Anterior Tibial Artery - f 33, 
Saphenous Vein; 34, Posterior Tibial Artery (place for ligation). 

The red lines signify the Arteries; the blue lines signify the 
Veins. 

341 



342 DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 

Or ten-drops of the tincture of gelsemium may be sub- 
stituted for the morphia. 

When, on the other hand, there is great difficulty in expecto- 
rating the phlegm, another class of drugs, called expectorants, 
must be used. If the already mentioned sedative drugs are 
employed, the cough may be eased, but the phlegm will 
accumulate in the air-passages and become a source of danger. 
The stimulating cough mixtures are: 

(Each is one dose.) 
Carbonate of Ammonia, 5 grains. 
Tincture of Senega, 40 drops. 
Syrup of Squills, ^ drachm. 
Syrup of Tolu, 1 drachm. 
Water, to 1 ounce. 
Two tablespoonf uls to be taken every three or four hours. 

Or 
Antimonial Wine, 5 drops. 
Carbonate of Ammonia, 5 grains. 
Syrup, Yz drachm. 
Tincture of Lemon, 20 drops. 
Water, to 1 ounce. 
To be taken every three hours during effervescence with a 
powder of Citric Acid, 10 grains. 

Ipecacuanha is a useful expectorant, and is much employed 
in the treatment of cough, but it should be taken with care, as 
it is liable to cause nausea and vomiting; this effect makes it 
unsuitable in cases in which the appetite is impaired. A good 
way to employ the drug is to mix a teaspoonful of ipecacuanha 
wine with half a tumblerful of water, and take a teaspoonful 
of this every hour or two. Aconite may be taken in the same 
way; one or two drops of the tincture in water, taken every two 
hours, being especially useful in coughs accompanied with 
symptoms of fever. 

For the troublesome cough of chronic bronchitis, inhalation 
of some stimulating resinous preparation is the best treatment; 
a few drops of creosote, pure terebene, or the oil of the Scotch 
pine, with some light carbonate of magnesia, should be placed 
in a jug of hot water, and the steam containing the vapor 
should be deeply inhaled for a few minutes at a time. The 
following is the form of prescription: 

(This is eight doses.) 
( Creosote, 80 drops, 
] Or Oil of Scotch Pine, 40 drops, 
( Or Pure Terebene, 40 drops. 
Light Carbonate of Magnesia, 20 grains. 
Water, 1 ounce. 
Mix. A teaspoonful to be added to a pint of hot water for 
each inhalation. 

Chlorate of potash and borax lozenges allay the cough of 
sore throats, and ipecacuanha and morphia lozenges that of 
bronchitis. It must not be forgotten that cough is only a symp- 



DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 343 

torn, and that the disease causing it necessarily calls for treat- 
ment, in order that the cough may be cured. 

Spitting 1 of Blood. — The slighter forms of blood-spitting can 
usually be easily checked by a mouth-wash or gargle. When, 
however, it comes from the lungs it is a much more serious 
matter, and the treatment must be directed to the disease which 
causes it; if it is profuse the blood coming away in large 
quantities, it requires prompt treatment. 

_ Treatment. — The patient should be immediately laid down, 
with the head raised on a pillow, kept perfectly still, and 
not allowed to talk; the room should be kept cool by open- 
ing the window, and the body covered with only light 
clothing. Ice should be applied to the chest in a waterproof 
bag, small pieces of ice slowly sucked, or iced drinks taken in 
sips; no stimulants should be allowed. As this symptom is 
often part of severe disease, and slight bleeding may be a 
precursor of more severe hemorrhage, the doctor should be 
sent for, and in the meantime, or if medical aid can not 
be obtained, one of the following astringent mixtures should 
be procured and administered without delay: 

(Each is one dose.) 
Alum, 15 grains. 
Dilute Sulphuric Acid, 15 drops. 
Acid Infusion of Roses to an ounce. 
To be given every three or four hours. 

Or 
Gallic Acid, 15 grains. 
Liquid Extract of Ergot, 20 drops. 
Syrup, K drachm. 
Water to an ounce. 
To be given every three or four hours. 

These should be given every hour for the first two or three 
doses, and then every three or four hours, as the hemorrhage 
gets less. 

Bleeding- From the Lungs. — Bleeding from the lungs should 
be treated by permitting the patient to inhale the vapor of warm 
turpentine. Pour an ounce or two of turpentine into a teapot 
filled with boiling water, the patient applying the mouth near 
to the spout of the teapot. 

Or, turpentine may be applied to a napkin folded in the 
shape of a cone and applied over the mouth and nose to inhale 
the vapor. 

A good remedy for bleeding from the lungs, as well as from 
the stomach, is common salt. A teaspoonful of common table 
salt may be swallowed. This should be repeated as found 
necessary. 

Nasal Catarrh. — Nasal catarrh, or common cold in the head, 
is a comparatively harmless, although a very disagreeable 
affection. The essential part of the disease is an inflammation 
of the lining membrane of the cavitites of the nose, which 



344 DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 

causes great irritation and sneezing, accompanied with a 
watery discharge. Result — a nuisance to one's self and to 
everybody near. 

Catching" Cold. — Many people have a peculiar proclivity to 
catch colds upon every occasion, and after the very slightest 
exposure; and for such, preventive treatment is very important, 
as a neglected or oft-recurring cold often sows the seeds of 
Berious disease. The means of prevention are, first, to avoid 
exposure to sudden changes of temperature, as passing from a 
hot room to a cold one, leaving a warm room without putting 
on an extra covering, or getting chilled after active exercise 
when in a state of perspiration. As a rule, colds are not caught 
while the body is thoroughly heated, but while it is cooling; at 
this time heat is being rapidly lost by perspiration, while there 
is no reaction and increased heat being produced by exertion. 
We learn from this that it is always well to keep moving while 
the body is cooling, or until damp clothes can be removed. 

After Getting Wet, either by rain or perspiration, it is very 
unwise to take any form of alcohol with the idea of keeping out 
the cold. Alcohol acts by driving the blood to the surface of 
the body, causing perspiration and increased loss of heat, and 
is followed by depression, rendering the body more vulnerable. 

Treatment for Colds. — Those who suffer from an excessive 
sensibility to cold should, as far as possible, take daily exercise 
in the open air, dressed rather warmly for the season, and 
should every morning sponge the entire surface of the body with 
cold water, or take a plunge or shower bath, by which means 
the sensibility of the skin will be diminished and the body 
become protected against injury from changes of temperature. 

But, do what we will, colds will sometimes come. Camphor is 
used in the form of the tincture, three to five drops of which 
must be taken on a piece of sugar every ten or twenty minutes 
for a few doses, but camphor is only useful at the very com- 
mencement of a cold. The patient should be kept in a warm 
but well-ventilated room, the temperature being maintained as 
uniform as possible. If the cold is bad, he should be put to 
bed. The inhalation of steam is very soothing to the inflamed 
parts, and, if they are particularly dry and irritable, about five 
to ten drops of eucalyptus oil should be added to the water 
used for the inhalation. Fever is a very common symptom of 
catarrh, but is usually only slight. When it is present, aconite 
is a valuable drug, and one-drop doses of the tincture should be 
taken every hour during the day. At bedtime measures should 
be adopted to secure a good night's rest and free perspiration: 
a hot bath may be taken, or the feet put into mustard and 
water, and after getting into bed a basin of hot gruel preceded 
by ten grains of Dover's powder. 

Sore Throat. — Sore throat appears in four forms: firsts 
simple inflammation of the throat (or catarrh of the pharynx); 
second, relaxed throat; third, clergyman's sore throat (or chronic 



DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 345 

inflammation of the larynx and pharynx); fourth^ quinsy, or 
acute inflammation of the tonsils. 

Treatment for the First.— On looking at the throat it is seen 
to be red and swollen, at first dry, but later moistened with a 
thick, sticky phlegm. The treatment consists of (1) external 
applications, as a linseed poultice, hot fomentations, or wet com- 
press; (2) internal applications, as inhalation of steam, alone or 
with eucalyptus oil, sucking small pieces of ice, painting the 
parts with glycerine and boracic acid, and the frequent use of 
lozenges of chlorate of potash and boracic acid and (3) 
medicine, the tincture of aconite being given in one-drop doses 
every quarter of an hour, gradually decreasing the frequency 
of the doses as the patient improves. A good dose of salts or 
other aperient should be given to act thoroughly on the bowels 
at the beginning of the treatment. During the attack the 
patient should be kept in a warm room and be fed on fluid but 
nourishing food, as warm milk and soda-water, barley water 
and beef -tea. If the throat is slow in returning to a healthy 
condition, it should be painted two or three times a day with 
glycerine and tannic acid. 

Relaxed Throat. — The relaxed sore throat is often a chronic 
condition following the acute inflammation just described, or it 
may be the original affection coming on gradually. An uncom- 
fortable sensation in the throat with a constant inclination to 
hawk up small quantities of phlegm, a tiresome hacking cough, 
and some discomfort in swallowing are the symptoms accom- 
panying it, and they are almost always worse in the morning, 
probably as the result of the throat getting dried and the 
accumulation of discharge. The lining of the throat, palate and 
uvula is seen to be reddened, swollen, relaxed, with thick, dry 
mucus discharge sticking to it; the uvula is often long and 
swollen, hanging against the back of the tongue and causing the 
irritation and constant tendency to cough. 

The Treatment first has to be directed to the removal of the 
causes, and as this condition usually occurs in those who are 
debilitated and out of health, overworked, spirit drinkers, exces- 
sive tobacco smokers, or subjects of consumption, syphilis, 
chronic indigestion, or gout, these are the conditions we must 
attend to. For the first, we must give good nourishing food and 
tonics, one of the following mixtures being suitable: — 

(Each is one dose.) 

Compound Tincture of Bark, K drachm. 

Carbonate of Ammonia, 5 grains. 

Syrup, %, drachm. 

Water to an ounce. 
Or 

Sulphate of Quinine, 1 grain. 

Tincture of Perchloride of Iron, 10 drops. 

Spirits of Chloroform, 15 drops. 

Water to an ounce. 



346 DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 

Clergyman's Sore Throat— Treatment.— The advice which 
ir jst be given first and foremost, and insisted upon, is to take 
rest; rest is just the one thing that the sufferer can not take, for 
in the majority of such cases the livelihood so often depends 
upon the constant use of the voice; or the patient occupies a 
position of importance, and can not relinquish it without great 
inconvenience. However, rest must be enforced, or the trouble 
will continue to get worse. 

Good food and tonics are usually required, and as local treat- 
ment some form of stimulant, astringent and tonic application. 
The glycerole of tannic acid is suitable for painting on the parts 
that can be reached with a brush, and the inhalations and 
sprays recommended for the relaxed throat may be used with 
advantage, and will reach the larynx when affected as well as 
the more superficial parts. 

Quinsy. — Quinsy (acute tonsilitis) is inflammation of the 
throat, chiefly involving the tonsils, and comes on rapidly after 
exposure to cold and wet. It most frequently occurs in 
young people, and, unfortunately, one attack predisposes to 
others, and the throat is apt to become delicate, and inflamma- 
tion set up in it upon the slightest exposure to the exciting 
causes. Feverish symptoms, sometimes severe, accompany 
the onset of the disease, such as chilliness and shivering, hot, 
dry, burning skin, with headache, and pains about the body and 
limbs. The local symptoms are soreness and dryness of the 
throat, with a great deal of pain on attempting to talk or open 
the mouth. Swallowing is very painful also, and yet there is a 
constant desire to do so on account of the collection of dis- 
charge in the throat. Very of ten upon attempting to swallow 
fluids they cause a good deal of discomfort by passing up into 
the nose. Upon looking into the mouth, the throat is seen to 
be very much swollen and red, all the parts being affected, but 
especially the tonsils, one or both of which will probably project 
to such an extent as almost to fill the one side of the throat. If 
both are enlarged they may appear to block up the throat and to 
touch the uvula on each side. The interference with the swal- 
lowing and breathing may be so great that the patient feels as if 
he were going to be suffocated. But there is no reason to fear 
this, for the difficulty of swallowing only lasts a few days, and 
never quite prevents the taking of fluid forms of nourishment, 
or causes more than slight difficulty of breathing. 

Abscess in Tonsil. — Frequently an abscess forms in the 
tonsil; as a rule one tonsil is much more inflamed than the 
other, is much larger, and more painful; and it is in this that 
the collection of matter forms and breaks; but sometimes, when 
this process has taken place in the one tonsil, it may commence 
in the other, and the patient have to bear the same set of 
symptoms over a second time. The bursting of the abscess of 
the tonsil gives an instant and most delightful relief to the 
patient's feelings. 



DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 347 

This bursting may be hastened by a day or two if the tonsil 
is pricked and the matter let out; and for this reason it is 
always well to call the doctor in as soon as possible. 

Treatment of Quinsy. — The treatment should be commenced 
as soon as possible, as it may sometimes cut the affection short 
if adopted in time, that is, during the first day or two. The 
sucking of ice in the early stages gives great relief, together 
with the treatment by aconite already recommended for sore 
throat, one drop of the tincture being given every hour, n, 
however, the throat continues to get worse, warmth will give 
more relief, and be more grateful to the patient's feelings: hot 
linseed poultices applied across the throat reaching from ear to 
ear, inhalation of steam, and the use of warm milk and water as 
a gargle, or frequently sipped. The application of glycerine and 
boracic acid with a large brush to the tonsils several times in the 
day, helps to soothe the great pain. The patient should take a 
dose of salts and go to bed, the air of the room should be moist- 
ened by the use of a steam kettle. The food must necessarily 
consist of liquids, warm milk, barley water, beef -tea, jelly and 
other simple foods easy to swallow. As the severity of the 
symptoms decrease, and the inflammation becomes less acute, 
glycerole of tannic acid can be substituted for the other appli- 
cation, or an astringent gargle of alum, five grains to the 
ounce of water; and during the convalescence tonics should be 
given. Prescription No. 5 or No. 6, prescription list A, are 
good tonics. 

Laryngitis. — In scarlet fever, diphtheria and diseases of the 
kidneys this affection sometimes results from the general blood 
poison, and a very serious form is produced by a scald, through 
accidentally drinking very hot water. The mild form which so 
often follows catching cold, in the great majority of cases, is of 
no consequence and leaves no ill effects behind. It lasts for 
three or four days and then disappears. Occasionally it 
becomes severe, and if not attended to with the greatest care, 
rapidly ends fatally. In the old, the debilitated, the diseased 
and in very young children it should be looked upon as a 
dangerous condition, and in all it should never be neglected. 

Treatment of Laryngitis.— The sufferer should be confined to 
one room, which should be well ventilated and the air kept at a 
about 70° F. and moistened with a steam kettle; a linseed poul- 
tice should be placed round the throat, and inhalations of steam, 
alone or with a few drops of eucalyptus oii added, used fre- 
quently. The bowels should be attended to, and the diet consist 
of light and chiefly liquid food, as warm milk, gruel and barley 
water; calf's-foot jelly and black-currant jelly are very soothing 
to the throat. Free perspiration should be encouraged by a hot 
bath and a ten-grain Dover's powder at bedtime; and a dose of 
the expectorant mixture (Pr. No. 14, list A) should be given 
every two or three hours. 

In extreme cases it may be necessary for the windpipe to be 



348 DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 

opened, and this operation, if performed in good time, gives 
instant relief, and is followed in the great majority of cases, 
when performed for simple laryngitis, by recovery. It must 
always be borne in mind that a severe attack may really be 
caused by diphtheria, the diagnosis of which can only be satis- 
factorily formed by a doctor. 

Acute laryngitis is liable to return, one attack being a predis- 
posing cause of another; it may also terminate ia chronic laryn- 
gitis, for which the treatment recommended in clergyman's sore 
throat should be adopted. 

Bronchitis. — Bronchitis, or bronchial catarrh, is a similar 
condition to what has already been described as affecting the 
lining membrane of the throat, nose and larynx, only in this 
disease it is the membrane of the bronchial tubes which is 
involved. 

Treatment of Bronchitis. — The bronchitis kettle is a most 
useful article to have in reserve, as it is needed in nearly all 
affections of the respiratory organs. It is very often a great 
relief to the patient if some drug is added to the water in the 
kettle. Eucalyptus oil relieves the cough, rendering it more 
efficient in removing the phlegm by softening this and making it 
more fluid. A few drops should be placed in the kettle and 
replenished as it becomes evaporated. 

Poultices made of linseed or linseed and mustard, equal parts, 
should be applied to the chest. It is best to place them on the 
back, as the patient's breathing is not then impeded by their 
weight, but it may be necessary to apply them both back and 
front. In employing linseed poultices it is well not to use them 
continuously day and night; if this is done the patient finds 
them a great nuisance on account of the frequency with which 
he has to be disturbed; the skin becomes sodden and irritated, 
and the stimulating effect is lost. A poultice should be applied 
as hot as can be comfortably borne, left on for about two hours, 
and then carefully and quickly removed, the chest wiped with a 
warm towel, and covered with a flannel or layer of cotton 
wadding, which may remain on for about two hours until another 
poultice takes its place. In this way a poultice will be required 
every four hours, or about four to six in the twenty -four hours. 

Stimulating liniments rubbed on the chest until the skin is 
thoroughly reddened give great relief; or if still greater counter- 
irritation is required a blister may be employed. By these 
means the blood is drawn to the skin from the inflamed and 
painful parts. 

The inhalation of steam is always to be recommended. It 
loosens and softens the expectoration, and relieves the violent 
and painful cough. Any of the ordinary forms of inhaier may 
be used, or an ordinary jug, round the edge of which a towel 
should be placed. Each inhalation should last for from five to 
ten minutes. To the hot water may be added some drug sedative 
in the first stage of dry cough, and stimulant in the later stages 
(Pr. Nos. 29 to 31, list A). 



DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 349 

Sweating. — One aim of treatment should be to produce free 
perspiration, and the following means, added to those already 
mentioned, will probably effectually attain this object: a hot bath 
before the fire, putting the feet and legs in mustard and water, 
and a bed well warmed with hot bottles and plenty of bed- 
clothes. For the cough the following are useful mixtures: No. 
1, to be given before free expectoration is set up, as it soothes 
and loosens the phlegm, while No. 2 should be administered 
when the expectoration is free, as it acts as a stimulant and 
aids in emptying the tubes. They may both be administered 
every twO hours at first, but the intervals between the doses 
should be gradually lengthened as the case progresses. 

(Each is one dose.) 
Ipecacuanha Wine, 5 drops. 
Solution of Acetate of Ammonia, 1 drachm. 
Sweet Spirits of Nitre, 30 drops. 
Camphor Water to an ounce. 
To be taken every three hours. 

Or 
Carbonate of Ammonia, 5 grains. 
Syrup of Squills, J4 drachm. 
Spirits of Chloroform, 20 drops. 
Infusion of Cascarilla io an ounce. 
To be taken every three or four hours. 

If constipation exists at the beginning of the attack the treat- 
ment by drugs may commence with two grains of cascara at 
bedtime, followed in the morning by a saline draught (Pr. No. 
23, list A). 

Inflammation of the Lungs. — Pneumonia, or inflammation of 
the lungs, is an affection of the true lung tissue. It is a very 
serious disease, and is attended with severe symptoms of 
general constitutional "disturbance. One variety of inflamma- 
tion of the lungs is that which follows unchecked bronchitis. 
The other variety of pneumonia results from direct exposure to 
cold and damp striking the lungs through the chest-walls. In 
order to do this the cold must first involve the pleura, or mem- 
brane covering the lungs. In this case, when both pleura and 
lungs are affected, the disease is called pleuro-pneumonia. 
When the bronchial tubes and lungs are affected together, it is 
called broncho-pneumonia. 

Symptoms of Pneumonia.— The fever is very high from the 
first, remains at about the same height for from four to ten 
days, usually decidedly higher in the evening than the morning, 
and then suddenly falls to nearly the normal, when the time of 
the crisis comes. The patient is very ill, with high tempera- 
ture and other severe symptoms; and suddenly, without warn- 
ing, he improves rapidly. The temperature falls to normal or 
below it, and all the symptoms are relieved at the same time. 

The Second Important Symptom is the rapid and difficult 
breathing — fifty to sixty in a minute — with troublesome cough 



350 DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 

occurring in violent attacks, and often with severe pain in the 
affected side, which is like a stitch, and described as stabbing 
or cutting. The cough is at first dry, but soon expectoration 
forms, which is transparent, very sticky and of a reddish or 
rusty color. This is enough to prove the presence of inflamma- 
tion of the lung; the redness is due to blood, which is intimately 
mixed with the phlegm, and not in streaks or spots; it is so 
sticky that it will sometimes remain in the spittoon when it is 
turned upside down. The blood may be so small in quantity as 
to make the expectoration only a pale yellow, or so great as to 
appear like pure blood. An uncommon and serious exception is 
when the expectorated matter is watery and dark, like prune- 
juice 

Inflammation of the lungs is a very serious illness, and 
whenever it is possible a doctor should be called in without any 
delay; but occasions may occur when this is impossible, and the 
patient has then to be treated by friends. 

Our aim must be to place the patient in the best position to 
pass through it, and by all the means in our power to lessen the 
severity of the attack, to ward off complications and to main- 
tain the strength. 

Treatment of Pneumonia. — The room should be well venti- 
lated and plenty of fresh air admitted. The bed-clothes should 
not be too heavy or warm. The patient should be kept quiet; 
talking, sitting up in bed or getting out of it for any cause, is 
strictly forbidden. The chest should be covered up with a layer 
of cotton wool, and if the pain in the side is severe, hot linseed 
poultices should be applied for an hour or two, three or four 
times a day. 

While the fever is high, the food must be entirely liquid, 
though nourishing — milk, gruel, beef -tea, beef -essence and 
similar preparations being given in small quantities every two 
or three hours. 

Drugs Are Not of Much Importance in ordinary cases of 
pneumonia, but may be required for the relief of symptoms. 

For the cough, the mixture containing morphia (Pr. No. 13, 
list A) or paregoric (Pr. No. 12, list A) may be necessary. For 
high fever the best drug is quinine — a dose of the quinine 
mixture (Pr. No. 7, list A) should be given every three or four 
hours, and its effects on the temperature and patient watched. 

If the tongue is furred, the appetite bad and the bowels 
confined, a calomel and rhubarb powder will be useful — calo- 
fiiel three grains with fifteen grains of compound rhubarb 
powder, or, better still, an enema of warm water and soap may 
be administered. If diarrhea comes on, nothing will stop it 
better than an enema of thin starch, four ounces with twenty 
drops of laudanum in it. A furred tongue can be cleaned with 
glycerine and lemon-juice as a wash. 

To promote convalescence the food must be gradually 



DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 351 

increased when the fever disappears, and given in the solid 
form. The appetite can be improved by giving: 

(This is one dose.) 
Dilute Hydrochloric Acid, 10 drops. 
Syrup, yi drachm. 
Infusion of Orange Peel to 1 ounce. 

Two tablespoonf uls three times a day, 
And the general health by tonics, as bark and acid (Pr. No. 8, 
list A) or bark and ammonia (Pr. No. 5, list A) or quinine and 
iron (Pr. No. 6, list A). 

Cod-liver oil is useful also to improve the general nutrition of 
the body. Painting over the lower half of the back of the af- 
fected side or friction with liniments, will help to remove any re- 
mains of inflammation left in the lung. To carry out all these 
recommendations requires the most incessant and assiduous care 
and nursing,and it can not be too strongly enforced that a trained 
nurse would be invaluable for a case of acute inflammation of 
the lungs. 

Bathing the chest with dilute alcohol is very soothing to the 
patient. This should be done whenever the fever is high, and 
when it relieves the patient. 

Pleurisy.— Pleurisy, inflammation of the pleura or mem- 
brane which lies between the lung and chest-wall, is either the 
result of cold or is a part of some general disease, as rheuma- 
tism or infectious fever, or is caused by injury; it often occurs 
with diseases of the lungs, from the spread of the inflammation, 
especially in pneumonia and consumption. The pleura is like 
a closed bag, and is placed between the lung and the wall of the 
chest, one layer being spread over the surface of the lung and 
the other over the chest, to both of which they are pretty firmly 
attached. When this membrane gets inflamed it causes a severe, 
sudden pain, which is called a stitch, and is very characteristic 
of the first or dry stage of pleurisy. If the disease goes no 
further than this it is called dry pleurisy. 

Treatment of Pleurisy.— The patient should be put to bed 
at once. His diet should be light, and, to relieve the pain, a 
linseed and mustard poultice, or mustard leaf should be applied 
to the affected side. If the pain continues, a good plan is to 
strap the side in order to lessen its movement. _ This requires a 
large sheet of ordinary thick plaster. Cut it into strips about 
three inches wide and long enough to reach from the spine 
behind to the breastbone in front. This must be moistened by 
warming before a fire, or by drawing the back against a jug of 
hot water. Commence at the lowest part of the chest. Each 
strip is to be applied while the patipnt empties his chest of air. 
The strips are so arranged as to hind the chest to keep it from 
moving. 

Having poulticed or strapped the chest, a five-grain tabloid 
of Dover's powder should be given, and repeated every six 
hours until eight doses are given. 



352 DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 

In order to act upon the bowels, kidneys and skin, the follow= 
ing mixture may be used: 

(This is one dose.) 
Cream of Tartar, yi drachm. 
Solution of Acetate of Ammonia, 1 drachm. 
Tincture of Lemon, 20 drops. 
Syrup, %, drachm. 
Water to an ounce. 
Two tablespoonf uls to be given every four hours. 
To aid in the absorption of the fluid, counter-irritation must 
be applied over the affected side by blistering fluid or liniment 
of iodine, and these should be used frequently so as to cause a 
soreness of the skin without actually blistering it, or the oint- 
ment of the oleate of mercury may be rubbed into the chest for 
the same purpose. Finally, iron and vegetable bitters (Pr. 
Nos. 5 to 8, list A). Cod-liver oil and good, nourishing food will 
be required to restore the patient to health and strength, but 
should never be employed until fever and other active symp- 
toms of disease have disappeared. 

Congestion of the Lungs.— Congestion of the lungs is a 
disease from which we very often hear people are suffering. 
The term really means that the lungs contain a larger quantity of 
blood in their vessels than when in a healthy state, but probably 
the name is often used popularly for bronchitis, or inflammation 
of the lungs. There are three chief varieties of this condition 
which it may be well to describe here briefly: 

1. One form always occurs as the first stage of inflammation, 
and remains also for a short time after this has disappeared. 
Its symptoms and treatment are very similar to those described 
for pneumonia, and appropriate treatment applied at once may 
prevent the occurrence of inflammation. Difficulty of breathing, 
with slight fever, cough and spitting of blood, are the signs by 
which its presence is recognized. As a rule it only affects one 
of the lungs. 

2. The second form of Congestion occurs as a compli- 
cation of severe diseases, which cause much prostration, espe- 
cially when these occur in old age; it is likely also to affect those 
who are very debilitated and bed-ridden. It is caused by great 
feebleness of the circulation, which permits the blood to stag- 
nate in the lungs; gravitation tends to cause this form of conges- 
tion in the back and lower parts of the lungs, both of which are 
usually affected, but chiefly the lung situated on the side apon 
which the patient lies. Its symptoms are blueness of the lips, 
face and extremities, with quick, shallow breathing. As this 
is often a cause of death, the liability of its occurrence has 
always to be kept in mind by both doctor and nurse. Its treat- 
ment consists in the administration of stimulants given fre- 
quently in small doses, in nourishing food to maintain the 
strength, and in constant changes of the patient's position to 
counteract the effects of gravity. 

3. The third form of congestion occurs in many diseases ol 



DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 353 

the heart, and is due to an interference in the free circulation of 
the blood through the lungs. It affects both lungs in their 
whole extent, and not only the dependent parts. The 
symptoms are difficulty of breathing and cough, especially 
on any exertion, and the spitting of phlegm streaked with 
blood. Its treatment is that of its cause, and we must 
refer the reader to what is said on this matter in the treatment 
of heart disease. 

Consumption. — Consumption, or phthisis, is a most common 
disease in this country. It prevails in all damp and variable 
climates. 

Causes. — First. Undoubtedly, consumption is a disease that 
runs in families, and those whose parents have suffered from 
it, and many of whose relations have been affected by it, are 
especially liable to develop symptoms of the disease. These 
persons are born with a delicacy of the lungs and a peculiar 
predisposition to catarrh and other inflammatory diseases of 
the respiratory organs, which are in themselves strong predis- 
posing causes of consumption. It is said that a consumptive 
father more readily transmits the disease to his sons and the 
mother to her daughters. 

Second. Another very potent class of causes are those con- 
ditions which bring about general debility and ill-health, all 
severe diseases, as the infectious fevers, or syphilis, or such 
unhealthy conditions as are caused by insufficient or bad food, 
or excess in the use of alcohol. The drain on the system 
caused by long-continued discharges acts in the same way. 

Third. Another important point is the effect of trade or 
occupation on the occurrence of consumption. 

Fourth. Consumption may be transmitted from one person 
to another person who is healthy. The disease is due to the 
presence of a minute organism. This organism is called a 
bacillus, specifically, a tubercle bacillus. It is a microscopic 
vegetable growth, which looks like a rod. These germs are, 
probably, constantly around us and in the air we breathe, but 
it is only when they find someone whose tissues are predisposed 
by disease or constitutional delicacy to receive them, or, in other 
words, when they fall upon a suitable soil, that they take root 
and grow and cause the disease. 

How Consumption is Spread.— It is probably by means of 
this germ that the disease is carried from one person to 
another, and it is believed to gain entrance to the body by being 
breathed into the lungs with the air in which it is floating in a 
dried state. 

The expectoration of persons suffering from consumption is 
often swarming with these little organisms, and if it is allowed 
to stand about in the sick-room and get dried, it is easy to 
understand how the germs find their way into the lungs of 
others. This mode of propagation of the disease is looked upon 
as almost the only cause of its extension. 



354 DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 

By preventing the expectoration from drying and becoming 
dust, an effectual means is obtained against its spread. 

All inflammatory diseases of the respiratory organs are pre- 
disposing causes of consumption. Many an attack of bronchitis 
or pneumonia which has been neglected or imperfectly recovered 
from, proves the starting-point of consumption, and prepares the 
ground for the planting and growth of the tubercle bacillus. 

Symptoms of Consumption. — The symptoms of consumption 
are most insidious, and creep upon the victim so gradually and 
unconsciously that it is a very difficult matter to say when the 
disease first began. The bacillus enters, and finding a suitable 
home in the lung, takes up its abode there. 

Is consumption curable? Or is it always progressive and 
certainly fatal? It is most certainly in many cases curable; and 
it is only a mistaken, although very widespread, belief that all 
cases must end fatally, in spite of treatment. It probably would 
not be far from the truth to say that as many persons get well as 
die from consumption. We all can think of someone who was 
said to have had his lungs affected years ago, and is still alive 
and well. Doctors are very familiar with the appearance of a 
scar of the lung resulting from the healing of consumption years 
before. 

Treatment of Commmptiom.— We must attempt (1) to arrest 
the progress of the disease, and (2) to increase the general 
nutrition of the body; and when any urgent symptoms arise 
(3) to relieve them with appropriate remedies. In order to 
carry out these three objects we have at our disposal the treat- 
ment by drugs, by diet, by hygiene and by climate. Drugs may 
be used with the special purpose of attacking the local disease in 
the lungs. Much was expected from the use of two substances 
called "Tuberculin" and "Tuberculocidin," which were intro- 
duced by Drs. Koch and Klebs for the treatment of consump- 
tion; but their use, like that of many other "consumption cures," 
has only ended in disappointment, and in the conviction that no 
true specific drug has yet been discovered, although many have 
been used and advertised as such. But there are some which 
are very beneficial in many cases. 

Creosote has been much used. It is a product of the dis- 
tillation of wood tar, a very pure variety being obtained from 
beechwood. 

It should be first given in smallest doses, immediately after 
food, and the dose gradually increased until from fifteen to 
thirty drops are given in the twenty-four hours. 
Or this mixture may be taken: 

(This is twenty-six doses.) 
Beechwood Creosote, 30 to 80 drops. 
Tincture of Cardamoms, 4 drachms. 
Glycerine, 2 ozs. 
Alcohol to 4 ozs. 



DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 355 

Two teaspoonf uls to be taken in a tablespoonf ul of water after 
meals; three or four times a day. 

The smallest quantity of creosote is used at first, and the 
amount gradually increased. The creosote is absorbed into the 
body and is excreted by the kidneys, sometimes causing the water 
to become dark or even black. By this drug all the symptoms — 
fever, cough, expectoration and wasting— are in some cases 
much relieved. But, unfortunately, it sometimes upsets the 
digestive organs, causing loss of appetite, vomiting and indiges- 
tion. When this occurs, a preparation of the drug with carbonic 
acid, called carbonate of creosote, or creosotal, which can often 
be well borne by the most delicate stomach, should be employed 
in either of the following ways: 

Carbonate of Creosote, % oz. 

Yolk of one Egg. 

Syrup of Tolu, 2 ozs. 
Of this, teaspoonf ul doses may be taken frequently during the 
day. To children it may be given with cod-liver oil. 

Carbonate of Creosote, Yz oz. 

Cod-liver Oil, 6 ozs. 
One teaspoonful to be given three times a day, and the dose 
gradually increased to one tablespoonf ul three times a day. 

Cod-liver Oil. — Cod-liver oil is to be regarded as a food, and 
not as a specific cure for consumption. It is found beneficial in 
all stages of the disease. The nauseous taste of the oil is in 
many cases a serious objection to its use. Some forms of 
emulsion may be used. In extreme cases the oil may be taken 
in capsules. 

Foods. — Food should be large in quantity and very nutritious. 
The patient should, indeed, be overfed, but at the same time 
great care should be taken not to upset the digestion. Fatty 
foods, milk, cream, butter, suet and fat bacon should all be given 
in as large quantities as the digestion will bear, but it must be 
recollected that these, especially when combined with cod- liver 
oil, are liable to cause nausea and indigestion. Plenty of meat, 
well cooked, and combined with vegetables, bread and other 
starchy foods, should form part of the diet. To assist the diges- 
tion, the foods may be artificially digested before being taken, in 
the form of peptonized foods, and if the patient is too ill for or- 
dinary food, these latter may be given combined with eggs, soups, 
meat essences, arrowroot and jellies. 

Hygiene of Consumption.— All the general rules of hygiene 
must be carried out. The house should be well ventilated and 
warmed, and situated on a sandy or gravel soil, moderate exercise 
should be taken if the patient's condition and the weather per- 
mit; the bed-chamber or sick-room should be airy, well venti- 
lated and kept at an equable temperature, but not too hot. The 
clothing should be warm, the garment next the skin being woolen, 
and all risk of chill should be most studiously avoided. 

Much depends upon the nature of the climate in the treat* 



356 DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGAttS 

ment of consumption. The climate of Colorado and Southwm 
California, and perhaps other places in the United States, has 
a beneficial influence upon the patient. 

Tonics Are Necessary. — The following prescription is good; 

Tincture of the Perchloride of Iron, 2 drachms. 

Dilute Phosphoric Acid, 3 drachms. 

Compound Syrup of the Hypophosphites, 3 ozs. 
Two teaspoonfuls in a tablespoonful of water to be taken 
after each meal. 

Fever of Consumption. — The fever of consumption is an 
important and often troublesome feature. It is important in 
diagnosis, for if a person's temperature should be found to 
persist day after day above 100° F. without any apparent cause, 
phthisis should be suspected; it usually takes the form of hectic 
fever — that is, a high temperature at night and low in the morn- 
ing — so that consumption may still be present even when the 
temperature is normal in the morning; if it is high, the following 
mixture will prove useful: 

(This is one dose.) 
Salicylate of Soda, 10 grains. 
Tincture of Lemons, 20 drops. 
Water to an ounce. 
A dose to be taken every four or six hours. 
But if it does not rise above 100° F., it will be better to give 
arsenic rather than salicylate of soda, as in the following pre- 
scription: 

(This is one dose.) 
Hydrochloric Solution of Arsenic, 3 drops. 
Syrup of Orange, 20 drops. 
Infusion of Calumba to an ounce. 
To be taken three times daily. 

Sponging every night with vinegar and water also gives relief. 
Pain in the chest and the local inflammation of the lung should 
be treated by painting the upper part of the affected side of the 
chest with liniment of iodine, or rubbing it back and front with 
a liniment of turpentine and acetic acid; this will have a sooth- 
ing effect on the cough, which will also receive bene^ t from the 
morphia linctus (P. No. 13, list A). 

Night Sweats. — The night sweats may be relieved b/ spong- 
ing the body before going to bed with warm water or vinegar 
and water, and the administration of a pill of the following 
composition every night at bed-time: 
Oxide of Zinc, 2 grains. 
Extract of Belladonna, ]A, grain. 
Make a pill. 
One to be given every night at bed-time. 

For diarrhea, care should be taken in the administration of 
food, which must be light and unirritating, and a dose of the 
following mixture may be given every three or four hours: 



DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 357 

(This is one dose.) 
Decoction of Logwood, %. oz. 
Carbonate of Bismuth, 10 grains. 
Syrup of Ginger, y 2 drachm. 
Water to an ounce. 
To be taken every three or four hours. 

Asthma. — The nervous system is the chief cause of asthma. 
But it is usually classed among the diseases of the respiratory 
system. It is clearly an inherited disease, asthmatic parents 
begetting children predisposed to it. It may, however, be 
acquired. All sorts of climates may induce the disease — dry in 
some, moist in others, elevated localities or low ones, inland air 
or seaside, one side of the street and not the other, the back of 
the house and not the front. 

Asthma is difficulty of breathing, but difficulty of breathing is 
not necessarily asthma, as it may be the result of many other 
conditions. The difficulty of breathing is caused by a contraction 
of the bronchial tubes, which become so small that the air can 
only enter the lungs with great difficulty, and as the result of 
extraordinary muscular effort. 

Treatment of Asthma. — In the treatment of this disease, it is 
necessary to give great attention to its causes. Each patient 
after a time learns, by bitter experience, what it is necessary for 
him to avoid; he finds that sleeping in certain towns or localities, 
going out in certain states of the atmosphere, exposure to certain 
smells, are sure to bring on an attack, but, above all, he recog- 
nizes that certain articles of food and drink, especially taken late 
in the day, must be studiously avoided. 

A change in climate should be tried — from moist to dry, from 
inland to seaside, but, curiously the climate which suits most 
asthmatics is the close, smoky air of towns. 

Drugs for Asthma. — The most useful drugs are those which 
relieve spasm, and are anti-spasmatics, and they may be given 
to adults in the following preparations and doses: 

Tincture of Stramonium, 15 drops. 

Tincture of Indian Hemp, 10 drops. 

Tincture of Henbane, 30 drops. 

Hydrate of Chloral, 10 to 15 grains. 

Tincture of Belladonna, 5 drops. 

Tincture of Hemlock, 20 drops. 

Tincture of Lobelia, 10 drops. 

Spirits of Ether, 30 drops. 

Spirits of Chloroform, 20 drops. 
Any of these may be given in a tablespoonful of water, the 
first two doses with an interval of half an hour, the third dose 
an hour after the second, and then every three or four hours 
until the attack is relieved. 

Iodide of Potash is also useful. It can be given in five-grain 
doses, and continued for a week or two, in order to ward off the 
disease. 

11 



358 DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 

Inhaling Medicines. — Some remedies are found to act even 
more satisfactorily, and give more rapid relief to the spasm when 
taken by inhalation than when taken by the mouth. Stramo- 
nium is one of the most generally useful of these; the dried and 
powdered leaves are either smoked in a pipe or cigarette in the 
same way as tobacco, or the fumes of the burning leaves are 
allowed to fill the room, and are breathed with the air. This 
drug sometimes acts as a charm, giving the patient instant relief. 

Of other inhaling medicines, the most useful are simple steam. 

Chloroform, which should be employed with care — twenty or 
thirty drops may be placed in a handkerchief and thus inhaled. 

Dr. N. Tucker, Mt. Gilead, Ohio, prepares an inhaling medi- 
cine, used with a patent inhaler. While this does not cure 
asthma, it has a most soothing effect in relieving asthmatic 
spasms. Time and use do not seem to have any deleterious 
effects. His inhaler must be used with his medicine, which 
gives him a monopoly, and he uses it to the best advantage, by 
heavy charges. But no asthmatic can afford to be without this 
remedy. 

Hay Fever or Hay Asthma. — The cause of this difficulty lies 
in the irritating effect of pollen of certain plants, especially the 
flowering grasses which are blown about in the air, and is almost 
limited to the months of June or September, to those subject to 
it year after year. Its symptoms consist in excessive irritation 
of the eyes, nose and the whole of the air passages, producing in 
succession itching of the eyes and nose, violent attacks of sneez- 
ing, profuse discharge from the nostrils, pricking sensations in 
the throat, cough, tightness of the chest and difficulty of breath- 
ing. 

The proper treatment is to avoid the cause during the 
months in which the disease is prevalent. The sufferer 
should remain to a great extent within doors. Bright sunlight 
should also be avoided, as it increases the irritation, and a res- 
pirator may be worn. Cold shower or swimming baths are use- 
ful, and tonics of quinine and iron (Pr. No. 6, list A); and lotions 
of carbolic acid, eight grains to an ounce of water; quinine, two 
grains to the ounce of water; and cocaine, ten grains to an ounce 
of water, may be used as a spray to the eyes, nose and throat. 

Where to Go to Get Relief. — Hay fever victims find relief by 
going to some locality where but little dust or pollen floats in the 
air. Eastern people go to the White Mountains; those in the 
Middle West find it convenient to spend their time from the last 
of August until the frosts come, in Northern Michigan. 

Tucker's remedy, mentioned under asthma, will relieve the 
asthma of hay fever, and give some relief in other ways. > Tem- 
porary relief may be had by warming a small bottle containing a 
little tincture of iodine, and inhaling the vapor. 



CHAPTER XXIII 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF CIRCULATION 



Outline of Diseases of Circulation— 



Disease. 


Pain. 


Palpita- 
tion. 


Pulse 


Chief 

Symptoms. 


Cause. 


Heart Disease 














Not 


Not 


Irregular. 


Imperfect 


Rheuma- 




marked. 


severe. 




circulation. 


tism 
and cold. 


Functional 


In some 


Severe. 


Rapid 


Heart 


Disease 




cases. 




during 


trouble in 


of other 








attacks. 


attacks. 


organs. 


Angina 














Exces- 


— - 


Rapid, 


Great pain 


Degenera 




sive. 






and 
faintness. 


tion 


Grave's 

















Very 


Rapid 


Palpitation 









severe. 


and 
weak. 


and pro- 
truding 
eyes. 




Anemia. 


. 


On exer- 
tion. 


Quick on 
exertion. 


Paleness 
and 


Poverty 




of blood 










weakness. 




Aneurism 


Gnaw- 


— = 


Different 


Pressure 


Strain and 




ing^ 




on two 

sides. 


symptoms. 


degenera- 
tion. 



Call the Doctor. — Most of the diseases of the heart are of too 
serious a nature for home treatment, and require for their recog- 
nition special means of examination which can be used only by 
one who has been trained in the use of the stethoscope; their 
diagnosis must therefore always be left to the doctor, and the 
treatment carried out under his supervision. 

Pain in the Heart Region. — Pain in the region of the heart 
often causes a great deal of very unnecessary alarm. It is an 
important fact that many of the most serious forms of heart dis- 
ease are frequently perfectly painless, and their symptoms are 
such as in no way to direct the attention of the patient to the 
heart. 

Persons vrho have Undiscovered Heart Disease are in a very 
dangerous condition, as any sudden effort or exertion, as lifting a 
weight or running to catch a train, might prove fatal suddenly. 

359 



360 DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF CIRCULATION 

from the extra strain upon the heart. If those who are thus 
affected are forewarned of their danger, such risks might be 
avoided, and also the various remedial measures may be used, 
from which very great benefit may be obtained in many cases; 
Although pain in the heart region may be due to disease of that 
organ, it is far more likely to be due to something wrong with the 
Btomach, some form of dyspepsia, flatulence, acidity or heart* 




TROUBLES OF HIS OWN. 



burn. The pain may also be due to some injury causing bruise 
or strain of the muscles of the walls of the chest, or to a rheu* 
matic affection of the muscles. It is, therefore, well to remember 
that pain supposed to be in the heart is most probably only due 
to some far less important cause. 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF CIRCULATION 361 

Angina Pectoris, or "Breast Pang."— There is, however, 
one terrible form of heart disease which is accompanied by the 
most acute anguish; this has received the name of breast pang 
or angina pectoris. The patient is suddenly attacked with the 
most violent spasm of pain in the heart region, which is 
described as stabbing or crushing; it spreads over the chest and 
abdomen, and very often extends up into the left shoulder and 
down the left arm. It is accompanied with a sense of extreme 
faintness, intense anxiety and feeling as of approaching death. 
The face wears a drawn, anxious expression, and is pale or blue 
and covered with a cold sweat, and the pulse is usually small 
and rapid. It may occur at any time. Indigestion resulting 
from over-eating and drinking, or from eating rich and indi- 
gestible food, is a very common cause of this terrible disease, an 
attack of flatulence or distension of the stomach being almost 
certain to bring on an attack in those predisposed to it. 

Symptoms of Angina Pectoris.— The terrible pain of this 
affection may be due either to a sudden spasm or cramp of the 
heart muscles, the suffering of which can be readily understood 
by those who have suffered from a similar condition due to 
cramp of the muscles of the limbs, or cramp of the bowels in an 
attack of colic. The pain may be a true neuralgia of the heart. 
The specially intense pain and dread can be accounted for by 
the importance of the organ affected. 

The Conrse of This Disease is exceedingly variable. Some- 
times the first attack is also the last, and causes death suddenly. 

In others the attacks may return at intervals spreading over 
many years. They may begin by slight spasm, and recurring at 
irregular intervals, may gradually grow more and more severe 
until they end in death. They may last for years, gradually 
growing less and occurring at longer intervals until they quite 
disappear. 

The fatal cases are most likely to be those which complicate 
organic heart disease, and those ending finally in recovery will 
probably be those due to gout, indigestion and other preventable 
causes. However, the disease must always be looked upon as 
very dangerous, and any man affected by it must be prepared 
for his life to terminate suddenly in an unusually violent attack. 

The Sheet Anchor for Anginal Patients. — We can easily 
understand that any one who suffers from angina pectoris will be 
anxious to hurry on to the treatment of the disease. Can any- 
thing be done to relieve the terrible anguish and feeling of 
approaching death which are so characteristic of the attacks? 
And is any treatment of any use in curing the disease? Many 
drugs and forms of treatment give relief; but one drug is, par 
excellence^ the sheet anchor for the anginal patient, and that is, 
nitrite of amyl. It is a highly volatile liquid, of a yellowish 
color, and with a very peculiar sweet odor, strongly reminding 
one of the smell of pear drops. m If a few drops of this liquid are 
Inhaled, flushing of the face, quickening of the pulse and some 



362 DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF CIRCULATION 

oppression of the breathing are produced. If used in this way 
during an attack of angina, it gives instantaneous relief in the 
vast majority of cases. Its effect is so rapid and the dependence 
upon it so complete, that those who have once made use of it can 
look forward to the occurrence of an attack without dread, and 
are almost willing to bring on a spasm for the sake of an experi- 
ment, with the full conviction that they can cut it short at will. 
Sufferers from angina should always carry a bottle of this 
drug in the pockety or, what is still better, should have a few of the 
nitrite of amyl capsules; these are little glass tubes containing 
about five minims of the drug, and are wrapped up in a covering 
of thin, porous material. For use they are placed in the handker- 
chief, crushed, and the vapor then freely inhaled. If the patient 
prefers to help himself from the bottle, two to eight drops is the 
necessary dose. As the drug is very powerful, great care must 
be taken in its use, an overdose causing suffocation, convulsions 
and death. For this reason the capsules are strongly recom- 
mended, as then an overdose is impossible. 

Nitro-glycerine is another useful medicine, ranking next in 
importance to nitrite of amyl; it is a powerful explosive, and 
forms the active ingredient of dynamite; the dose is j^ a grain, 
and tabloids containing this quantity can be obtained, one of 
which may be taken every three or four hours. If the attack has 
been caused by indiscretion in diet, the stomach being burdened 
by undigested food, an emetic of mustard — one tablespoonful to 
half a tumbler of warm water — will give relief; or if there is 
troublesome flatulence; a mixture containing peppermint, ether 
and sal volatile, in proportions similar to the following mixture, 
will be suitable: — 

(This is one dose.) 
Sal Volatile, %, drachm. 
Sulphuric Ether, 20 drops. 
Peppermint Water, % oz. 
To be taken every half -hour until relieved. 
When cold has been the exciting cause, warmth should be 
applied, hot water and rubbing to the feet and hands, and hot 
bottles to the body, or hot poultices to the chest. 

During the intervals of the paroxysms, the greatest attention 
should be given to avoid the exciting causes, violent emotion and 
mental excitement, bodily exertion, exposure to cold, and indiges- 
tible food. Gout and indigestion should be treated, and the 
general health be improved by good hygiene and tonics. 

Fainting — Treatment. — The symptoms are due to want of 
blood in the brain, so that we must proceed at once to supply 
this want; and the best way to do so is to place the brain on a 
level with the heart, so that the blood will naturally flow into it 
with less difficulty. The patient must be laid down quite flat, 
and the head should not be raised or supported at all. 

Anything tight round the neck and chest should be loosened, 
and a little cold water sprinkled over the face. Fresh air is most 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF CIRCULATION 363 

important, and all crowding around of the onlookers should bo 
prevented. Smelling salts, sal volatile and fanning the face are 
useful. The hands, feet, temples and heart region may be 
rubbed with some spirit, and a stimulant drink administered. 

If the f aintness continues long, the doctor should be sent for 
as other measures for restoration may be required. It is also 
important that a doctor's opinion of the condition of the heart 
should be obtained if the fits are severe or of frequent occur- 
rence. It is hardly necessary to add that if the syncope occurs 
as the result of hemorrhage, the bleeding should be stopped 
without a moment's unnecessary delay. 

The general treatment consists in giving up those habits 
which tend to produce ill-health; healthy outdoor exercise is 
most valuable, and probably the bicycle will cure many young 
ladies of fainting fits. Anemia, constipation and organic diseases 
must be relieved by appropriate means. 

Organic and Functual Disease of the Heart. — The diseases of 
the heart, like those of all organs of the body, can be divided into 
two classes — organic and functional. Palpitation, or a violent 
action of the heart; feeble action due to weak heart; and various 
alterations of the pulse in frequency, rhythm and force, are the 
most prominent symptoms. 

Palpitation of the Heart. — Palpitation of the heart is an 
increased frequency of the heart's action, with violent, sudden and 
often irregular beats. This is occasionally sufficiently violent to 
shake the whole body, and produces grave suspicion in the mind 
of the sufferer that the heart is diseased. Palpitation does cer- 
tainly occur in many organic distresses of this organ, but, curi- 
ously, in those cases it often passes unobserved, while the palpita- 
tion of purely functual origin is very appreciable. The breathing 
is often hurried and difficult, and is accompanied by a sensation 
of choking, or lump in the throat. This condition is very fre- 
quently due to some irritation acting on the nervous machinery 
which controls the heart, and which is affected indirectly 
through the nervous system, stomach or blood. Mental excite- 
ment may produce it. Hysterical young women are very prone 
to such attacks. The stomach being supplied and controlled by 
the same nerves as the heart, is often the offender; improper 
food, causing indigestion and flatulency, acts powerfully as the 
exciting cause of an attack of palpitation. The woman who 
drinks constantly strong, over-drawn tea, and the man who is 
hardly ever seen without a pipe or cigar in his mouth, will in the 
four-and-twenty hours absorb a good deal of the poison. 

All affections that cause poverty of the blood will induce 
beart-palpitation, and, curiously enough, two perfectly opposite 
conditions act in a similar way, for both full-blooded or plethoric 
and pale, anemic people are liable to palpitation. Plethora causes 
it by supplying over-rich and stimulating blood and thus exciting 
the heart to increased action, and anemia by supplying poor, 
watery blood which starves the heart, and therefore requires in« 



364 DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF CIRCULATION 



creased action in a weakened heart to carry on the circulation. 
Although in the majority of cases of palpitation no anxiety need 
be felt, it is, of course, always wise to have the heart once for all 
thoroughly overhauled, to as far as possible make the absence of 
organic disease a certainty. 

In the Treatment of this condition the chief and often the 
only precaution necessary to prevent attacks is to remove the 
cause. For gout give colehicum; for anemia, iron; f or debility, 
tonics; avoid excitement and excessive exercise, tea, coffee and 
tobacco; attend to the diet, and avoid the causes of flatulence 
and indigestion. If neglected, the condition may become chronic 
and even develop heart disease. During an attack the patient 
should lie down and keep quiet. Take plenty of fresh air, a 
reasonable amount of exercise, with healthy occupation, neither 
too sedentary so as to injure the body, nor enervating and 
morbid so as to injure the mind. General tonics of iron, quinine 
and vegetable bitters (P. Nos. 5 to 8, list A) are useful; digitalis 
as a heart tonic (P. No. 10, list A) and a belladonna plaster worn 
over the region of the heart will also assist in the treatment. 
We add a table showing the distinguishing points of this condi- 
tion when it occurs with organic heart disease or only as a 
functional disorder. 

Organic and Functional Heart Disease.— Palpitation oc> 
curring 



With Organic Disease of the 
Heart 

1. Usually comes on slowly 

and gradually. 

2. Is constant, though worse 

at times. 

3. Is accompanied with blue- 

ness of lips and cheeks, 
congestion of face, swell- 
ing of legs. 

4. Heart action not neces- 

sarily quicker. 

5. Palpitation often not much 

complained of by patient, 
but occasionally attended 
by severe pain extending 
to the left shoulder and 
arm. 

6. Palpitation is increased by 

exercise, stimulants and 
tonics, but relieved by 
rest. 

7. Is more common in men 

than women. 

8. Beat felt in cardiac region, 

stronger, heaving and 
prolonged. 



As a Functional Disorder of 
the Heart 

Generally sets in suddenly. 

Is not constant, entirely absent 

between attacks. 
Is not accompanied with blue* 

ness or swelling, face often 

pale. 

Heart action usually quick- 

ened. 
Palpitation much complained 

of by patient, often with 

pain in left side. 



Is increased by sedentary oc« 
cupation, but relieved by 
moderate exercise, stimu- 
lants and tonics. 

Is more common in women 
than men. 

Beat abrupt, not heaving or pro- 
longed, fluttering sensation 
at the pit of the stomach. 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF CIRCULATION 365 

Inflammation of the Heart. — The most important organic 
disease of the heart is due to inflammation, as the consequence 
of exposure to cold, especially when that exposure results in the 
development of rheumatic fever. 

The inflammation may affect all parts of the heart, peri- 
cardium, muscular tissue and lining membrane. 

When it affects the pericardium the disease is called peri' 
carditis; when the muscular tissue, myocarditis; when the 
interior, endocarditis. This complication of rheumatic fever is 
the chief danger of that disease, and is the reason why we should 
always be most careful to check it as soon as we possibly can. 
If the heart becomes involved, very serious results may follow, 
for which reason we should never advise home treatment for 
rheumatic fever, especially as by prompt and skilful measures 
this severe complication may perhaps be warded off. 

Treatment. — The treatment of these conditions is involved in 
the treatment of their cause, especially that of rheumatic fever. 
The heart affection may require leeches applied over the heart, 
counter-irritation in the form of poultices, blisters or iodine, 
and, if the circulation becomes feeble and weak, stimulants in 
some form. Confinement to bed with all the general care and 
attention required in acute diseases, will, of course, be required. 
When the valves of the heaFt are diseased, everything goes 
wrong with the circulation; the blood, instead of flowing onward 
in one direction freely and smoothly as in health, tends to flow 
backwards through the defective valves in the contrary direc- 
tion, and the only way in which this leakage can be counteracted 
is by the heart working at high pressure, more rapidly and more 
powerfully. 

Graves' Disease, or Exophthalmic Goiter.-— This is not 

Erimarily a disorder of the heart. The protrusion of the eye- 
alls, the enlargement of the neck and violent action of the 
heart are the principal symptoms of this disease. Anemia is 
present in most cases. 

Treatment. — Excellent results may be obtained from the 
following: 

5. Tinct. digitalis 1 drachm. 

Pulv. potass, iodidi 2>£ drachms. 

Aquae q. s. ad. 2 ounces. 

M. Sig. One teaspoonful three times a day after meals. 
When anemia is marked the following combination may be 
given: 

]J . Tinct. strophanthi Yz drachm. 

Tinct. ferri chloridi \% drachms. 

Aquas q. s. ad. 2 ounces. 

M. Sig. Teaspoonful three times a day after meals. 
The iodide of potassium in ten-grain doses three times a day 
has proven beneficial in some cases of exophthalmic goiter. 

Diseases of the Arteries. — There is one very common afifec* 



366 DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF CIRCULATION 

tion which attacks the arteries and which is found to a greater 
or less extent in all old people, to which the name of atheroma is 
given. The chief causes are over-exertion, the excessive indul- 
gence in alcohol, and gout. 

Aneurism. — The patches of softening weaken the wall of the 
vessel so that the^ pressure of the blood gradually stretches it, 
until after a time it becomes so large as to form quite a tumor ; 
this enlargement of the artery is called an aneurism. 

An aneurism, therefore, is a tumor of an artery, filled with 
blood, this fluid having forced itself between the coats of the 
artery or stretched all the coats; we must therefore look upon 
atheroma and all those conditions which cause it as the causes of 
aneurism. This disease is much more common in men than 
women, and is chiefly a disease of old age. Aneurism may oc- 
cur in all arteries, but the aorta is the one most commonly affected; 
however, whatever artery is involved, the disease is most serious 
and will be very likely to end fatally. It should never be the 
object of domestic treatment; the best medical advice should be 
obtained, and it will generally tax all the resources of the most 
skilful physician to control the disease and carry the treatment 
through to a successful termination. 

Diseases of the Veins.— The veins may be affected by inflam- 
mation {phlebitis) either from within as the result of irritation 
caused by a clot, or from without owing to the spread of inflam- 
mation from other parts, and also as the result of gout. 

Varicose Veins. — Varicose veins are veins which become 
very much dilated and swollen. The condition may occur in 
veins of all parts, but is most frequently found in the legs, 
especially in the left one. m Anything which interferes with the 
flow of blood through the veins is likely to bring about this con- 
dition — weakness of heart, violent straining, tight stays, garters 
or trusses, pregnancy and constipation. e All occupations which 
necessitate long hours of standing, as in shop assistants and 
laundresses, are injurious, but walking exercise is beneficial. 
If the veins of the rectum become affected, they form one of the 
varieties of piles. When those of the spermatic cord are involved, 
they produce varicocele. This is more liable to occur on the 
left side. Varicocele causes the patient much worry, but it is, 
however, one of no danger and seldom leads to serious results. 

( Treatment of Varicocele. — The parts should be toned up 
with cold water by being sponged night and morning, and the 
veins supported with a suspensory bandage or an india-rubber 
ring. The treatment is completed by the moral strength neces- 
sary to forget the existence of the affection. 

Varicose Veins of the Legs. — These are usually first observed 
about the calf or ankle, and appear more distinct, bluer and 
larger than usual. If not attended to, the whole of the super- 
ficial veins of the leg may become much swollen and knotted, 
the knots being formed at the situation of the valves of the veins. 
The blood becomes stagnant and bulges out the veins until they 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF CIRCULATION 367 

look like rows or bunches of grapes under the skin. The result 
is severe pain in the limb with a feeling of weight and fatigue 
after long standing or severe exercise, a swollen, hard condition 
of the parts affected, a stagnation of the circulation interfering 
with the nutrition of the skin, which becomes red, congested, 
irritable, scaly and sore, and finally breaks down and forms a 
varicose ulcer. If this sore place forms where the skin is thin 
and the veins near the surface, very extensive hemorrhage may 
occur, which has sometimes been severe enough to cause death. 
There is danger also of a portion of the blood clot which forms 
within the vein being loosened by sudden movement or rubbing 
and washed into the blood stream. 

Treatmeat of Yaricose Veins. — The treatment of varicose 
veins is directed more towards giving relief than with the hope 
of cure. When the vessels have once become much enlarged, 
there is little chance of their getting well except by surgical 
means, and many operations have been devised for this purpose. 

All the causes of the disease should be avoided, and careful 
investigation made to discover the cause in each particular case; 
excessive exercise, long standing and constipation must be 
corrected, the heart and circulation strengthened by good food, 
tonics and hygiene, and the veins supported by carefully applied, 
equable pressure. 

For the last purpose an ordinary bandage, an elastic stocking 
or an elastic bandage may be employed. Whichever is chosen 
must be applied to the whole part affected from the foot below to 
above the highest enlarged vein; it must be worn all day, but not 
at night, the patient being careful to reapply it every morning 
before putting the feet to the ground. The parts covered should 
be sponged with warm water and carefully dried every night. 

Anemia. — Anemia is a disease of the blood in which it becomes 
very poor and watery, and is particularly wanting in the red 
coloring matter. This poverty of the blood may be the result of 
many very severe diseases, such as cancer, consumption or ague 
and in such cases may occur in men and women to an equal 
extent; but the disease to which the name of anemia is usually 
applied is of quite a distinct character. 

Anemia or chlorosis, as it is sometimes called, is a disease of 
young women and girls, and is of very common occurrence 
among all classes. 

Almost any condition which causes debility and illness may 
bring on anemia. Long-continued loss of blood will produce it, 
from whatever source the blood may be obtained. Bleeding 
from the nose, spitting of blood or bleeding from piles are likely 
causes of anemia. Long- continued and free discharges of any 
kind have the same result. 

This is a frequent source of the disease in women, in whom, 
also, long-continued nursing often leads to the same result. Food 
when taken in insufficient quantity or of unsuitable quality, bad 
hygienic conditions, such as living and working in close air, with' 



368 DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF CIRCULATION 

©ut sufficient light or outdoor exercise, will all gradually produce 
bloodlessness by interfering with the healthy formation of fresh 
blood. It is also considered that the long- continued actions of 
certain poisons, such as lead, mercury and a few others, will 
cause anemia. 

Symptoms. — The disease, if severe, can be recognized at a 
glance, and there are very few conditions with which it is pos- 
sible to mistake it. The appearance of any one suffering from 
anemia is most striking, and probably no one can have failed to 
see many cases. It is one of the commonest complaints of girls 
engaged in shops. Long hours of fatiguing work in gas-lit shops, 
with air full of impurities from the lungs of many persons, often 
added to hurried meals of unsuitable food, are a typical predispos- 
ing cause. The pallor of anemia is very marked; the face 
becomes white, and in some cases almost green, from which the 
disease derives its name of chlorosis, or green sickness. If the 
lips and gums and lining of the lower eyelids be examined, they 
will be found to be pale and bloodless also. Debility and weak- 
ness are often extreme, the patients feel languid, heavy and dis- 
inclined to make the slightest exertion, and get tired at once if 
they do so. They are troubled with frequent sighing and yawn- 
ing, are sleepy, dull and low-spirited. Constant complaints of 
pains and aches, of neuralgia and muscular soreness, of head- 
ache, backache and sideache are sure to be made. 

Treatment of Anemia. — The one essential point of treatment 
is to supply the blood with iron, and iron only can be depended 
upon to bring about a cure. This drug acts like a charm, but 
not a sudden one, for it has to be continued for some weeks or 
months continuously in severe cases. There is sometimes a 
good deal of difficulty in administering iron; most preparations 
of this drug are decidedly constipating, and we must therefore 
first set to work to counteract this condition. The most ~uitable 
medicines are a dose every night of either the aloes and myrrh 
pill (five grains), or a capsule of cascara sagrada (one-half 
drachm), or a tabloid of the same drug, containing two grains in 
the solid form. These are usually sufficient, but sometimes 
stronger aperients may be necessary. 

Another difficulty we meet with in giving iron is its liability to 
upset the stomach, a difficulty which is increased by the fact 
that indigestion, nausea and vomiting are often present as symp- 
toms of anemia. This will prevent our commencing the iron 
treatment at once, until these gastric symptoms are relieved by 
careful dieting and by some such mixture as the following: 

(This is one dose.) 

Subnitrate of Bismuth, 10 grains. 

Tincture of Nux Vomica, 3 drops. 

Dilute Hydrocyanic Acid, 3 drops. 

Syrup of Ginger, ^ drachm. 

Water to an ounce. 
To be taken two or three times a day, half an hour before 
foodo 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF CIRCULATION 369 

The following may now be taken as an iron mixture: 
(This is one dose.) 
Citrate of Iron and Ammonia, 10 grains. 
Carbonate of Ammonia, 3 grains. 
Spirit of Chloroform, 15 drops. 
Water to an ounce. 
To be taken three times a day after food. 
A mixture containing a very easily digested form of iron conr 
bined with strychnia, a bitter tonic, is the following: 

(This is one dose.) 
Syrup of the Phosphate of Iron, 1 drachm. 
Solution of Strychnia, 10 drops. 
Chloroform Water to an ounce. 
To be taken three times a day, half an hour before food. 
In giving iron, we must not forget that the causes of anemia 
must be discovered, and when this is done they must be carefully 
avoided or removed. Food, air and exercise must receive care- 
ful attention, and all bad hygienic conditions must be corrected, 
both in habits and surroundings, and very often the cure will be 
hastened and rendered more complete by change of air and scene. 
Many mineral waters are successfully used for anemia, 
especially those which contain iron, or what are called chalybeate 
waters. 

Hemophilia. — There is another disease of the blood which is 
both curious and interesting, and about which a few words will be 
sufficient. This is called Hemophilia, which, freely translated, 
means a predisposition to bleed; the name explains the disease. 
Those affected bleed from the slightest injury, or even without 
injury. The extraction of a tooth, vaccination or the application 
of a leach may cause profuse and even fatal hemorrhage. The 
disease is undoubtedly hereditary, and is congenital — that is, 
present at birth. It is almost entirely found in the males of the 
family, although the women hand on the disease to their sons 
without themselves being affected by it; the fathers suffering 
from it do not transmit it to their offspring. It is, of course, 
essential to avoid injury as far as possible, and, if hemorrhage 
occur, to control it by pressure. 



CHAPTER XXIV 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 



General Outline of Diseases, with Symptoms, of Organs of 

Digestion. 



Disease. 


Stools. 


Temper- 
ature. 


Special 
Symptoms 


Cause. 


Summer Diarrhea 
Dysentery 


Fluid con- 
tents of bow- 
el 

With blood 
and slime 

"Rice water" 
"Pea soup" 


Raised 
Raised 

Low 
Very high 


Frequent 

action of 

bowels 

Stomach- 
ache, 

straining, 
and blood 
in motions 

Cramps, 
exhaustion 
and stools 

Fever, rash 
and stools 


Heat and bad 
food. 

Heat and ague. 


Cholera 


Infection. 




Infection. 




Pain. 


Vomiting. 




Gastritis 


Constant 
gnawing 

After food 

Tender spot 

In stomach, 
not tender 


After food and other- 
wise — mucus 

After food 

After food— bright 
blood 

After many days- 
dark blood and frothy 
fluid 


In adults, from 


Indigestion 


errors of diet. 
In all persons. 


Uxcer of Stomach. 
Cancer of Stomach 


from faulty 
digestion. 

In anemic 
young women. 

In men after 
85. 




Pain. 


Jaundice. 


Vomiting. 




Congestion of Liv- 
er 


With tender- 
ness in side 

Usually ab- 
sent 

Most acute in 
attacks 

Most acute, 

with 
tenderness 


Not 
severe 

Slight 

Very 
marked 

Absent 


Occasional 

Morning 
sickness 

Excessive 
during 
attacks 

Constant 


Bad habits 
and great heat. 


Gin -drinker's Liv- 
er 


Spirit- 
drinking. 


Peritonitis 




Exposure or 




accident. 



370 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 371 

Diarrhea.— Diarrhea occurs in such severe diseases as chol- 
era, dysentery and typhoid fever, in many affections of the liver, 
when ulceration or inflammation affects the lining membrane of 
the bowels, and often in the late stages of consumption; but these 
forms of diarrhea are considered in their proper places, and we 
will here look upon it as a disease in itself. Diarrhea can be de- 
fined as a frequent and profuse discharge of loose motions from 
the bowels; it may vary in severity from one or two actions in 
the day to an almost continuous discharge. This disease is of 
great frequency in young children, especially at the periods of 
weaning and teething; it is common in women at the age of from 
forty-five to fifty, and in all who suffer from weakness of the 
digestive organs. The hot weather of summer and fall is sure to 
be accompanied with great increase in the number of cases, espe 
cially among children. 

Causes of Diarrhea. — The most common of all the causes is 
some error in the diet. Either the food or drink has been taken 
in too large an amount, or it has been in an indigestible form, or 
some special article has been unsuitable; all these produce an 
unhealthy condition of the alimentary canal. Errors of hygiene 
may produce diarrhea, such as poor drainage and insufficient 
ventilation, or residence in damp, cold and dark houses. < 

Medicines may be the cause of diarrhea. Purgatives and 
many other drugs which act as poisons, if used too freely and in 
unsuitable cases, may set up severe irritation, which may even 
pass into inflammation of the intestines. It is important to 
remember that poisons often show their presence in the b»4y by 
diarrhea, and that in some cases where the cause of violent and 
repeated attacks of diarrhea has been a mystery, this fact mi§ht 
have proved the solution. Some articles of food are peculiarly 
trying to the digestive organs of certain persons, and appear to 
act like irritant poisons. Shell-fish, crabs, lobsters or mussels, 
sour, unripe fruit, and some vegetables, as cucumbers and 
salads, may cause most severe attacks of vomiting and purging. 
Bad smells or the drinking of water which has become contam- 
inated by the admixture of organic animal matter, or decompos- 
ing vegetables, occasionally act in a similar way. Mental emo- 
tions have sometimes a powerful effect in this direction, espe- 
cially the depressing passions, as grief and anxiety. 

A sudden panic will operate on the bowels of some persons as 
surely as a black dose, and much more speedily. All persons 
must have recognized the powerful effect that excitement has 
upon the movements and actions of the bowels. 

Treatment of Diarrhea.— If the attack has been brought on 
by some indigestible or poisonous food, the first thing to do is to 
assist nature in throwing it off. If the diarrhea is only a natural 
means to a cure, we should follow nature's lead by giving an 
aperient to cure diarrhea. Much harm maybe done if the cause 
of the irritation be left undisturbed. A very common medicine 
and a perfectly safe one in these cases is castor oil; a tablespoon- 
ful should be administered with fifteen drops of laudanum. 



372 DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 

Other useful drugs for this purpose are the compound 
rhubarb pill, five grains. Having removed the source of irrita- 
tion, the following prescription will follow: 
(One dose for an adult.) 
Aromatic Sulphuric Acid, 10 drops. 
Tincture of Lemon, 15 drops. 
Carbonate of Bismuth, 5 grains. 
Syrup, Yz drachm. 
Water to an ounce. 
A dose to be taken every hour or two until the diarrhea is 
relieved. 

Chlorodyne is also a most soothing drug, and useful when 
the diarrhea is accompanied with much colicky pain and flatu- 
lence. It may be taken alone in either five or ten-drop doses 
every hour, as long as the symptoms are severe, or as follows, 
combined with either bismuth or dilute sulphuric acid: 
(Each of these is a dose.) 
Chlorodyne, 5 drops. 
Carbonate of Bismuth, 5 grains. 
Syrup of Ginger, l A drachm. 
Water to an ounce. 
To be taken every hour while the pain and diarrhea continue. 

Or 
Chlorodyne, 5 drops. 
Dilute Sulphuric Acid, 10 drops. 
Water to an ounce. 
To be taken evrey hour as long as necessary. 

Chronic Diarrhea. — Chronic diarrhea chiefly occurs in those 
whose health is undermined by long-continued disease, in 
those who have been living on insufficient and innutritions food, 
or who have for years suffered from indigestion. 

Treatment. — Chronic diarrhea is very difficult to cure; even 
when the constant discharge is stopped, it is very likely to 
return from the slightest indiscretion in diet or exposure to cold. 
To tone up the system and remove anemia, iron, arsenic, qui- 
nine and strychnia may all be employed, and to check the dis- 
charges, the mineral acids, opium, bismuth, chalk and logwood. 
Diet is of the very greatest importance in the treatment of all 
forms of diarrhea. 

In chronic diarrhea the main effort should be to counteract 
the tendency to wasting. Exposure to cold and wet or sudden 
changes of temperature must be avoided, the clothing must be 
warm, and the extremities in particular must be protected by 
suitable covering. Flannel should be worn next to the skin, and 
a flannel bandage moderately tight round the abdomen is both 
advisable and comfortable. Late hours, excessive exertion 
and mental excitement are all injurious and should be avoided. 

Constipation. — Constipation, costiveness or confined bowels 
is a most common trouble. A daily action of the bowels, as a 
rule, is required for health. Much ill-health and suffering are 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 373 

Caused by constipation. Carelessness or neglect usually brings 
Its own reward. 

Habit is one of the most important means of maintaining 
regularity in this respect. It is also one of the most potent 
causes in the production of constipation. In this particular, 
the bowels are much under the control of the will. 

When the calls of nature are constantly neglected, the 
bowels become accustomed to the irritation caused by their being 
overloaded. They become distended and stretched by the 
accumulation of their contents, and, ceasing to respond to the 
usual stimulus, are often irritated into inflammation, with the 
subsequent formation of ulcers. The habit may be easily 
acquired through want of leisure. Persons much occupied may 
be unable to attend to the matter at the suitable time. It is 
then forgotten, and this neglect, frequently repeated, estab- 
lishes the unhealthy condition. 

Sedentary Occupations are frequently the cause of costive 
bowels, and certain errors in diet and particular articles of food, 
the absence of a sufficient quantity of fresh vegetables in the 
food, the use of refined white bread and large quantities of 
milk, all act in this way in some persons. 

To the habitual use of purgatives many cases of the most 
troublesome constipation can be traced. So long as the bowels 
are acting regularly, purgatives only do harm. Again, the idea 
that, even in those cases where aperients are required, it is 
necessary to take a violent purge is likely to lead to the same 
evil results. Temporary relief is afforded by powerful purga- 
tives; the delicate mucous membrane of the intestinal tract is 
weakened thereby, a sort of chronic catarrh is induced, and 
the very condition sought to be removed is aggravated tenfold. 
In constipation, the evacuations, besides being infrequent, are 
solid, deficient in quantity and sometimes very offensive. They 
consist of dry, hard, dark or clay-colored masses. 

Treatment for Constipation. — This condition is far bette? 
treated by the correction of faulty habits and attention to diet 
than by drugs. Care should be taken to pay the necessary visit 
at a regular hour every day — directly after breakfast is the most 
suitable— and this should be done as a routine, whether nature 
calls for it or not. These visits should not be paid hurriedly 
and without ceremony, but time should be spent over a matter 
of so much importance to the health. If failure results for the 
first day or two, success will probably follow in time, and, once 
established, the habit is not difficult to maintain. 

Diet,— In the matter of diet, meals should be regular and 
animal food taken only in moderate quantities, while plenty of 
vegetables and ripe fruits should be eaten. Breakfast should 
include a dish of oatmeal porridge, preferably eaten with 
treacle; brown bread made of the whole meal should be substi- 
tuted for white at some of the meals. Cooked fruits — as figs, 



374 DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 

prunes and baked apples — are useful, and fatty food, as bacon, 
fat of meat, oil and butter should be indulged in as far as the 
digestion will allow; and all the meals should include a large 
amount of fluid — water, milk and cocoa being decidedly prefer- 
able to tea, coffee, beer or spirits. A glass of cold water drunk 
on first getting up in the morning is found of use by some 
people. Regular exercise in the open air should be taken, but 
moderate in amount, and not of too violent a character, very 
prolonged and excessive muscular exertion being recognized as 
one of the causes of constipation. A cold sponge or shower 
bath is helpful in giving tone to the muscular system; a cold 
water compress over the abdomen will have the same effect 
locally on the muscles of the bowels, which may also be 
strengthened and the movements of their contents encouraged, 
by careful friction applied by the hand in the proper direction; 
this would be upwards on the right and downwards on the left 
side. 

The following pill is one to be recommended as an aperient 
drug: 

Extract of Cascara Sagrada, 2 grains. 

Extract of Nux Vomica, y 2 grain. 

Extract of Belladonna, %. grain. 
Make a pill. One to be taken at bedtime. 
Slightly laxative pills of a similar kind to this are frequently 
ordered after dinner, and are called dinner pills; they usually 
contain aloes with other sedative and tonic drugs. The follow- 
ing is a good sample of a dinner pill: 

Extract of Aloes, 2 grains. 

Extract of Nux Vomica, yi grain. 

Extract of Belladonna, %■ grain. 
Make a pill. To be taken daily after dinner. 

Yomiting. — Vomiting is a very common symptom of affec= 
tions of the stomach and digestive organs, but it also occurs in 
other diseases of a very serious nature. The most common of 
these is undoubtedly improper food, or the taking of food in too 
large a quantity; as a result of some such indiscretion, irrita- 
tion of the stomach and indigestion are set up, and the stomach, 
after a longer or shorter time, rejects its contents, and the dis- 
agreeable symptoms disappear. Vomiting is the first symptom 
in acute fevers — typhus, cholera, ague — and most of those 
accompanied with a specific eruption, as scarlet fever and the 
like. 

Inflammation of the liver is auother disease with this as one 
af its symptoms; it occurs very severely in the passing of a gall- 
stone. 

The liver may also be the origin of the very troublesome 
vomiting of sick headache. 

Other Symptoms.— Much may be learned by noting the time 
si the occurrence of vomiting, the nature of the matter ejected, 
3nd the extent and urgency of the symptoms. 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 375 



If the emptying of the stomach relieves the nausea and other 
symptoms, the cause may be considered as likely to receive 
benefit from treatment. But if the symptoms preceding vomit- 
ing are not relieved by the treatment, but increase gradually, 
the disease must be looked upon as serious, for in such cases 
the disease of the brain must be apprehended. 

The following table gives at a glance the chief points of dis- 
tinction between brain vomiting and stomach vomiting: 



Brain Vomiting. 

1. There is little or no nausea, 

and the vomiting con- 
tinues in spite of the 
stomach having been 
emptied. 

2. There is no tenderness over 

the stomach, and pres- 
sure is borne without 
inconvenience. 
& The tongue is clean, the 
breath sweet and the 
bowels obstinately con- 
fined. 

4. Headache comes on early 
and is a prominent symp- 
tom. 

6, The stomach is emptied 
without effort. 

6, There is no disgust at food. 



Stomach Vomiting. 

1. The nausea is relieved, at 

all event, temporarily, 
by the stomach being 
emptied. It returns di- 
rectly food is taken. 

2. There is tenderness over the 

stomach and pressure in- 
duces an inclination to 
retch. 

3. The tongue is dirty, the 

breath offensive, and 
there are griping pains in 
the stomach, with diar- 
rhea. 

4. Headache comes on after 

the other symptoms. 

5. The vomiting is preceded 

by retching. 

6. There is complete disgust 

at food. 



Treatment for Vomiting.— The treatment of vomiting is 
sometimes a very simple matter, at other times it is almost impos- 
sible to check it; this difference is caused chiefly by the fact that 
sickness depends upon such very different conditions. When, as 
we have said, it results from indigestible and irritating food, it is 
wisest not to attempt to check it too suddenly; indeed, sometimes 
much relief is felt after the action of an emetic or by drinking a 
large quantity of warm water: this acts by assisting the stomach 
to empty itself, and also by washing away any remaining food 
and collection of mucus into the intestines. Having emptied 
the stomach, the most useful drug is carbonic acid; this acts as 
a direct sedative to the lining membrane of the stomach. An 
effervescing mixture is the best way to give this, and the follow- 
ing, taken with a tablespoonful of lemon- juice every one or two 
hours as long as the sickness continues, will be found effica« 
cious: 

(This is one dose.) 



Bicarbonate of Soda, 15 grains. 
Tincture of Lemon, 15 drops. 



Syrup, % drachm. 
Water to an ounce. 



To be taken frequently with lemon-juice while effervescing 



376 DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 



Dietetic! for Vomiting. — If milk is borne, beef -tea can be 
given, then jelly, light milk puddings and solid food. Milk is 
more easily digested if it is mixed with an equal quantity of soda- 
water or taken with one part of lime-water to two of milk, or 
the milk may be boiled and the heavy curd removed. Koumiss 
or effervescing milk is very light, and will occasionally remain 
on the stomach when everything else is rejected, but its taste is 
sometimes objected to. Small pieces of ice constantly sucked 
often give relief to an irritable stomach. 

Bismuth is also valuable; it is given in the form of an insol- 
uble white powder, either the subnitrate of bismuth, five grains, 
or the carbonate of bismuth, five grains. These powders settle 
down on the surface of the stomach and allay its irritability; 
they must be given in thick fluids in order to keep them in 
suspension. Creosote is indicated when there is much flatu- 
lence, or in those cases where the stomach contains food which 
is acrid, irritating and frothy from fermentation; three drops 
should be given every two or three hours, but as the taste is 
disagreeable, it is best to use a capsule or pill. Opium or 
morphia are most frequently required when the stomach is so 
urritable as to reject everything immediately it is swallowed, 
under which circumstances morphia must be given under the 
skin, or either drug may be administered in an enema. 

As additional measures, relief may be obtained from a 
mustard and linseed poultice, or a blister to the pit of the 
stomach, and the patient should be kept as still and quiet as 
possible in the recumbent position in a darkened room. For the 
vomiting of pregnancy little is required, even in cases in which 
it is long-continued; little harm comes to the patient, who 
hardly ever loses flesh. She should remain quiet in bed until 
after the usual time for its occurrence, avoid drinking much — 
especially of warm drinks, as tea, etc. — and may take two or 
three times a day a dose of the effervescing draught. 

Vomiting Blood. — Does the blood come from the lungs or 
from the stomach? Vomiting of blood must also be distinguished 
from the coughing and spitting of blood. This is sometimes 
not easy, as the circumstances of the case cause the patient so 
much alarm and anxiety that he can not give an accurate account 
of the symptoms as they occurred. The following table will 
give briefly the most important points of distinction between 
the two conditions, whether from the lungs or from the 
stomach: 

From the Stomach. 
1. The blood is of dark color. 



2. The blood is vomited. 

3. The blood is often mixed 

with food and is not 
frothy. 



From the Lungs. 

1. The blood is of a bright red 

color. 

2. The blood is coughed up. 

3. The blood is often mixed 

with phlegm, and is gen- 
erally frothy. 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 377 



4. Is preceded by pain, diffi- 

culty of breathing and 
symptoms of lung affec- 
tion. 

5. Blood does not occur in the 

motions. 



4. Is preceded by nausea and 

symptoms of stomach 
affection. 

5. Blood is afterwards passed 

from the bowels. 

Blood from the Stomach. — Blood may escape into the 
stomach gradually, small quantities at a time being slowly 
poured out, or it may occur with a sudden gush. In the latter 
case the blood will be vomited in a bright red condition, and 
quite unchanged by its having been in the stomach; when slowly 
collected, however, it is acted on by the gastric juice, its color 
is altered and it is mixed with food. When it is vomited undei 
these circumstances, it is black, sooty or pitchy, or looks like 
coffee grounds, the latter appearance being very characteristic. 
The vomiting is usually preceded by nausea, a feeling of dis- 
tress, weight and pain in the pit of the stomach, and other 
symptoms of indigestion. If the amount of blood lost is large, 
the patient becomes pale and faint, and the pulse weak. When 
the bleeding is the result of an ulcer of the stomach, it most 
often occurs shortly after a meal, and may vary from a few 
drops mixed with the food up to a quart. A certain portion of 
the blood will find its way out of the stomach into the bowels. 

Treatment for Bleeding from the Stomach. — Bleeding from 
the stomach should be treated by giving the patient pounded 
ice freely; let him swallow it at once, without permitting the 
ice to melt in the mouth. This may be followed by a teaspoon- 
ful of milk or water containing fifteen drops of the spirits of tur- 
pentine. If necessary, repeat in a quarter to half an hour. Or, 
if these agents are not at hand, a teaspoonful of alum or tannin 
may be dissolved in a glass of water; give a tablespoonful of 
the solution to the patient every twenty or thirty minutes. Or, 
a half teaspoonful of tincture of ergot. If necessary, this dose 
may be repeated every fifteen minutes. 

Appearance of the Motions. — There are certain peculiarities 
of the motions which are characteristic of the diseases in which 
they occur. Thus, in cholera they are like rice-water, entirely 
free from the coloring matter of the bile, and voided in enor- 
mous quantity. 

In dysentery they are exceedingly offensive, very frequent 
and contain a large amount of slime and blood. 

In typhoid fever they are fluid and of a pale yellow color, 
and somewhat resemble pea-soup; they are very offensive, and 
sometimes contain blood. 

In diseases of the liver, especially those diseases in which 
there is a deficient formation of bile or some obstruction to the 
escape of this fluid into the bowel, they are quite pale or clay- 
colored, very offensive and of the consistency of porridge. 

An uncommon condition occurs in some diseases of the liver 



378 DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 

and of the pancreas or sweetbread, in which a large quantity of 
liquid fat passes off in the motions. 

Bleeding from the Bowels. — This should be treated by giv- 
ing half a teaspoonful of spirits of turpentine in a tablespoonf ul 
of milk. Also apply cold cloths to the abdomen. 

Tincture of ergot is a valuable remedy in these cases of 
bleeding. 

Dropsy. — Dropsy is the collection of fluid in the loose tissue 
under the skiD, or in some of the cavities of the body. It is due 
to the watery part of the blood oozing from the blood-vessels to 
a greater extent than in health, and is not taken up again into 
the blood. There is a very unreasonable dread in the popular 
mind of this dropsical condition. 

Dropsy may occur whenever the heart is weakened, and the 
circulation is poor; also in those conditions in which the blood 
is poor and watery, as in anemia. In these forms dropsy is 
not serious. Besides the causes just named, dropsy may be 
brought on by three other causes: firstly, those acting through 
the heart; secondly, those acting through the kidneys; and 
thirdly, those acting through the liver. Dropsy may be a 
general condition affecting all parts of the body. 

The dropsy due to kidney affection first appears in the eyelids 
and face, the lids become swollen and rather transparent-look- 
ing, and the face distinctly altered in appearance. 

Diseases of the liver produce the form of dropsy called 
ascites, when the fluid is poured into the peritoneal 
sac. The amount of fluid may be very great in extreme 
cases, the legs becoming enormous, almost like those of an 
elephant, and the abdomen so distended that it becomes impos- 
sible for the sufferer to move about at all from its bulk and 
weight. 

Treatment of Dropsy. — The treatment must be directed to 
the removal of the cause, and it must be recognized that dropsy, 
of whatever kind or part, is only a symptom, and not a disease 
in itself. As, however, it is often a symptom of diseases which 
are incurable, and may be in itself often very distressing and 
sometimes serious, it will be necessary to know what may be 
done to relieve the symptom as well as the disease which causes 
it. Much good may be done and a cure expected in those cases 
of dropsy which occur in anemia and in weakness of the heart's 
action, apart from disease of that organ. Iron for the anemia, 
and tonics (as digitalis and strychnia) for the heart, will be sure 
to do good, and the following prescription may be used: 

(This is one dose.) 

Citrate of Iron and Ammonia, 10 grains. 

Solution of Strychnia, 3 drops. 

Tincture of Digitalis, 5 drops. 

Spirit of Chloroform, 20 drops. 

Water to an ounce. 
To be taken three times a dav after food. 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 379 

To remove dropsy of the abdomen, which is usually due to 
disease of the liver, a very useful preparation is the resin of 
copaiba; fifteen to twenty grains can be administered three 
times a day in a tablespoonful of almond emulsion, or, as its 
taste is very disagreeable, it may be taken in capsules. The 
drug acts powerfully on the kidneys and increases the flow of 
water from them, and thus drains away the dropsical fluid; it 
should, however, never be given when tnere is any affection of 
the kidneys. For similar cases a pill made up of mercury (two 
grains), squills (two grains) and digitalis leaves (two grains) is 
very useful. 

For the general dropsy resulting from kidney mischief, our 
aim. is to keep the kidneys, skin and bowels acting freely; the 
kidneys being unfitted to do any extra work, the two latter have 
to be chiefly depended upon. To increase the amount of sweat 
the best means are hot baths — water, air, vapor or Turkish; gin 
and hot water and the spirits of juniper are useful remedies; and 
as purgatives those drugs which increase the flow of water into 
the bowel should be chosen, as the cream of tartar, two or three 
drachms, with one-half drachm of the tincture of jalap. 

The treatment of dropsy should usually be carried out under 
the guidance of a doctor. 

Dropsy may be greatly relieved, temporarily, by tapping. 
This is the drawing off of the dropsical fluid through tubes. 

Colic. — Colic is the name given to sudden and violent attacks 
of pain due to a contraction or spasm of the muscles of the 
bowels; it is one of the commonest forms, of stomach-ache. The 
bowels are usually much distended with wind and obstinately 
constipated, ^ a constant desire being felt and many fruitless 
attempts being made to gain relief by obtaining evacuation of 
their contents. Vomiting and diarrhea may, however, occur in 
some cases. The attack may last only a few minutes, or it 
may continue for days with occasional severe spasms, each 
lasting for only a short time; after the acute attack has passed 
off, or been relieved by appropriate treatment, a certain amount 
of soreness and tenderness remains behind for some days. Great 
relief is always felt after an action of the bowels or the ejection 
of wind. 

Treatment. — Warmth applied to the abdomen is most use- 
ful, either in the form of a large hot linseed poultice, a jot 
flannel, a hot bath, a hot-water bottle, or any other means that 
may suggest themselves at the time. 

Morphia will give almost instant relief, one-fourth grain. 
The same dose given as a hypodermic injection would, how= 
ever, act more rapidly. Relief may also be quickly obtained by 
giving a large enema of a pint to a pint and a half of warm 
waten The acute suffering having passed off, the cause of the 
irritation may be removed by a good purge — a couple of com- 
pound rhubarb pills, followed, if necessary, by a draught of 
Epsom salts. 



380 DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 

To prevent the repetition of such an attack, the food must be 
regulated, and it must be light and easily digested; the bowels 
must be acted upon daily, and care must be taken to avoid the 
recognized causes. Those liable to such attacks may be bene- 
fited by wearing a flannel roller round the stomach, and thick 
woolen stockings to keep the feet warm. 

Acidity. — Acidity is most frequently used as equivalent to 
acidity of the stomach, or heartburn, but may be employed in 
a much wider sense, and refer to a general excess of acid in the 
system. In heartburn there is a hot, scalding sensation in the 
stomach which is accompanied by the rising of an irritating acid 
fluid into the throat, causing an uncomfortable burning feeling 
in this situation, and in the course of the gullet. 

Causes of Acidity. — It may occur from two opposite condi- 
tions — either from an excessive secretion of the acid gastric 
juice, or from an insufficient quantity of this fluid and a conse- 
quent acid fermentation in the undigested food. 

It is caused by sedentary habits and occupations, insufficient 
exercise and fresh air, or by over-indulgence in animal food and 
heavy drinks. 

Women in the later months of pregnancy are also often 
troubled with heartburn. 

Treatment of Acidity.— In the treatment of an attack of 
heartburn the drugs required to relieve the discomfort are not 
the same that should be used to remove the liability to its 
return. Half a teaspoonful of sal volatile or a good pinch 
(fifteen grains) of bicarbonate of potash or soda will very rapidly 
relieve the discomfort. One of the soda mint tabloids will have 
a similar effect. An ounce of lime-water or half a teaspoonful 
of magnesia may be used for the same purpose; lime-water if 
diarrhea is present, and magnesia when there is constipation. 

For the permanent cure of the complaint, however, the fol- 
lowing mixtures should be taken for a week or ten days; the bis- 
muth mixture is especially suitable for cases in which there is 
catarrh of the stomach and indigestion. When the symptoms 
have been relieved by the use of the first mixture, tne acid mix- 
ture may then be used. 

Subnitrate of Bismuth, 10 grains. 
Tincture of Rhubarb, 1 drachm. 
Syrup of Orange, 1 drachm. 
Infusion of Gentian to 1 ounce. 
To be taken three times a day, half an hour before food. 

Or 
Dilute Hydrochloric Acid, 15 drops. 
Syrup of Orange, 1 drachm. 
Infusion of Gentian to 1 ounce. 
To be taken three times a day, half an hour before food. 
The diet should, at the same time, be simple and of limited 
quantity, all fatty, sweet and starchy articles of food being 
taken very sparingly, and alcoholic drinks being altogether 
avoided. 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 381 

Flatulence. — Flatulence is wind on the stomach. The wind 
given off from the stomach is usually both tasteless and odor- 
less, but instances are not rare in which it has a most disagree- 
able taste and smell, as of rotten eggs; this is always the result 
of decomposition of the food in the stomach and the formation 
of a gas called sulphuretted hydrogen. 

If a tablespoonful or two of peppermint water is taken during 
the attack, it is almost sure to result in the dispersion of the 
flatus and in immediate comfort to the patient. 

Treatment. — Charcoal may be taken as a powder, of which 
from five to ten grains would be required; or a tabloid of charcoal 
may be used. Creosote should be taken in the form of a capsule 
containing two or three drops of creosote. A glassful of hot 
water, or a teaspoonful of sal volatile in half a wineglassful of 
water, or fifteen to twenty drops of spirits of chloroform in 
water may be given — either, not all. 

A few drops of essence of ginger in water is a popular prep- 
aration. One or two of the soda mint tabloids, or five drops of 
chlorodyne in a teaspoonful of water (or in a capsule) may be 
taken. If the wind distends the bowels more than the stomach, 
a warm water injection containing turpentine will remove it. 

This trouble may often be cured in hysterical women by a 
mixture containing nux vomica, bismuth and soda, and when 
occurring in old persons, by one containing hydrochloric acid 
and a preparation of pepsin. Both of these are best taken 
shortly before food. The following are suitable prescriptions; 

(Each is a dose.) 
Bicarbonate of Soda, 15 grains. * 
Tincture of Nux Vomica, 15 drops. 
Carbonate of Bismuth, 5 grains. 
Syrup, Yz drachm. 
Water to an ounce. 
To be taken shortly before food. 

Or 
Dilute Hydrochloric Acid, 15 drops. 
Acid Glycerine of Pepsin, 1 drachm. 
Tincture of Lemon, 20 drops. 
Water to an ounce. 
To be taken before food. 

Offensive Breath. — In health and with ordinary cleanliness 
the breath is quite free from smell, but under certain circum- 
stances and in some diseases it may become most unpleasant. 
Want of cleanliness in washing the mouth and teeth, and neglect 
to free them daily from all particles of food, is a common cause 
of this condition. Careful cleaning of the teeth should form 
part of the daily toilet in all, but is of especial importance in 
those who wear any false teeth, or whose teeth are affected by 
decay. Offensive breath occurs in some diseases of the nose, 
in bad sore throats, in scurvy and in all conditions in which 
there is fever. It is a symptom of indigestion, and generally 



382 DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 

accompanies constipation, and is common also in women at cer- 
tain periods; but, above all tbese conditions, it is found in an 
extreme degree in mortification or gangrene of the lung. The 
breath of inveterate smokers, or those who chew tobacco, often 
becomes tainted by the habit ; the dram drinker's breath be- 
comes impregnated by the heavy, vinous, disagreeable odor of 
alcohol. 

When originating in the mouth from uncleanliness merely, 
daily attention to the teeth and the use of the following mouth 
wash will be sufficient to remedy it: 

Boracic Acid, 15 grains. 

Tincture of Myrrh, 15 drops. 

Compound Tincture of Lavender, 15 drops. 

Rectified Spirit, 10 drops. 

Water to an ounce. 
The mouth wash to be mixed as desired with warm water. 
When the teeth are decayed, they should at once be 
examined by the dentist, and the necessary attention be given 
them; if sore throat is the cause, gargles containing sulphurous 
acid should be used; if the stomach is the offending organ, 
charcoal biscuits or tabloids should be taken, and the suitable 
measures adopted tc relieve indigestion and constipation. 
Smokers should use some sweet-scented compound. 

Diseases of the Stomach — Inflammation of the Stomach- 
Gastritis. — The symptoms of inflammation of the stomach 
include pain, which is almost always present; the patient may 
complain of a sensation of burning or gnawing, only at the pit 
of the stomach* or there may be very severe suffering and great 
tenderness upon pressure; the pain is always increased by tak- 
ing any food, which also sets up vomiting. The sickness, how- 
ever, may occur, and is often very troublesome, when the 
stomach is quite empty; at first, any food which is in the stom- 
ach is rejected, and, when this has been got rid of dry retching 
may continue for some time, or a large amount of mucus 
secreted in the stomach is brought up; if the retching is long 
continued, bile or even blood is mixed with the mucus. There 
is always severe thirst and dryness of the mouth, with a dis- 
agreeable metallic taste. At other times there may be a desire 
for food, and the feeling that food will relieve the discomfort, 
but, when taken, it is at once rejected, and no relief obtained. 
Constipation is an almost constant accompaniment, except when 
the bowels are affected also by inflammation, and fermentation 
is rapidly set up in any food which may be retained. Headache 
occurs. The patient feels weak, faint and ill, and fit for noth- 
ing but to go to bed. 

Treatment of Gastritis.— For treatment the best plan is 
certainly to remain in bed and keep perfectly quiet. At first no 
food should be taken, so as to give the stomach perfect rest for 
some hours; to relieve the thirst small lumps of ice may be 
allowed, and then teaspoonf uls of iced milk. If this is retained, 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 383 

iced milk or milk and soda-water may be taken in tablespoon- 
fuls. As the condition of the stomach begins gradually to 
improve, a little variety may be permitted — chicken or mutton 
broth and beef-tea in small quantities, gradually passing on to 
minced chicken, boiled fish, and other easily digested solid food; 
however, solid food of any sort must be given with the greatest 
caution. In the most severe cases it becomes necessary to 
starve the patient altogether for a time. Injections of warm 
water or soap and water are the best means of overcoming the 
troublesome constipation, as medicines are likely to be refused 
by the stomach, like everything else. To soothe the pain 
morphia is of great value, and this can be combined with bis- 
muth to allay the irritability of the stomach. 

(This is one dose.) 

Solution of Hydrochlorate of Morphia, 10 drops. 

Carbonate of Bismuth, 5 grains. 

Mucilage of Gum, 1 drachm. 

Water to a tablespoonf ul. 
To be taken every two hours as long as the pain continues. 
Morphia can perhaps be better administered under the skin. 
Another very sedative medicine is the alkaline effervescing mix- 
ture (P. No. 19, list A), to which five grains of the carbonate of 
bismuth may be added. Warm applications to the pit of the 
stomach, as linseed poultices and fomentations, are comforting 
and grateful, and may be continued until the pain and tender- 
ness pass off. 

Diseases of the Bowels— Inflammation.— Inflammation of 

the bowels — enteritis — is sometimes called gastric fever. It may 
be brought on by indigestible food, such as unripe fruit, or sim- 
ilar irritating substances, and is frequently caused by cold, 
idamp or exposure to sudden changes of temperature. It is most 
prevalent in summer, but it sometimes appears almost an epi- 
demic. 

A wound or injury of the bowels is always followed by some 
inflammation, although this is usually localized. It is a most 
common affection of children, mostly affecting them during the 
period of teething. When once it has been produced, by what- 
ever cause, it is very liable to return upon slight exposure. 

Symptoms of Enteritis, or Gastric Fever.— The symptoms, 
which vary much in severity, come on rapidly, with feverish- 
ness, quick pulse, hot, dry skin, furred tongue and some head- 
ache. The appetite fails, nausea and vomiting occur, and a 
good deal of pain and tenderness all over the abdomen are com- 
plained of, but especially about the navel. Either constipation 
or diarrhea may be present, the latter most commonly at some 
stage of the disease; the motions then are frequent, fluid, pale 
and mixed with slime. Inflammation of the bowels usually 
passes oft and ends in complete recovery; in debilitated persons, 
however, or in exceptionally severe attacks, it may end fatally, 
vv it may partially subside and become chronic, lasting an 
indefinite period. 



384 DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 

Treatment of Gastric Fever. — The patient should always go 
to bed in a warm room. Milk is the best food; if given with soda- 
water, it is soothing to the inflamed parts, or lime-water may be 
given instead of soda-water. Beef -tea and other meat extracts 
may be given carefully, and stopped at once if the diarrhea is 
increased. The thirst is much relieved by sucking ice or sip- 
ping iced water and lemon juice. If the disease is the result of 
cold, the skin should be freely acted upon and perspiration pro- 
duced. Poultices and fomentations applied to the abdomen 
thoroughly hot will relieve the pain. The bismuth mixture can 
be highly recommended in these cases, and it may include mor- 
phia if that drug is required. If indigestible food has been the 
exciting cause, the treatment should be commenced with an 
aperient; a powder of calomel, two grains, and compound rhu- 
barb powder, fifteen grains, would be a suitable prescription. 
To complete the cure and improve the digestion, the hydro- 
chloric acid mixture should be given three times a day half an 
hour before food (P. No. 18, list A). To prevent a return of the 
disease, the food must receive careful attention, and all expo- 
sure to cold avoided; warm clothing and a warm band around the 
body should be worn. 

Diseases of the Liver — Inflammation. — Inflammation of the 
liver — hepatitis — of the acute variety is not a common disease 
in a temperate climate. 

It is caused by exposure to great heat and changes of tem- 
perature, by irregular habits and by spirit-drinking. 

Dysentery and inflammation of the liver are closely con- 
nected. They very often occur together and appear to be caused 
by the same conditions. Both are frequently produced by 
exposure to the poison of malaria. 

Symptoms* — The disease usually commences with shivering 
and chilliness, and other symptoms which accompany fever — 
namely, high temperature, quickened pulse, thirst, scanty, thick 
urine, furred tongue and loss of appetite. 

Bowels are frequently loose, and vomiting is a common 
symptom, a large quantity of bile being brought up. A trouble- 
some cough is also common. 

Local symptoms, pain over the liver, which is a dull, heavy, 
dragging pain when the deeper parts are chiefly affected, and a 
sharp and stabbing one similar to that felt in pleurisy indicates 
inflammation of the surface. It is increased by lying on the side 
and in taking a deep breath, and usually complaints are made of 
pain in the right shoulder. The liver can be felt to be enlarged, 
and distinct fulness seen; it is also very tender on pressure. 

The disease lasts from three to ten days, and usually termi- 
nates favorably. 

Locally, this affection must be treated with hot linseed 
poultices and other hot applications. The bowels must be kept 




The heart and lungs in 
a healthy condition. 



The heart and lungs of a boy who 
died from the effects of cigarette 
smoking; showing the shrunken 
condition of the heart and the 
nicotine sediments in the lungs. 




The liver in a healthy 
condition. 



Gin drinker's liver (cirrhosis of the liver) 
or hobnailed liver; the result of chronic 
inflammation set up by the excessive use 
of spirituous liquors, which act as power- 
ful irritants causing the above condition 
and death. 



PI,ATE No. 1. 
Showing the effect of cigarette smoking and of intoxicants on vital organs. 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 385 

freely acted upon. While the fever lasts a simple mixture to 
keep the skin, bowels and kidneys acting should be taken. 

(This is one dose.) 

Solution of Acetate of Ammonia, 1 drachm. 

Sweet Spirits of Nitre, 20 drops. 

Epsom Salts, 20 grains. 

Citrate of Potash, 5 grains. 

Chloroform Water to 1 ounce. 
To be taken three or four times a day. 
To which, later, a few grains of iodide of potash may be added 
with benefit. The food must be light, and consist of farinaceous 
substances and milk, and the patient should keep quiet in bed 
at first and later be confined to his couch. During convalescence 
the diet must be more nourishing and taken in larger quantity; 
tonics must be given. The following, containing nitrohydro- 
chloric acid and dandelion, can be recommended: 

(This is one dose.) 

Dilute Nitrohydrochloric Acid, 10 drops. 

Fl. Ext. of Dandelion, %. drachm. 

Chloroform Water to 1 ounce. 
To be taken three times a day. 

Gin-Drinker's Liver. — Gin-drinker's liver (cirrhosis of liver), 
or hobnailed liver, as it is also called, from the irregularity ancj 
roughness of its surface, is the result of chronic inflammation 
set up by constant and excessive indulgence in spirits. All 
alcoholic drinks which are taken into the stomach must pass 
through the liver after being absorbed by the veins. They act 
as powerful irritants to this organ. 

Although the disease is called gin-drinker's liver, it is often 
produced by other spirits, as whisky, brandy, wine, beer and 
the like. 

Causes of Cirrhosis of the Liver. — Cirrhosis comes on very 
gradually, sometimes taking many years before it shows its 
presence by distinct symptoms, but its progress is sure. 
Although liquor drinking is the usual cause, it can not be said to 
be the only cause of cirrhosis of the liver, as cases have been 
met with in persons who have been temperate in their lives. 

Treatment. — The case may end by exhaustion, weakness and 
wasting, gradually growing extreme; or from dropsy, hemorrhage 
or diarrhea; or from an attack of some acute disease which the 
body is too weak to withstand. 

The one essential for successful treatment is, of course, total 
abstinence from all alcohol; when this is hopeless, or is adopted 
too late, the general health must receive attention. The diet 
must be simple, and some stimulating tonic given to improve the 
tone of the stomach, as: 

(This is one dose.) 



Tincture of Nux Vomica, 10 drops. 
Tincture of Capsicum, 3 drops. 



Sal Volatile, 20 drops. 
Water to the ounce. 



To betaken three or four times a day, half an hour before food 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 

Riding or walking exercise is beneficial, and change of air and 
scene to the seaside or some watering-place should be tried. 

Biliousness. — Biliousness is a term used to explain number- 
less little ailments from which we suffer. The popular notion is 
that these attacks are due to too great a formation of bile, the 
result of which is a bilious attack. This idea probably gave 
origin to the word melancholia, which means black bile, as low 
spirits are very marked in bilious attacks. 

The other symptoms are headache felt across the forehead, 
giddiness, nausea and vomiting, furred tongue, bitter taste, loss 
of appetite, and constipation. These may, perhaps, be due to a 
congested condition and sluggish action of the liver, but they 
are, in most cases, attacks of indigestion or sick headache, which 
is technically called megrim. 

Certain individuals are often spoken of as "bilious." They 
are mostly persons of dark complexion, with sallow, yellowish 
skin, and are usually upset by errors in diet, and unable to take 
much fatty or rich food. 

Treatment of Biliousness. — The proper treatment for bilious- 
ness is to starve it out. The sufferer should lie down in a dark 
room, from which all noise is excluded, and should take either no 
food at all or only small quantities of cold beef-tea, or a strong 
cup of tea with little milk or sugar, and a small piece of dry toast. 
The effervescing mixture (Pr. No. 19, list A) may be taken every 
three or four hours. 

To avoid a repetition of such attacks, the diet must be care- 
fully regulated. Alcoholic drinks, fatty or highly flavored foods 
must be shunned, and meat taken in moderation. Cold, over- 
exertion and overwork avoided, sedentary habits altered, consti- 
pation overcome by mild medicines, and the general health 
attended to, the trouble will disappear. 

See Megrim, or Sick Headache, under Nervous Diseases. 

Gall-Stones. — Gall-stones are solid masses formed in the gall- 
bladder or gall-ducts of the liver. They are produced by concre- 
tion of the solid portions of the bile around some body which acts 
as a nucleus or focus. They may occur singly or in great num- 
bers, even hundreds, and may be as small as fine gravel, or in 
masses several inches long. 

So long as the stones remain in the gall-bladder they usually 
give no trouble, and their presence is unrecognized unless, as 
occasionally occurs, they set up inflammation or abscess by irri- 
tation. On the other hand, when they wander from the gall- 
bladder and escape along the ducts into the intestine, they 
produce symptoms which are really quite terrible to suffer from 
and to witness. 

Symptoms of Gail-Stones. — The pain or biliary colic comes 
on suddenly with acute shooting, burning or stabbing in the right 
side in the region of the liver; it passes downwards to the navel, 
and upwards into the right shoulder. The pain is accompanied 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 387 

by severe rigors or shivering fits, some fever and violent vomit- 
ing. The face is drawn, anxious, pale and covered with drops of 
cold sweat, and the patient may become very faint, and even lose 
consciousness. These attacks may last two or three hours, or 
with less severity may continue for days. They usually come on 
a short time after a meal, the gall-stone being probably dislodged 
by the flow of bile from the liver into the intestine in the process 
of digestion. A few hours after the commencement of the attack, 
jaundice commonly becomes apparent, first in the eyes and later 
over the whole body, the motions become pale and the urine dark 
brown. 

The spasms of pain usually cease as suddenly as they 
begin, by the stone reaching the end of the duct and falling into 
the bowel. If small, it passes away with the motions, and these 
should be carefully examined in order to discover them, but occa- 
sionally a stone may be so large as to cause obstruction of the 
bowels. Gall-stones seldom occur singly; one attack is exceed- 
ingly likely only to be the forerunner of others. 

First Effort Must Be to Ease the Pain.— The most important 
symptom during the attack is pain, and to ease it morphia or 
opium are required in some form. Opium may be given in a pill 
(one-half grain), or as laudanum (fifteen drops), every three or 
four hours, and morphia as the solution of hydrochlorate of mor- 
phia (fifteen drops); or, better still, as a hypodermic — a one-fourth 
grain given with a syringe under the skin. The latter is the best 
method, as its action is more rapid, but it is not advisable to 
make use of it except under a doctor's supervision. Little tab- 
loids are prepared of the right strength, or three drops of the ten 
per cent, solution may be given; but these drugs should not be 
administered if the patient is feeling drowsy and heavy. 

A hot bath sometimes is very comforting; also hot linseed 
poultices and fomentations over the abdomen are beneficial. 

Large draughts of hot water containing two drachms of bicar- 
bonate of soda to the pint have a good effect. 

If these measures are insufficient, chloroform or ether may 
be tried; twenty drops of ether should be placed in a hand- 
kerchief and inhaled; the dose to be repeated at intervals. The 
effects, however, should never be pushed sufficiently to produce 
insensibility, as this would be dangerous and is quite unneces- 
sary. 

After Treatment. — Alkaline aperient waters, such as those 
of Carlsbad or Vichy, are strongly recommended. If it is found 
impossible to visit these places, the salts of these alkaline waters 
can be obtained as powders or lozenges; these lozenges should 
be largely diluted with water. Daily exercise should be taken. 
The diet should be simple and nutritious; but all fats, spices and 
rich foods should be avoided. Healthy habits should be encour- 
aged — early to bed and early to rise; early dinners if possible, 
and gentle aperients when required. The persistent use of the 
phosphate of sodium is rarely unsuccessful in preventing the 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 

attack of hepatic colic. It should be given in teaspoonful 
doses before meals, and continued for several months. The 
effervescing preparation of phosphate of sodium is to be 
preferred. Equal parts of ether and oil of turpentine in 
small teaspoonful doses every four to six hours is an efficient 
remedy. Large quantities of water should be taken at night. 
It should be taken very hot and swallowed slowly. Table- 
spoonful doses of olive oil three or four times daily will be found 
beneficial in some cases. If the stone becomes fixed and 
grave symptoms of obstruction arise, surgical measures should 
be resorted to. 

Diseases of the Peritoneum.— Inflammation of the peri- 
toneum, peritonitis, when acute, is a very dangerous disease. 
It is unsuited for home treatment, and the doctor should be sent 
for at once. It may be caused by wounds entering the cavity of 
the abdomen, by rupture or disease of the internal organs, by 
spreading of inflammation from other parts. In most cases, the 
disease begins suddenly with rigors and shivering; pain soon 
sets in which is terribly acute and agonizing, and is much 
increased by any movement of the body, by coughing or breath- 
ing deeply, and affects the whole abdomen. There is the most 
exquisite tenderness, so that even the weight of the bed-clothes 
is unbearable. Thirst is troublesome, and the tongue is furred 
or is red, shiny and dry. Nausea is usually present, accom- 
panied with vomiting, which is most distressing and obstinate. 
The abdomen soon becomes distended with gas, constipation is 
common and the urine is scanty and scalding when passed. 
Hiccough is a frequent symptom; the respiration is quick and 
short; the pulse rapid, hard and small, or wiry, feeling like hard 
cord under the finger. The severity of the disease is shown by 
the patient's countenance, which has an anxious, pained 
expression. The majority of attacks of this disease prove fatal 
from exhaustion. Some, however, among the robust and pre- 
viously healthy recover, and in some the disease becomes chronic. 

Treatment of Peritonitis.— The treatment to be adopted 
while the doctor is awaited is to put the patient to bed, raise the 
bed-clothes, give no food, or very little, iced milk in teaspoon- 
fuls, and pieces of ice to suck, and apply hot poultices or 
fomentations sprinkled with opium or spirits of turpentine. 

If medical assistance can not be obtained, opium or morphia 
must be given to lull the pain and prevent the painful movement 
of the bowels — a one-grain opium pill every three or four hours, or 
a one-fourth grain morphia injection under the skin at similar 
intervals, until the patient becomes drowsy. 

Peptonized injections are the best means of administering 
nourishment, and, if the patient becomes prostrate and collapsed, 
brandy and champagne in as large quantities as the stomach 
will retain. The symptoms must be treated as they arise. Iced 
milk and soda, and effervescing drinks will relieve the vomiting 
— warm water injections the constipation and flatulency; but 



DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 389 

constipation should not be interfered with unless it is very 
prolonged. As the patient passes into the convalescent stage, 
nourishing food must be given by the mouth in gradually 
increasing quantities, and tonics to restore the strength. 

Indigestion. — As a rule, all rich, highly seasoned, heavy, fat or 
sour foods should be eschewed; uncooked vegetables, hard, dry 
or twice-cooked meats are bad, as well as new bread, shell-fish 
(except perhaps oysters), salmon and cheese. Tea is like poison 
to many dyspeptics, and should by all be taken with the greatest 
moderation. 

Milk, cocoa, coffee and pure water should form the chief 
beverages, and be taken in moderate quantity. General hygiene 
is of equal importance. Moderate exercise in the open air 
should be taken. 

Mental occupation should not be too severe or prolonged, and 
be such as to relieve the mind of anxiety and worry. Early hours 
should be adopted — early to bed and early to rise. A cold sponge 
or plunge bath every morning, and change of scene and air, 
result in great benefit. Drugs may be employed to relieve symp- 
toms. 

Drugs are also useful to aid digestion ; the gentian and acid 
mixture (Pr. No. 9, list A) improves the appetite and tones the 
stomach; the gentian and soda mixture (Pr. No. 22, list A) 
removes acidity, pain and flatulence ; and a mixture of pepsin 
and hydrocyanic acid will be found useful to aid the gastric juice 
in the solution of the food : 

(This is one dose.) 
Acid Glycerine of Pepsin, 1 drachm. 
Dilute Hydrocyanic Acid, 3 drops. 
Syrup of Ginger, ^ drachm. 
Infusion of Gentian to an ounce. 
To be taken three times a day, half an hour before food. 

Dysentery. — Dysentery, or bloody flux, is a disease of hot 
climates, and of malarious, swampy districts. There seems to 
be some close connection between the poison of ague and dysen- 
tery. Unwholesome drinking water and food, and sudden 
changes of temperature produce it. It sometimes occurs in epi- 
demics. 

The distinctive symptoms of dysentery are griping pains in the 
abdomen, felt also in the back and about the navel, with great 
straining at stool. The stools become scant and consist of 
mucus and blood. There is constant desire to go to stool. 

Treatment of Dysentery. — In the treatment of dysentery the 
first thing to do is to empty the bowels of irritating substances. 
For this purpose take a sufficient quantity of sulphate of magr 
nesia (Epsom salts) to saturate eight ounces of water. To this 
solution add one-half ounce of diluted sulphuric acid. Dose, one 
tablespoonful every hour or two in a wineglassful of water until 

S4 



390 DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION 

the intestinal canal is emptied of its contents. Then give the 
following mixture: 

3 . Acidi carbolici 5 drops. 

Bismuth salicylate 4 drachms. 

Tinct. opii deod 4 drachms. 

Spts. ammonia aromat 3 drachms. 

Mist, cretse 2 ounces. 

Aquae q. s. ad. 4 ounces. 

M. Sig. Shake bottle. Give one teaspoonful in water every 
three to four hours, according to the symptoms. 
Or the following: 

(This is one dose.) 
Ipecacuanha, 20 grains. 
Sub nitrate of Bismuth, 10 grains. 
Bicarbonate of Soda, 10 grains. 
Syrup of Orange, 1 drachm. 
Water to an ounce. 
A dose to be given night and morning. 

It should not be given too close to food, and is very liable to 
cause vomiting, to avoid which the patient should be kept very 
quiet and still after taking it. Ten drops of laudanum may be 
added to each dose if the pain is very severe or the bowels are 
acting with great frequency. 




The stomach and section 

of small intestine in 

a healthy condition. 

(Interior view.) 



The stomach of an habitual user of 
alcoholic stimulants ; showing the 
mucous membrane ulcerated and 
deprived of its digestive powers. 





The kidney in a 
healthy condition; 
the lower section 
showing the filter- 
ing apparatus 
called Malphigian 
pyramids. 



The kidney of a man who died a 
drunkard; the upper portion show- 
ing the shrunken condition and 
sores frequently found in kidneys 
of hard drinkers; the lower portion 
showing the obstructions in the 
Malphigian pyramids. 



P^ATK No. 2. 
Showing the effect of the excessive use of alcoholic stimulants on vital organs. 



CHAPTER XXV 
DISEASES OF THE URINARY ORGANS 



Summary of Urinary Diseases with Symptoms.— 



Disease. 



Bright's Disease 
Acute 

Chronic 

Inflammation of 
Bladder 

Stone in Kidney. 

Stone in Bladder 



Diabetes 



Uremia. 



Chief Symptom. 



Albumen in urine 



Excessive flow of 
urine 

Frequency of 
passing urine 

Blood in urine 

Frequency of 
passing urine 



Excessive flow of 
N urine 

Convulsions 



Other Symptoms. 



Dropsy, scanty 

blood-stained 

urine, fever 

Dropsy, debility 



Pain in abdomen, 
mucus in urine 

Pain in loin 

Pain in passingurine, 

with blood and 
occasional stoppage 

Thirst, hunger, 
wasting 

Headache, vomiting, 
unconsciousness 



Cause. 



Cold or 
poison. 



Poison, espe- 
cially alcohol. 

Irritation of 
stone, etc. 



Special 
conditions 
of health. 



Kidney dis- 
ease, etc. 



Variations of the TJrine in Health. — The natural amount of 
urine in an adult is about fifty ounces (two and one-half pints). 
It is increased by drinking large quantities of fluid, and in 
hysteria, nervousness, exposure to cold, diabetes and some 
diseases of the kidneys. The specific gravity is altered as the 
result of taking food and drink, by exercise and rest, and by the 
temperature of the air, but the extremes are much greater as 
the result of disease, some affections of the kidneys lowering it 
to 1,004, while in diabetes it may rise to 1,060. The specific 
gravity in health is from 1,018 to 1,022. 

Albumen is Discovered by Boiling the Urine, which then 
becomes cloudy and thick, and this cloud does not disappear 
when a few drops of nitric acid are added. If the cloudiness 
disappears, it is due to the presence of phosphates and is of no 
importance. For this examination a small glass test-tube should 

391 



392 DISEASES OF THE URINARY ORGANS 

be employed. It should be half filled, and then the fluid boiled 
by holding the tube in the flame of a spirit lamp or kerosene 
lamp with chimney on — a candle flame is unsuitable, as the glass 
becomes coated with soot. Occasionally this substance occurs 
in perfect health, but it is then only very transient, and is pro- 
duced by a full meal consisting of animal foods, which contain 
albumen in large quantities. Bright's disease of the kidney in 
all its forms is the chief cause of permanent albuminuria, and to 
this subject we must refer our readers for further informa- 
tion. 

Sugar is sometimes present in the urine, and, like albumen, 
must not always be taken as a sign of disease; it may occasion- 
ally appear after a full meal of starchy or sweet food, and pass 
away rapidly, being of no importance. When, however, it is 
a permanent condition, and is present in large quantities, it is a 
symptom of the disease known as diabetes. In this condition 
the urine may be passed in enormous quantities — eight or ten 
pints, or even more, in the twenty-four hours — has a peculiar, 
taint, greenish tint, a sweetish odor, and is perfectly clear; its 
specific gravity is raised sometimes to a very remarkable extent, 
being as high in some instances as 1,070. Drops of the urine 
leave, when they dry on the clothes, a white sediment, and the 
fluid very rapidly undergoes fermentation, becoming frothy and 
depositing yeast. The symptoms and treatment of this condition 
will be described with diabetes. 

Uremia. — Uremia may be caused by any condition which 
prevents the secretion or discharge of the urine, such as all forms 
of Bright's disease and many other affections of the kidneys, 
and all conditions which obstruct the urinary passages; occasion- 
ally, also, it comes on in the later stages of pregnancy. The 
symptoms chiefly affect the nervous system, such as headache, 
sometimes very intense and persistent; loss of sight, in some 
cases accompanied with disease of the eyes; ringing in the ears 
and deafness, vomiting, difficulty of breathing and convulsions 
affecting a part or the whole of the body. Drowsiness, delirium 
and unconsciousness usually terminate the attacks, which must 
always be looked upon as very serious. 

Treatment of Uremia. — In treatment we must do all we can to 

encourage the action of the kidneys, and as far as possible to 
relieve them from any strain or extra work. Hot fomentations and 
poultices should be applied across the loins; the bowels should 
be relieved with one-half drachm of compound jalap powder, 
and free perspiration produced by a hot bath and warm blankets. 
Plenty of hot milk should be given, but no stimulants of any 
sort. If the uremic attack is recovered from, the treatment must 
be directed to the cause. 

Irritability of the Bladder.— Irritability of tfie bladder, with 
a constant desire to pass water, is a symptom of all maladies 
of that organ and of most that affect the kidneys. While in 



DISEASES OF THE URINARY ORGANS 393 

health, most persons find it quite sufficient to pass water five or 
six times a day, and not at all at night; in disease, it sometimes 
becomes absolutely necessary to do it every hour or so. The 
bladder becomes over-sensitive. 

Incontinence of Urine. — Incontinence of urine is a loss of 
power to hold the water, which flows away involuntarily. 

Diseases of the Kidneys. — Bright's disease includes several 
forms of acute and chronic diseases of the kidneys, the most im- 
portant being inflammation (nephritis). It may occur either as 
an acute or chronic affection. 

Acute Bright s Disease, or acute inflammation of the kidneys, 
is most commonly brought on by exposure to cold or wet when in 
a state of perspiration; it also occurs as a complication of many 
acute fevers, especially scarlet fever, and is produced by certain 
poisons, such as alcohol taken in excess, Spanish fly and turpen- 
tine. The onset of the disease may be sudden or gradual, the 
first symptom noticed being either dropsy, the scanty amount of 
urine, or dyspepsia. The urine is diminished in quantity, thick, 
opaque, and looks smoky from the presence of blood, or it may 
be distinctly red and blood-stained; it always contains large quan- 
tities of albumen, which is shown by coagulation on boiling, and 
if the sediment is examined under a microscope, blood corpuscles 
and casts from the kidney will be discovered. In severe cases, 
urine may be entirely absent or suppressed; this may cause fatal 
uremia. 

Chronic Brighfs Disease. — Chronic Bright's disease is, in 
most cases, the result of the alcohol habit, particularly in the 
form of spirits, which by long-continued irritation sets up a 
chronic inflammation of the kidneys. 

Lead-poisoning is occasionally the cause. It attacks gouty 
persons also. 

Usually the condition comes on gradually and insidiously. 
Its presence may remain undiscovered for many months. Albu- 
men is now found either by the patient himself or by the 
doctor. 

By good treatment the patient may be relieved, and live on 
foryeais in fair health, and able to attend to all his ordinary 
duties; but he has begun to go downhill, and feels he is not what 
he used to be. 

The Treatment of Acute Bright's Disease.— The patient must 
be put to bed and kept there; the room must be maintained at a 
uniform and comfortable temperature, and well ventilated; the 
sheets should be removed, and he should lie between the blankets 
in order to avoid all chill, and hot poultices and fomentations 
should be at once applied across the loins and renewed 
frequently. A doctor should always be called in for an attack 
of Bright's disease of whatever variety, as all are accompanied 
by danger. 

For this purpose plenty of simple drinks should be given, as 



394 DISEASES OF THE URINARY ORGANS 

water, milk and barley water, and a mixture administered as fol- 
lows: 

(This is one dose.) 
Tincture of Digitalis, 10 drops. 
Sweet Spirits of Nitre, 20 drops. 
Solution of Acetate of Ammonia, 2 drachms. 
Acetate of Potash, 15 grains. 
Spirit of Chloroform, 15 drops. 
Water to the ounce. 
To be given every three or four hours. 

This will also act upon the skin, and perspiration should be 
encouraged by other means, as hot baths or a hot-water pack. 
The bowels should be freely acted upon by one-half drachm of 
compound jalap powder, and their action afterward carefully 
regulated. The diet should consist of milk, skimmed milk, plenty 
of water, and light, starchy foods, and as the case improves tonics 
must be given, the best of which is: 

(This is one dose.) 
Tincture of the Perchloride of Iron, 10 drops. 
Spirit of Chloroform, 15 drops. 
Infusion of Quassia to the ounce. 
To be given three or four times a day. 

Other preparations of iron, quinine, nux vomica and other 
tonic and bitter drugs are useful. 

The Treatment of Chronic Bright's Disease can not be looked 
upon as curative, but palliative only, the various symptoms being 
relieved as they arise and the general health maintained as much 
as possible. 

Where possible, the exciting cause must be removed. The 
general health may be improved by tonics, especially iron, and 
good food. The diet must be simple and nourishing, only small 
quantities of animal food being permitted. Milk is always use- 
ful, and can be taken in large quantities; it is easily digested, 
nutritious and acts upon the kidneys. 

The patient must lead, as far as possible, an easy, comfort- 
able life, and must take daily exercise short of fatigue. 

Warm baths are valuable to keep the skin acting healthily. 
A mild aperient should be used to keep the bowels carefully 
regulated. All risk of taking cold and bringing on a relapse 
must be avoided. The clothes should be warm, flannel being 
always worn next the skin, summer and winter, day and night. 

Inflammation of the Bladder (Cystitis) affects the lining 
membrane, and may be either acute or chronic. 

Acute inflammation of the bladder is not a common affection. 
It is caused by the presence of a stone, by injury in passing an 
instrument, by exposure to cold or damp, as sitting on a cold 
stone or on wet grass, and in women by displacement of the 
parts. The symptoms are pain in the lower part of the abdo- 
men, with tenderness on pressure and a sense of weight. Fever 
» also present. The patient always complains of a constant 



DISEASES OF THE URINARY ORGANS 395 

desire to pass water, and this is done with great frequency by 
spasmodic contraction of the bladder, accompanied with much 
pain. The urine is thick from admixture with mucus and mat- 
ter, and sometimes, in very severe cases, contains blood. 

Chronic inflammation of the bladder is of more common 
occurrence. It may be left after an acute attack, but in the 
great majority of cases is the result of some obstruction, such as 
may be produced by a stone, stricture or tumor, which prevents 
the bladder from being completely emptied, some portion of the 
water — varying from a few ounces to a pint — being left behind. 
This sets up irritation of the lining of the bladder, and causes a 
formation of mucus; the urine then rapidly decomposes, 
ammonia is set freehand produces a strong, offensive smell, and 
causes still greater irritation to the bladder. Many cases of 
chronic cystitis are due to gout and are liable to occur upon 
slight exciting causes in persons predisposed to that disease. 

The symptoms are similar to those of the acute disease, but 
less severe; one peculiarity of the chronic condition is the forma- 
tion of an enormous quantity of mucus, which forms a thick, 
tenacious deposit in the urine if it is allowed to stand for a time. 

Treatment. — Hot poultices or fomentations applied to the 
lower part of the abdomen and sitting in a hot hip-bath give 
great relief to the pain; the patient should be kept in bed while 
the symptoms are acute; and be allowed plenty of mild, simple 
drinks, as milk, barley water and linseed tea, and a wineglassful 
of infusion of buchu may be taken every two or three hours 
throughout the day. The diet should be of the simplest, and 
consist of farinaceous substances, while no form of alcohol 
should be allowed. The bowels should be acted upon, and the 
following mixture taken: 

(This is one dose.) 
Tincture of Henbane, Yi drachm. 
Solution of Potash, 20 drops. 
Chloroform Water to the ounce. 

To be given every two hours. 

If the pain is very severe, laudanum, ten drops, may be added 
to each dose of the medicine. 

A surgeon should be called in for most cases, because in the 
chronic variety much benefit is derived by completely emptying 
the bladder with a catheter; and in all cases the cure is hastened 
by washing out this organ with some soothing and antiseptic 
solution. 

Gravel and Stone. — Occasionally in a condition of perfect 
health, but more frequently when the health is impaired, certain 
substances form settlements or deposits in the urine. These 
deposits may only form after the urine has been passed and has 
been allowed to stand for some time, but sometimes the deposi- 
tion takes place while the urine is still in the body, and when it 
is passed it is thick and turbid. Under these circumstances it 
is called gravel 



396 DISEASES OF THE URINARY ORGANS 

If the particles of gravel are deposited in large quantities, 
they are liable to collect together and form masses or concre- 
tions which, according to circumstances, may be of any size, 
from mere granules to large stones. In this way calculus or 
stone is produced. Of a very large number of substances which 
appear in the urine in this way there are three which are most 
frequently met with^ and therefore most important; these are 
uric acid, oxalate of lime and phosphates. 

The Symptoms of Stone in the Kidney are very slight, or quite 
absent, at first; but after the stone has reached a certain size it 
usually causes pain in the loin of the affected side which spreads 
from this situation over the abdomen, or down into the groin; 
this is usually worse after violent exercise, or if the body is 
jerked or shaken as by driving in a cab or riding on horseback. 
Blood in the urine is another common symptom; it changes the 
appearance of that secretion by making it simply thick and 
smoky. 

Symptoms of the Passing of a Stone from the Kidneys. — The 

passing of a stone down the ureter into the bladder causes very 
severe pain. The pain usually comes on suddenly, and lasts 
from a few hours to some days, and ceases suddenly when the 
stone drops into the bladder. 

Symptoms of Stone in the Bladder. — The water is passed in 
small quantities with great frequency, especially when moving 
about during the day. The water is always passed with severe 
cutting pain, which may be felt in the bladder, but is mostly 
referred to the orifice of the passage, and is most severe at the 
close of the act. Pain is also felt upon sudden movements, as 
in driving, riding or jumping. 

The urine is usually thick, has a deposit of matter and 
mucus, and very often contains blood. The doctor, by passing 
a sounder into the bladder, can detect the stone by its being 
struck with the sounder. 

Stone may occur at any age. In most cases of stone in the 
bladder only one is present, but a case is reported of a judge from 
whom a thousand calculi were removed. In size and weight 
they vary from a small grain to one on record weighing six 
pounds. 

Treatment for Stone in the Bladder. — The treatment of the 
diatheses requires careful attention to the diet. In all, the 
digestion is at fault, and to cure this the patient must avoid all 
excess in any kind of food, whether animal or vegetable. To 
check the formation of uric and oxalic acids he must avoid fer- 
mented liquors, and abstain from sweets, pastry and fatty sub- 
stances, as butter, cream and fat meat. Fish is highly recom- 
mended as a suitable article of food; milk can be taken in large 
quantities, and the drinking water should be soft, filtered rain 
or distilled water, which are free from mineral salts. He must 
take plenty of outdoor exercise, and keep the skin in healthy 



DISEASES OF THE URINARY ORGANS 397 

action by warm and cold baths and friction of the skin with a 
rough towel. The bowels must be carefully regulated* the most 
suitable aperient being the natural mineral waters of Carlsbad 
taken with hot water an hour before breakfast. These and the 
alkaline mineral water of Vichy are useful in removing sluggish- 
ness and torpidity of the liver. The following effervescing 
drink is also to be recommended: 

(This is one dose.) 

Bicarbonate of Soda, 20 grains. 

Nitrate of Potash, 5 grains. 

Carbonate of Lithia, 5 grains. 

Tincture of Lemon, 15 drops. 

Water to an ounce. 
To be taken every morning in half a tumblerful of water with 
a tablespoonful of lemon juice. 

The Treatment of the Phosphatic Diathesis consists princi- 
pally in improving the digestive powers and in restoring the 
general strength by good food largely composed of animal sub- 
stances, and tonics composed of the mineral acids and vege- 
table bitters— e.g. : 

(This is one dose.) 
Dilute Nitrohydrochloric Acid, 15 drops. 
Syrup of Orange, l / t drachm. 
Infusion of Gentian to the ounce. 
To be taken three times a day, half an hour before food; and, 
as accessory measures, good air, exercise, the cold sea-water 
bath, and relief from anxiety or overwork. 

Treatment of Stone in the Kidney.— The Carlsbad, Vichy 
or Ems waters are beneficial. 

Uric and oxalic acids are soluble to a certain extent in alkaline 
solutions, and it is by making the urine alkaline that these 
waters act so beneficially. Here is a variety of solvent treat- 
ment: The patient, if an adult, should take forty or fifty grains 
of the acetate or citrate of potash in three or four ounces of 
water every three hours during the day, and once at least in the 
night. Continue this for three months. Or the following: 
Twenty or thirty grains of prepared chalk in mucilage and mint- 
water, taken three or four times a day. 

The painful symptoms produced by the passage of a stone 
along the ureter, called renal colic, require immediate attention. 

Hot fomentations and poultices sprinkled with thirty or forty 
drops of laudanum should be applied to the loins; or, the patient 
may be put into a hot bath; fifteen drops of laudanum may be 
given to an adult. Even chloroform may be inhaled with 
caution. 

Stones are Removed from the bladder by two methods: First, 
by crushing and breaking up the stone into very small pieces, 
and removing through the urethra. Seeond, by removal through 
an opening made in the bladder. The operation in women is 
easily performed by the first method. 



398 DISEASES OF THE URINARY ORGANS 

Diabetes.— Although this can not be strictly considered a 
disease of the kidneys, yet, as one of its most important and 
prominent symptoms is a copious flow of urine, it is most con- 
venient to describe it in this place. Diabetes mellitus is a 
malady in which there is an excessive flow of urine containing 
sugar, accompanied with extreme thirst, hunger and wasting, 
and if unrelieved ends in death. It is most common in middle- 
aged men, although it occasionally occurs in both sexes and at 
all ages. 

The disease comes on gradually and may remain unobserved 
for a long time. The patient, however, recognizes that day by 
day he passes an increasingly large quantity of water, that he is 
affected with most unusual thirst and hunger, and that, in spite 
of the enormous quantity of food he eats, he is wasting and 
losing strength. 

On paying a visit to the doctor the urine is examined and is 
found to contain sugar; its specific gravity is greater than 
natural, being perhaps as high as 1,040, or in severe cases 
1,060 or 1,070. 

The wasting in this disease and loss of strength are some- 
times very rapid, and this is hardly to be wondered at when we 
calculate the enormous quantities of nutritive material in the 
form of sugar which may be lost in a single day. 

Of drugs, the most important is opium, and more particularly 
one of its ingredients called codeia; this is given in the form of 
a pill, three times a day, commencing with one-half grain and 
gradually increasing the dose up to two or three grains three 
times daily. The general health must also receive attention; 
gentle exercise, a warm climate, warm baths and flannel under- 
clothes are useful accessories, the most careful precautions 
being taken against chills. Much improvement sometimes 
results from Carlsbad or Vichy, but nothing is of the slightest 
good apart from the dietetic restrictions. 

B or treatment of Diabetes, see under Dietetics, in another part ol 

itels book.. 



CHAPTER XXVI 
DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 



Analysis and Symptoms of Nervous Diseases. — 



Disease. 



Inflamma- 
tion of 
Brain ... 

Apoplexy . 



Epilepsy... 
Hysteria.. 

Lockjaw... 



Hydropho- 
bia 



First 
Symptom. 



Headache 



Stroke 



Fits 



Various 



Stiff-neck 



Difficulty 
in swal- 
lowing 



Uncon- 
sciousness. 



Occurs 
gradually 



Occurs 
suddenly 

Sudden, but 
temporary 

Only 
apparent 

Absent 



Absent 



Convul- 
sions. 



In late 
stage, occa- 
sionally 

In affected 
part 

Chiefly on 
one side 

Irregularly 

over whole 

body 

Gradually 

spread over 

body 

Gradually 

spread over 

body 



Other 
Symptoms. 



Vomiting, 
delirium 



Paralysis 



Cry. tongue 
bitten, etc. 

Imitation 
of other 
diseases 

Wound, in- 
tense pain, 
exhaustion 

Intense 

pain. 

exhaustion 



Cause. 



Diseaseor 
accident 



Brain 
disease. 

Unknown. 



Nervous 
exhaus- 
tion. 

Poison in 
wound. 



Bite of 
animal. 



Paralysis.. Of one side of body due to disease of Brain. 

Of lower part of body " disease of Spinal Cord. 
Of limited part of body " disease of Nerves. 



Paralysis is the loss of muscular power, and, as a result, the 
inability to move any particular part by the action of the will; if 
the loss of movement is only the result of pain, it can not be 
called paralysis. Palsy is only another term for the same con- 
dition, and does not necessarily involve shaking of the paralyzed 
part, as is popularly believed. 

Headaches. — The subject of headache appeals to all, for who 
has not at some time or other had to endure the annoyance and 
suffering that it entails? 

399 



400 DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 

Classes of Headaches. — 

1. Neuralgic headaches. 

2. Dyspeptic headaches. 

3. Headaches due to affections of the circulation: 
{a) From too much blood. 

(d) From too little blood. 

4. Headaches caused by poisons. 

5. Nervous or sick headaches, including megrim. 

6. Headaches from disease of the brain or its mem- 

branes. m 
Headaches may arise from too much blood in the brain, or 
too little blood in the brain. 

Dyspeptic headaches are often called bilious headaches or 
sick headaches. 

Headache from too Much Blood in the Brain. — In this case 
the blood should be drawn away from the brain. For relief, the 
feet should be put in mustard and hot water, and cold applied 
to the head by wet cloths; the bowels should be freely opened, 
and suitable hygienic measures adopted, such as healthy exer- 
cise, simple diet and avoidance of excitement, overwork and the 
absence of all alcoholic drinks. 

Too little blood is supplied to the brain in anemia and gen- 
eral debility, from fatigue, loss of blood, exhausting discharges, 
or as the after-effects of a night out and over-indulgence in 
alcohol. The pain is chiefly felt in the top of the head, and such 
symptoms as pallor, exhaustion, dizziness and noises in the ears 
are usually present. These headaches are benefited by small 
doses of stimulants and food, strong tea or coffee, hot soup, or 
a dose of sal volatile; relief is also felt by lying down with the 
head low, so that the blood is supplied more freely to the brain. 
The patient usually requires a course of iron, combined with 
quinine or some bitter, as infusion of quassia (see Pr. No. 6, 
list A). 

Headaches Caused by Poisoni.— In all fevers and feverish 
conditions, headache is a common symptom, and is due to 
impure blood containing some poison circulating through the 
brain, and partly, perhaps, to the temperature of the fluid being 
itself raised. 

Nervous or Sick Headache, or Megrim. — This is a peculiar 
and perplexing affection, and unfortunately not by any means 
an uncommon one. It is distinctly hereditary, and runs in fam- 
ilies the members of which are predisposed to nervous affections 
of many kinds. 

Headaches from disease of the brain and its membranes 
may be due to any of the many affections of these parts, espe- 
cially to inflammation and tumor. 



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 401 

Neuralgia is a disease of the nerves sometimes due to inflam- 
mation, but most commonly without any apparent change in 
their structure. It is characterized by a stabbing, shooting or 
darting pain, often of great severity, which comes on in definite 
attacks or paroxysms. 

Sciatica, or neuralgia of the sciatic nerve, affects the back 
of the thigh, the knee and the inner side of the leg and foot — that 
is, the parts to which the nerve and its branches are distributed. 
It is caused by neuralgia; but sitting on a damp or cold seat, 
over-walking, strains, injury to the nerve, and rheumatic or gouty 
inflammation of it are the most common. There is great sensitive- 
ness over the nerve, the trunk of which is situated at the back 
of the thigh, and sitting for this reason is sometimes impossible. 
Pain is much increased by movement of the limb, by stooping 
and sneezing. The course of the disease is very variable; it 
may occur once and be very severe, or it may continue on and 
off for years, being sometimes slight, at others causing intense 
suffering. 

Treatment of Neuralgia. — In all forms the diet is of great 
importance. It should be as nutritive and abundant as the state 
of the digestive organs will permit, and one important class of 
food must be well represented — namely, the fats; they may be 
given as butter, cream or cod-liver oil. Unfortunately, neuralgic 
patients have, with rare exceptions, a dislike to fatty foods of all 
kinds, and there is great difficulty in overcoming this. Exposure 
to cold and damp should be most sedulously avoided; the patient 
should dress warmly, should wear flannel, and should avoid going 
out during sudden climatic changes; cold, tepid or salt water 
baths, followed by friction, are useful as tonics to the skin; moder- 
ate daily out-of-door exercise should be taken. Change of air, 
rest, alteration of unhealthy habits, and relief from overwork and 
anxiety should be attended to. In attacks of tic, all forms of irri- 
tation should be shunned, as movement, cold, noise, bright light 
and worry; the teeth should be examined by a dentist, and all 
that are decayed should be stopped or extracted; regular action 
of the bowels should be maintained, and if intestinal worms are 
present, they should receive appropriate treatment. The treat- 
ment of the constitutional causes is important. 

For rheumatism, salicylate of soda, ten grains, or a mixture 
containing iodide of potassium, two or three grains, with fifteen 
grains of bicarbonate of soda. 

For gout, 10 drops of the wine of colchicum. 

For ague, five-grain doses of quinine. 

For syphilis, ten grains of iodide of potassium. 

Each of which may be given in a tablespoonfuj of water thre# 
dmes a day. 

For anemia, iron will be required. 



402 DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 

Local applications are sometimes most valuable; aconite is 
employed, as a liniment, which may be gently rubbed in or, as 
the tincture, painted on with a brush, along the course of the 
affected nerves; belladonna may also be »sed in both ways. 
Menthol, as recommended for headache, may be tried, or the fol- 
lowing liniment: 

Chloroform, 1 part. 
Tincture of Opium, 1 part. 
Liniment of Belladonna, 4 parts. 

Small blisters applied frequently, about the size of half a 
dollar, over the most sensitive spot give relief; they may be 
repeated every two or three days, but care should be taken not 
to cause too severe irritation of the skin. Morphia given hypo- 
dermically by the doctor gives instant, though it may be only 
temporary, relief; or he may employ galvanism; or the aid of a 
surgeon may be required in severe and obstinate cases, as 
several operations have been found useful, among which are the 
catting out of a portion of the nerve or simply stretching it. 

In sciatica the patient should be kept in bed, and relief from 
pressure may be obtained by the use of a water bed. Hot 
fomentations or linseed poultices should be applied; blisters are 
mseful; or a liniment of belladonna and chloroform sprinkled on 
spongiopiline and laid along the course of the nerve. 

Paralysis of the Face. — Facial paralysis is an affection of the 
facial nerve. This nerve originates in the under part of the 
brain, passes through a canal in the skull in close proximity to 
the internal parts of the organ of hearing, and spreads out over 
the side of the face from a point just in front of the ear, and its 
action is to control all the small muscles of expression. Paraly- 
sis of this nerve may be caused by disease inside the skull, by 
fracture of the bone through which it passes, or by disease 
spreading from the ear; and on the face by injury or cold. The 
most common and, therefore, interesting form is, however, that 
caused by cold. 

Inflammation of the Brain. — A common cause of this affec- 
tion is the spread of inflammation from some other part, and 
more especially from disease of the internal parts of the ear; it 
may be the result of injury or of sunstroke. A variety called 
tubercular meningitis is very common in the young, and is pro- 
duced by the formation of small growths or tubercles. The 
symptoms usually appear suddenly, and include severe head- 
ache; vomiting, which has no connection with any affection of the 
stomach, nor attended with loss of appetite; great sensitiveness 
©f the skin, eyes and ears, the slightest touch, light or noise, 
causing great suffering; constipation, sleeplessness and tendency 
to delirium. Fever is present, and may be ushered in with a 
rigor, quick pulse and other feverish symptoms. As the disease 
advances the patient gradually becomes drowsy and unconscious 
•f what is taking place around him; this change from delirium 
and excitement looks to the uninitiated like improvement, but it 



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 403 

is not so, but continues until it ends in total unconsciousness or 
coma. As the coma comes on the delirium becomes quieter, the 
pain and acute sensitiveness pass off, the temperature falls and 
the pulse gets slow; and as the unconsciousness gets deeper con- 
vulsions are likely to occur, during one of which the fatal ter- 
mination may take place. Meningitis may last from a few days 
to a fortnight, and very few cases recover. 

Treatment for Inflammation of the Brain. — Treatment is of 
very little avail. The patient must be placed in a quiet, dark, 
cool and well-ventilated room, and should have a skilled nurse. 
The doctor may advise shaving the head, and cold, leeches or 
blisters, and drugs to relieve vomiting, constipation and fever. 
Preventive measures are of the utmost importance. _ Studies 
and mental exertion should be moderate, good hygienic sur 
roundings should be supplied, and the food should be ample and 
nutritious. 

Apoplexy. — Apoplexy, or hemorrhage into the brain, is the 
result of the bursting of a blood vessel, and is the condition pop- 
ularly spoken of as a * 'stroke of paralysis." The affection 
may be brought about by injury, as a fall or blow on the head, 
but is far more commonly the result of disease within the 
skull . 

Symptoms. — The premonitory symptoms of the congestive 
form of apoplexy are flushed appearance of the face and eyes, 
throbbing of the temporal arteries, heat of the head, dulness, 
drowsiness, dimness of vision and headache. The attack is 
marked by sudden stupor; slow and often snoring breath- 
ing, a full, slow pulse, and a turgid appearance of the face. 
Total loss of consciousness may be brief. If the attack be 
recovered from, paralysis of the muscles usually soon passes 
away. 

In apoplexy due to hemorrhage of the brain, the symptoms 
occur first in the form of a stroke. Unconsciousness is com- 
plete for a variable length of time. During this time, the 
breathing is what is known as stertorous (snoring), the pulse is 
slow and somewhat full, the head is hot, and the face more or 
less dark or flushed. The fulness of the blood vessels of the 
head is not always well marked. 

Intoxication is revealed by the odor of the breath and the 
attendant circumstances. 

In narcotic poisoning, when from opium, the pupils of the 
eyes are contracted; when from most other narcotics, the pupils 
are firmly dilated. 

Concussion and compression of the brain are generally sug- 
gested by external marks of injury. 

Asphyxia is usually pointed out by the condition of things 
surrounding the patient, the blueness of the lips, the coldness 
of the surface and the difficulty of breathing. 



404 DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 

Sunstroke, in the majority of cases, is attended with a 
feeble pulse; in some cases it is identical with congestive apo- 
plexy. 

Apoplexy occurring in advanced life is always unfavorable, 
not only from the immediate danger to life, but from the fact 
that the mental and bodily powers are usually permanently 
impaired. In young patients congestive apoplexy may be 
entirely recovered from. So may a single attack of the hemor- 
rhagic form, where the clot is small and the paralysis limited. 
Each succeeding attack becomes more dangerous; a third attack 
is seldom recovered from. 

Treatment of Apoplexy. — If possible, stimulants must be 
given internally, and mustard applied to the chest and calves 
of the legs, or the skin rubbed vigorously. A drop of croton oil 
dropped upon the base of the tongue is prompt in its action, 
and the most convenient cathartic in these cases. The head 
should be raised, the hair cut short, and cold applied until the 
temperature becomes normal. Great delicacy of judgment will 
be required in deciding in different cases between the two oppo- 
site modes of treatment, in depletion and stimulation. The 
condition of the heart and pulse must be closely watched and 
our actions governed accordingly. 

The patient who has a clot of blood lying in a torn and 
mangled brain, is not is a condition where the physician can 
exhibit the most striking evidences of his skill. The most that 
can usually be done consists in attending to his diet, excretions, 
sleeping and exercise. 

Locomotor Ataxia. — Its cause is obscure; it often takes years 
to run its course, and it is incurable. The symptoms come on 
very gradually, and include severe shooting or "lightning" pains 
in various parts of the body; a loss of power to control the 
muscles, especially of the legs, which are thrown out when walk- 
ing with unnecessary violence, and are brought down upon the 
ground with great force; inability to stand erect with the eyes 
shut or in the dark, and gradually increasing helplessness. The 
intellect remains unaffected, and death usually occurs from 
some other disease. The form of paralysis called paraplegia is 
of spinal origin. 

Epilepsy. — Epilepsy is a terrible disease to look upon, not 
painful in itself, but productive of great distress and misery. It 
is not attended with immediate peril to life, but is liable to ter- 
minate in worse than death — in insanity, or fatuity — and carries 
with it perpetual anxiety and dismay. It is commonly known 
as the falling sickness. 

When the patient is seized, he falls down, and is violently 
convulsed. The tonic spasm of the muscles is peculiar. ^ He 
seems to be straining round toward one side, as if striving to 
look over one shoulder. Every limb is rigid, the muscles are 
strained, and, with jerking movements, one set of muscles seems 



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM -,'J5 

to be striving against another. Breathing is arrested, the 
patient appearing as though attempting to forcibly hold his 
breath. In some cases there is an "epileptic cry" at the com- 
mencement of the attack. Paleness of the face is observed at 
this time, though in many cases there is a florid or dusky hue. 

After about thirty or forty seconds this condition changes; 
the tonic spasms alter to what are known as clonic spasms. 
The change is abrupt and is determined by a "letting go" of the 
breath, which has been up to this time "held." The limbs, 
instead of being rigid, are thrown about; the breathing is con- 
vulsive; there is foaming at the mouth, often bloody from the 
bitten tongue; the jaws champ, the bladder and rectum may be 
evacuated; the eyeballs roll, and the general aspect is hideous. 
The duskiness of the surface reaches its maximum about the 
time the clonic spasms begin to abate; there is profuse perspira- 
tion, the veins are greatly distended, the arteries are full and 
the heart beats violently. 

The paroxysms usually last from five to ten minutes, though 
the time seems much longer to a person looking on. The 
intervals between the attacks vary from several months down to 
a few hours. 

The condition of an epileptic between the paroxysms is to all 
appearances natural; and indeed, the mind need not necessarily 
deteriorate. A number of famous individuals, Napoleon, New- 
ton, Peter the Great, Byron, Caesar and Mahomet, were 
epileptics. 

Treatment of Epilepsy.— Fluid extract horsenettle in tea- 
spoonful doses, before meais, three times a day, is of great serv- 
ice in epilepsy. 

In cases characterized by frequent and violent convulsive 
seizures the following mixture will be beneficial: 

5 . Potassii bromidi 1 ounce. 

Ammonii bromidi 3 drachms. 

Potassii iodidi 1 drachm. 

Potassii bicarbonat 1 drachm. 

Inf. digitalis 6 ounces. 

M. Sig. Teaspoonful 'one hour after meals, and at bed- 
time. 

The horsenettle and the bromide treatment should be con- 
tinued for at least two years. 

Lockjaw — Tetanus. — The muscles of the jaws are usually 
affected first, and then those of the face, neck and back, and in 
time the lower and upper extremities. It may be caused by 
some obscure disease of the nervous system, but more fre- 
quently is produced by an injury of some kind. Punctured 
wounds of the extremities, especially among the tendons of the 
feet, often produce tetanus. 

Symptoms. — Stiffness of the muscles of the lower jaw is 
usually the first sign. Swallowing becomes difficult, and the 
muscles of the jaw become so fixed that the lower jaw is immov° 

25 



406 DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 

able. This rigidity then extends to the muscles of the neck, 
back and abdomen. The head is drawn backward, and the 
spinal cord projects forward. The rigidity may not be constant. 
At first it goes from one set of muscles to another, and the relax- 
ation is complete during the remission. But as the disease pro- 
gresses the paroxysms become so frequent that one is hardly 
over before another occurs. 

Treatment. — When the first symptoms of tetanus appear a 
physician should be called, and while waiting for his arrival the 
patient may be given a hot bath and large doses of bromide or 
chloral. 

Give one grain of opium every three or four hours, which 
may be increased, if thought necessary, to one grain every two 
hours through the day and every hour through the night. The 
hypodermic injection of morphine, in proportionate doses, is pre- 
ferred by some physicians. Brandy or whisky, in doses of a 
tablespoonful every two hours, should also be given, and milk 
and beef -tea must be administered as nutriment. 

The great necessity in the treatment is to rouse the circula- 
tion to greater activity, and to by no means depresB it; an 
unusual amount of stimulants may be borne without any symp- 
toms of intoxication. The local treatment of the wound is of the 
first importance. 

Hysteria. — The treatment of hysterics is very simple. The 
patient must be allowed to lie down, her dress and anything 
tight about her neck must be loosened, and she may be left 
alone. She is in no danger, and will come round all in good 
time. If much fuss is made with her, it will only make her 
worse. Fanning, fresh air, salts and cold water are all useful. 

But hysteria is not made up only of fits; its symptoms are 
strange and wonderful. They take so many forms, vary so 
immensely in different cases, and so mimic almost every other 
disease under the sun, that it will be both impossible and use- 
less to mention half, or indeed a tenth part, of them. 

Hysteria is very common, and, as we have seen from the 
list of its symptoms, may vary from a slight affection of little 
importance to one of such gravity that it renders the patient a 
life-long invalid, and her existence a burden and a misery to 
herself and those about her. 

The treatment of hysteria is also very difficult, as one of the 
chief troubles is the sympathy and injudicious management of 
the case by the friends. The exercise of some firmness is 
essential, and this need not be done harshly, but kindly; the 
general habits must be attended to, and the time occupied as far 
as possible by healthy exercise and interesting occupations, or 
anything that will keep the thoughts off her own ailments. 

Anemia must toe relieved by iron, and debility by suitable 
remedies directly against its various causes. Tonics are useful 
in most cases, but the different symptoms must be treated as 



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 407 

they arise, and for many cases electricity is found of very great 
benefit. 

Hypochondriasis. — Hypochondriasis is a disease of the nerv- 
ous system closely allied to hysteria. It seems to occupy 
among men very much the position that hysteria does among 
women, but is fortunately not nearly so commonly met with. It 
is also not far removed from insanity, and most frequently 
affects those whose family history is bad, and who inherit some 
form of nervous disease. A hypochondriac is practically a 
monomaniac whose special delusion is in connection with his 
health; he is always thinking of himself and imagining that he 
is suffering from some disease. At one time it is his liver, at 
another his stomach, that troubles him; every disease he reads 
about or hears of some one else Buffering from he immediately 
thinks he has; every new medical fact he hears he applies to his 
own condition, and his thoughts go off at a tangent in this par- 
ticular direction. He assists in filling the doctor's pocket while 
he exhausts his patience and ingenuity. H e is a nuisance to 
himself and every one with whom he comes in contact, for he is 
entirely engrossed in his own thoughts and ailments, and his 
conversation is about nothing else. 

Hydrophobia. — Hydrophobia is a word used to indicate the 
disease communicated to man by the bite of a rabid dog. 

Symptoms. — The stage of incubation varies from three weeks 
to six months, or in rare cases one year. From the beginning 
of invasion of this disease the patient has a dread of water; there 
are restlessness and loss of appetite, and the patient becomes 
melancholy. About the second day tonic convulsions occur, 
affecting chiefly the muscles about the throat, often rendering 
the swallowing of water impossible, though the thirst is intense. 
Soon the very sight of water will bring on a convulsion, which 
soon recurs more and more frequently and from less marked 
exciting causes. After a time the convulsions involve the whole 
muscular system; a fear of even the best friends and indescrib- 
able despair come upon the patient. There is an abundance 
of sticky, ropy mucus from the mouth. If death does not occur 
during one of the convulsions, the paralytic stage begins about 
the third day, and the patient dies from exhaustion. 

Treatment. — As soon as a person is bitten by a rabid dog the 
wound should be well sucked, then touched with pure carbolic 
acid, or nitric acid should be applied freely. Remedies for 
treatment of the disease are of no avail. The only cure is for 
the patient to go to New York, or the nearest institution, and 
have Pasteur's prophylactic injection made, and the wound 
treated antiseptically. 



CHAPTER XXVII 
DISEASES OF ORGANS OF LOCOMOTION 



General Outline of Diseases of the Organs of Locomotion^ 
with Symptoms, and the Like. 



Disease. 



Curvature of 
Spine 
1.— Angular . . . 



2.— Lateral. 



Rheumatic Fever 



Rheumatic Gout. 



Gout, 



Persons 

chiefly 

affected. 



Children 



Delicate girls 



Young adults 



Middle-aged 
women 



Middle-aged 
men 



Chief symptoms. 



Pain, tenderness and stiff- 
ness in back, deformity 

Weakness of back and 
aching pain, deformity 



Fever, per- 
spirations 

Attacks of 
pain 

Attacks of 
acute pain 



Larger joints 

swollen and 

hot 

Smaller joints 
deformed 
and stiff 

Big-toe joint 

swollen and 

tender 



Cause. 



Disease of 
bone. 

General 
debility. 

Cold. 



Unknown. 



Bad habits 



Diseases of Bones. — Bone may, like all the other structures 
of the body, become inflamed either as the result of injury or as 
the local manifestation of some general disorder. If the inflam- 
mation is acute, the bone becomes enlarged and softened, caus- 
ing very severe pain and other disturbance. 

The inflammation may terminate in an abscess of the bone, 
or by ulceration, the bone being gradually eaten away and 
removed in the discharges; or by destroying a portion of the 
bone, which comes away as a plate or spicule, sometimes 
requiring an operation for its removal. Lastly, it may terminate 
in chronic inflammation. Under the last circumstances, instead 
of being thinned and softened, the bone is thickened, enlarged 
and hardened. 

The lining membrane or periosteum of the bone may be 
inflamed (periostitis). If this is acute and extensive, it is a very 
serious matter. 

The doctor should be sent for at once, as immediate and 
active measures should be taken in order to arrest the spread 
of the inflammation. 

Treatment for Inflammation of Bone.— -For treatment the 

408 



DISEASES OF ORGANS OF LOCOMOTION 409 

part must be rested, and a lead or spirit lotion kept applied, and 
if the nocturnal pain continues or is troublesome, a mixture 
should be taken containing five grains of iodide of potash two or 
three times a day, and the swelling painted with iodine or, if 
obstinate, with blistering fluid. A hard lump sometimes remains 
for a long time. 

Diseases of the Joints. — T'le most common affection of the 
joints is inflammation of the 1 ning membrane (synovitis). This 
may occur in many general diseases, as acute fevers, in rheuma- 
tism and in gout, in which there is generally more than one 
joint affected; but the most common causes are exposure to cold 
and damp and some form of injury to the joint — a strain or 
sprain, a blow or fall against some hard body, as the edge of a 
table or a step. 

Treatment. — An inflamed joint should always receive com- 
plete rest. If a severe case, bed is the best place; if the knee or 
ankle is affected, a splint is useful, or if thr elbow or wrist, a 
carefully applied sling. At the commencement, cold is the best 
application, as by its continued use early in the case the swell- 
ing may be prevented and the inflammation relieved. 

Acute inflammation of the joint may end in becoming 
chronic, and the pain is much less. Stiffness of the joint may 
remain, and also the swelling. 

In chronic synovitis rest must be continued, but the patient 
in some way must have exercise. Repeated blisters to the joint 
are very helpful. Frequent rubbing with stimulating liniments 
or douching with warm water or salt water. Give iodide of 
potash mixture, five grains to an ounce of infusion of gentian, 
twice a day. 

If acnte inflammation of a joint is not treated very carefully, 
it may go on to the formation of matter or abscess of the joint. 
This is a very serious condition, and if in a large joint, as the 
knee, endangers the patient's life. The best result that can be 
hoped for is that recovery may take place with a damaged and 
stiffened joint, and every care will have to be taken to place the 
limb in the position that will be most useful afterwards. A stiff 
leg should be straight, and a stiff arm slightly bent, but such a 
case should certainly be under the supervision of a surgeon. 

Angular curvature of the spine is a serious disease, and is 
the condition which produces the terrible disfigurement called 
"humpback." It chiefly occurs during childhood, and in those 
children who have unhealthy constitutions, or who are suffering 
from debility after severe diseases. The most common predis- 
posing condition is scrofula. The exciting cause is frequently 
an accident, a fall through the carelessness of a nurse, a strain 
or blow during a boisterous game, or in adult life the fall of a 
great weight on the back while in a stooping attitude. 

The disease consists in an inflammation of the bones and 



410 DISEASES OF ORGANS OF LOCOMOTION 

gristle which form the spinal column, and is almost always sit- 
uated in the front part of this structure. 

The next symptom is the formation of a lump or swelling 
at the back of the spine; this is situated at the point diseased in 
the neck, back or loins. It is in the middle line. This " hump- 
back" may vary from a swelling hardly noticeable to bad de- 
formity. 

Angular Curvature. — Angular curvature is often recovered 
from, leaving a slight deformity and stiffness, but others are 
cripples for life. 

Discover the Disease as Early as Possible.— These troubles 
should not be neglected. The longer the delay, the more dim- 
cult to correct. A surgeon should be consulted at once. Many 
little patients have to spend months or even years on their 
backs, eating and drinking in this position. In the later stages 
they may be allowed to get about with a suitable apparatus 
applied to support the head and upper part of the body. 

The child must be well and generously fed, must have as 
much fresh air as possible, and be given cod-liver oil. 

Lateral Curvature of tke Spine.— This is not so serious a 
disease as angular curvature. It may be the result of debility 
or rickets. But in a great majority of cases it occurs in young, 
delicate girls, from the age of ten to twenty, as the result of 
unsuitable occupations, amusements or work, by which a one- 
sided posture is encouraged. One side of the body is exercised 
much more than the other. Standing on one leg, long-contin- 
ued sitting or stooping over a table resting on one arm, as in 
writing or reading; sitting cross-legged, long hours spent at sew- 
ing, ironing, reading, writing or drawing; carrying a child or 
other weights always on one arm, tight stays or dresses, are all 
sufficient to produce it in delicate girls. Any inequality in the 
length of the legs, from an artificial limb, hip disease or bending 
from rickets, acts in the same way. 

Symptoms of Lateral Curvature of the Spine. — The patient 
complains of weakness, of being easily fatigued, and of an ach- 
ing neuralgic pain in the back upon slight exertion. If the 
chest is examined, one shoulder blade (usually the right) 
appears to be "growing out." It is more prominent, and the 
same side of the chest projects. If the back is observed care- 
fully while the patient stands upright with the heels together, 
it will be seen that the bones in the middle line forming the 
spinal column are not in a straight line, but form a double curve 
like an S, or rather, in most cases it is like this letter upside 
down, for the curve is towards the right above, and towards the 
left below. If the patient is made to lie down flat on her face, 
the spine will become quite straight in the early stages of the 
disease, but is fixed in the curved position if it has existed for 
some time. This shows the importance of early recognition of 
the condition and treatment. 



DISEASES OF ORGANS OF LOCOMOTION 411 

Treatment of Lateral Curvature.— 1. General health. The 
mild preparations of iron are very valuable. Cod-liver oil, good 
nourishing food, daily outdoor exercise, and avoidance of 
sedentary and lazy habits and occupations requiring a one-sided 
attitude. 

2. Strengthening the muscles. Sponging of the back every 
morning with salt or vinegar and cold water, followed by fric- 
tion with a towel and rubbing with the hands until the skin 
becomes redj kneading and massage of the muscles; gentle exer- 
cise alternating with periods of rest in the recumbent position, 
and carefully regulated gymnastic exercises, which should never 
be continued sufficiently long to produce fatigue. 

3. Relief of the spine from the weight of the head is best car- 
ried out by lying down for a few hours daily. This is especially 
beneficial if the patient lies on her face. Confinement to bed is 
injurious, as it injures the general health, and it is absolutely 
necessary that rest and exercise should be taken in turns. As 
far as possible, the use of any apparatus should be avoided, as 
it interferes with the action or the muscles, and is liable 
to increase their weakness. However, in extreme cases 
some form of instrument is necessary, and should be applied 
only under the direction of a surgeon. Plaster of Pans or 
stia fdt jackets, or other more elaborate contrivances, may be 
advised. 

Rheumatie Ferer— Acute.— Anyone who gets well soaked 
and omits to change the wet clothes, who sleeps in a damp bed, 
or who becomes thoroughly ohilled by sitting still after free 
perspiration, is likely to wake up the following morning with 
rheumatic fever. But this liability is much increased in those 
who are predisposed to rheumatism, as by having had a pre- 
vious attack, by being out of health or by having a rheumatic 
family inheritance. 

Treatment. — As the patient will be in great pain, and very 
likely unable to move a limb, he will be unable to get out of bed 
for any purpose whatever. The joints should be thickly covered 
with a layer of cotton-wool and a bandage, and the pain may be 
relieved by hot fomentations or by smearing over the skin under 
the wool some liniment of belladonna. The cotton-wool should 
be occasionally changed, as it gets soaked in perspiration and 
causes the patient discomfort; when this is done, the joints may 
be bathed with hot water containing some bicarbonate of soda. 

The one drug which has a powerful effect in relieving 
rheumatic fever is lalicylate of soda. It may be given every 
four hours in a mixture containing fifteen grains to a dose, or 
three of the five-grain tabloids at the same intervals. Bicar- 
bonate of soda, fifteen grains, may with advantage be added 
to each dose; but, unfortunately, neither this nor any known 
drug seems to have any effect in reducing the liability to heart 
complications. 



412 DISEASES OF ORGANS OF LOCOMOTION 

The following is one of the best combinations in acute 
rheumatism: 

J£ . Potassii iodidi 4 drachms. 

Sodii salicylatis 4 drachms. 

Spirits etheris nitrosi 2 ounces. 

Syrupi aurantii .3 ounces. 

M. Sig. Two teaspoonfuls in water every two or three 
hours. 

As the pains pass off and the fever diminishes, the food will 
have to be increased, butcher's meat being put off to the last. 
Tonics will probably be required to restore the patient's 
strength, which will be much reduced, and a change of air to a 
warmer locality will be useful to complete the cure. After an 
attack the patient will be very susceptible to cold, and he must 
be very careful, always dressing warmly, summer and winter; 
be cautious about dampness. 

Persons who are predisposed to rheumatic fever feel any 
change of climate very keenly. 

Muscular Rheumatism. — Muscular rheumatism may occur in 
any of the muscles of the body, and is often accompanied by 
cramps. The pains are hot, burning and aching, are increased 
by using the muscles, disappear with rest, and are much less 
severe at night when in bed. 

Muscular rheumatism is brought on by two chief causes: 
(1) Exposure to cold, as a draught of cold air blowing on a 
muscular part while hot from exertion, and (2) a sprain or strain 
of a part. The latter is important to remember, as it explains 
many of those cases which begin as a strain and yet do not get 
well as quickly as an ordinary strain might be expected to. 
Rheumatism has a great tendency to attack any weakened 
spot, and a part that has been strained is thus laid open to its 
attack. 

Treatment. — For chronic or muscular rheumatism the fot 
lowing may be given: 

3 . Potassii iodidi 4 drachms. 

Fl. ext. manacae 1 ounce. 

Syrup, sarsaparilla comp. . .q. s. 4 ounces. 
M. Sig. Large teaspoonful in water four times a day. 
Or, the following will be found useful in chronic or articular 
rheumatism: 

# . Lithii citratis 1% drachms. 

Liq. ammonii acetatis 2 ounces. 

Syrupi limonis 2 ounces. 

M. Sig. Two teaspoonfuls in water every three to four hours* 
For the swollen and painful joints the compound iodine oint- 
ment, with guaiacol, one drachm to the ounce, applied night and 
morning, is one of the best applications we are familiar with. 

Hot saline baths are more beneficial in the treatment of 
rheumatism than any other known remedy. In all forms of this 
disease, especially chronic cases, great benefit is received from 



DISEASES OF ORGANS OF LOCOMOTION 413 

the mineral and mud baths at Mudlavia, Indiana, and many 
other places in the United States. Lithia, found in the waters 
of the different lithia springs, seems to have the power of dis- 
solving the substances that cause rheumatism, especially in the 
joints. 

Chronic Rheumatism— Treatment.— Great relief is obtained 
by hot fomentations, followed by rubbing with some stimulating 
liniment, the turpentine and acetic acid liniment being a very 
suitable preparation. For general treatment, the patient must 
dress warmly, live when possible in a dry climate, must avoid 
exhausting exercise, and have very nutritious diet, of which 
fatty articles should form a large percentage. Cod-liver oil is 
the best way of supplying fat, while iron improves the general 
constitutional condition. Iodide of potash is usually prescribed 
in this complaint, especially if the pains are worse at night; five 
grains either in tabloids or a mixture should be taken three times 
a day. 

Rheumatic Gont. — A disease which goes by the name of 
rheumatic gout, but which really is perfectly distinct from both 
rheumatism and gout. The joints which are nearly always first 
affected are those of the hands and fingers; the other joints, 
however, get diseased later, the feet and toes, the knees, wrists, 
jaw and joints of the spine being gradually involved. An impor- 
tant feature of the disease is the great deformity of the affected 
joints; they become twisted, knobbed, stiff, immovable and gen- 
erally distorted, and crack and creak when moved. 

The disease must be looked upon as practically incurable, 
unless the treatment is started very early, when there is some 
hope of eradicating it from the system. 

^ Treatment. — For local measures, painting the affected joints 
with iodide liniment, friction, after hot-water sponging, with the 
turpentine and acetic acid liniment or camphorated oil; covering 
the parts with flannel or cotton-wool. 

Gout. — Gout is due to the presence of an excess of uric acid 
in the system, and may therefore be produced by all those 
causes which encourage the formation of this acid. It is the 
most striking example of an inherited disease. This inheritance 
may be a sufficient cause to produce it by itself, or it may be 
aided by some of the other causes to be mentioned. The indi- 
vidual who inherits gout has what we have already spoken of as 
the uric acid diathesis. The inheritance is so strong that it 
occasionally is handed on to several succeeding generations. 
Sometimes, however, gout may appear in persons quite free 
from hereditary taint; and in these cases the most common cause 
is some error relating to food, drink or exercise. Excess in eat- 
ing is a serious matter in one goutily inclined, especially if the 
excess is in articles of food rich in nitrogen. These, of course, 
include all animal foods, but some are much more injurious than 
others. Beef is considered particularly bad, but all meats, 



414 DISEASES OF ORGANS OF LOCOMOTION 

especially if richly cooked and highly flavored, are injurious. 
Excess in drink is a very frequent exciting" cause; all alcoholic 
drinks are objectionable. Sedentary habits and an indolent, 
lazy mode of living strongly predispose to the disease. 

If the food lies heavy in the stomach, and the bowels are 
constipated, the following combination will be serviceable: 

5 . Magnesii sulph 2 ounces. 

Magnesii carbonatis , . 2 drachms. 

Vini colchici seminis 6 drachms. 

Aquae menth. pip ad. 12 ounces. 

M. Sig. A teaspoonful every four hours. 
Or, the following may be given for gout: 

3 . Vini colchici seminis 4 drachms. 

Sodii salicylatis 3 drachms. 

Sodii iodidi 1 drachm. 

Spiritis chloroformi 3 drachms. 

Inf. buchu q. s. ad. 8 ounces. 

M. Sig. A teaspoonful every three to four hours. 
Also, the following: 

(This is one dose.) 
Carbonate of Lithia, 3 grains. 
Wine of Colchicum, 5 drops. 
Iodide of Potagh, 3 grains. 
Tincture of Lemon, 20 drops. 
Infusion of Calumba to the ounce. 
To be taken three times a day. 

Lime-juice may be taken at meals, and proves a not unpleas* 
ant beverage. 

To remove the stiffness of the joints and the chalk-stones, 
the following measures can be tried: Counter-irritation with 
iodine liniment, rubbing with the turpentine and acetic acid 
liniment, shampooing, friction and passive movements of the 
joints. A lotion of four grains of carbonate of lithia kept con- 
stantly applied under oiled silk may prove useful in dissolving 
the stones, for which purpose wrap the affected joint in flannel 
wrung out of warm water, enclose it in some waterproof mate« 
rial, and leave it on all night. 






FOR TREATMENT OF THE ABOVE SEE CHAPTER 27 ON SKIN DISEASES. 



Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

Scarlet Fever. Measles. 



Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

Smallpox. Chickenpox. 



CHAPTER XXVIII 
SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 



The Offices of the Skin.— The skin has many important dutie. 
to perform. (1) It is the external covering for the deeper and 
more delicate structures; (2) it is the organ of sensation and of 
touch; (3) it is an important means of removing impurities from 
the body, together with a large quantity of water; (4) it is some- 
times engaged in absorbing substances from its surface; (5) it 
secretes a delicate oily substance; and (6) it regulates the 
temperature of the body. 

Causes of Skin Diseases. — Many skin diseases are due to gen- 
eral constitutional ailments, which affect the skin at the same 
time they involve the body in other parts. The rashes which 
appear in infectious fevers, as scarlet fever, are good examples. 
Others are caused by the disorders of the nervous system, as 
shingles or itching ; or by errors of diet, as nettle-rash. 
Poisons taken into the body may produce eruptions, as alcohol; 
iodide and bromide of potash also cause eruptions. 

Many skin diseases are produced by parasites, both animal 
and vegetable. Of these, the itch-insect, lice, bugs and fleas are 
not uncommon. Ringworm is a vegetable organism. 

Classification of Skin Diseases.— 1. The first class is char- 
acterized by redness due simply to an increased quantity ©f 
blood in the vessels of that portion of the skin. 

2. If the redness is accompanied by some swelling it forms 
a small, red, raised spot, which is called a papule or pimple, 

3. If the swelling in a spot goes on to the formation of a little 
Mister it is called a vesicle. The vesicular eruptions are eczema, 
shingles and the sweat-rash. 

4. If the vesicles become filled with matter they might be 
called pustules. Pustules break or dry up and form thick, dry, 
horn-like scabs. 

5. Scales are produced by the separation of the epidermis 
with the slightest friction. These are called psoriasis and 
pityriasis. 

6. If pimples become enlarged and prominent and form little 
solid prominences of the skin, they are called tubercles. 

7. Diseases due to parasites. Those caused by vegetable 
growths are ringworms, sycosis and chloasma; the animal para- 
sites are lice and the itch-insect. 

415 



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SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 

Rose-Rash. — Rose-rash (roseola) is an eruption of slightly 
raised, small, rose-colored spots, accompanied orjpreceded by 
slight fever and sore throat, and is likely to be mistaken for 
measles. 

Nettle-Rash. — Nettle-rash (urticaria) is a very common dis. 
ease. It occurs at all ages, and is especially liable to after 
those persons who are prone to rheumatism. 

Causes. — It is most common in women and infants and iu 
those persons who are of nervous, gouty or rheumatic constitu- 
tions. It may be brought on by any local irritation, as the stings 
of nettles, wasps, bugs, mosquitoes, and in some persons even by 
flea-bites. But more commonly the causes act from within and 
depend upon certain articles of food which irritate the digestive 
organs and act like poisons. The most usual are shell-fish — 
mussels, crabs, or lobsters — but pork, almonds, strawberries, 
parsley, mushrooms and oatmeal may all act in a similar way, 
even when they are perfectly fresh and good. 

Treatment of Nettie-Rash. — The cause must be removed. 
The discomfort caused by the spots may be relieved by apply- 
ing lead lotion to them, or starch powder or by taking a warm 
bath. Lemon- juice or vinegar and water are also useful as 
lotions. 

Erysipelas. — Erysipelas, or St. Anthony's fire, is an inflamma- 
tion of the skin and is characterized by redness. The skin 
affected becomes a bright red color and is slightly swollen and 
the inflammation has a peculiar tendency to spread very widely r 
involving a large surface of the skin. The disease is liable tc 
attack open wounds, spreading gradually from them as a center. 

The Treatment of Erysipelas.— The patient should be put to 

bed in a well-ventilated room and the treatment be commenced 

by a good purge. Most cases will require good food and tonics. 

Quinine is also useful, especially combined with the iron, as 

in the following prescription: 

(This is one dose.) 
Tincture of the Perchloride of Iron, 10 drops. 
Sulphate of Quinine, 1 grain. 
Spirit of Chloroform, 20 drops. 
Infusion of Quassia to the ounce. 
To be given every four to six hours. 

For local treatment, astringent applications are useful. If 
the inflammation be very limited, it may be covered over with a 
coating of collodion; while if more extensive, a lotion of a 
drachm of sulphate of iron to a pint of water may be employed. 
Powders dusted over the affected skin are useful, such as 
starch, equal parts of starch and oxide of zinc, or ordinary violet 
powder. 

If, however, matter is forming, or the skin is very swollen and 
tight, warm fomentations must replace the foregoing — poppy , 
fomentation or the boracic poultice. Lastly, when the matter 



418 SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 

has collected, incisions to let it out must be made, but under 
these circumstances the case must necessarily be in the hands 
of a surgeon. 

Eczema. — Eczema is one of the most common of skin dis- 
eases. It is characterized by more or less redness of the part 
of the skin affected, with small, closely packed vesicles upon 
it, which are usually not larger than a pin's head. These run 
together, burst and pour out a watery fluid that dries into thin, 
yellow crusts. The discharge has the property, when dried, of 
stiffening linen. The parts affected burn, tingle and itch, and 
these symptoms are sometimes very severe, especially at night; 
the itching, in particular, may be so troublesome that it is impos- 
sible to resist the temptation to scratch the parts. This, though 
it may temporarily relieve the itching, much increases the 
severity of the disease. 

Of general causes, anxiety and worry, indigestion, asthma, 
rheumatism and gout are the most important, persons suffering 
from any of these being prone to eczema. The disease is not 
usually contagious. 

Rheumatism, gout and other constitutional diseases must 
receive their appropriate treatment, when they are the causes 
of eczema. 

Before any local remedies can be applied with benefit the 
scabs must be removed. This can best be done by covering 
them with lint soaked in oil or by warm bread poultices. 

Although cleanliness is of the first importance in the treat- 
ment of eczema, constant washing and rubbing with towels are 
most injurious. Hard water should on no account be used; rain 
water or water that has been boiled and to which a small quan- 
tity of bran has been added should be employed, and great care 
should be taken to prevent the discharge from irritating the 
surrounding skin. Soap is also injurious to the eczema erup- 
tion, and should not be used. Another important point in the 
treatment is that the lotion or ointment employed should be 
kept continuously on the affected part, which should always be 
carefully covered from the air; it is not sufficient to apply rem- 
edies once or twice during the twenty-four hours. 

For the eczema which occurs in children the best applica- 
tion is the benzoated zinc ointment, which should be well 
smeared over the part, the scabs having been removed, and then 
covered up with a piece of thin linen; the boracic acid ointment 
is also suitable. 

For acute eezema affecting a large surface, warm applica- 
tions give most relief to the pain. A lotion containing fifteen 
grains of boracic acid to the ounce, made warm by adding a 
small quantity of boiling water, applied on lint and kept moist 
and warm by being covered with oiled silk, can be strongly 
advised. 

Ichthyol is a sedative drug, and may be painted over the 
inflamed parts when mixed with three times its bulk of water. 



SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 419 

When eczema has become chronic the treatment must be 
more stimulating; an ointment composed of equal parts of sul- 
phur and zinc ointments is suitable. 

As the itching is often the chief cause of complaint, it will be 
useful to know some remedies for it. The powder of oxide of 
zinc, ten grains in an ounce of lime-water, will be found to be 
very soothing; or a lotion composed of carbolic acid one drachm, 
glycerine two drachms, to eight ounces of water, may be applied 
on a sponge or piece of rag. 

Shingles. — Shingles, or, as it is called, "Herpes Zoster," is a 
peculiar form of skin disease, caused by some affection of the 
nerves. 

The rash is nearly always confined to one side; it may extend 
from the middle line at the back to the middle line in front, but 
does not pass beyond either. It occurs most frequently on the 
side of the chest, less so on the side of the abdomen or face; 
patches of redness appear at the seat of the pain, and after a 
time become covered with a number of little blisters or vesicles. 

Cover up the eruption from the air, as this at once relieves 
the pain. This may be done with oil, flour or a layer of cotton- 
wool; but the best plan is to at once procure some flexible col- 
lodion and a brush and paint over all the spots. 

The following effervescing mixture may be given while the 
fever and acute pains last, and tonics, such as quinine or steel 
wine, will assist convalescence: 

Bicarbonate of Soda, 15 grains. 
Tincture of Lemon, 15 drops. 
Syrup, Y% drachm. 
Water to an ounce. 

To be taken three or four times a day with a tablespoonf ul of 
lemon-juice. 

Impetigo. — Impetigo is contagious. It spreads from one part 
of the body to another, as the result of scratching. It also 
spreads to other persons, and it is very common for several chil- 
dren in one family to suffer from it at the same time, the prob- 
able mode of transmission from one to the other being by wear- 
ing each other's clothes or hats, or using the same towels. 
Besides resulting from contagion, it may be caused by dirt or 
irritating substances. 

Treatment. — The scabs must be removed by carbolized oil 
or bread-and-water poultices, and frequently, to do this thor- 
oughly, the hair has to be cut short. The parts should be 
washed night and morning with warm boracic acid lotion, fifteen 
grains to the ounce of water, and an ointment applied. Zinc 
ointment, sulphur ointment and dilute nitrate of mercury oint- 
ment are all suitable. Scratching the spots must be avoided. 

Ringworm. — Ringworm is a very common affection of the 
skin, caused by a minute vegetable growth or fungus. 

This disease is very contagious, spreading from one child to 



420 SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 

another in school or family. It is carried by brushes, clothes, 
hats or towels, and may be caught from animals, such as dogs 
or cats, which are affected by it. The disease of the head is 
almost entirely confined to children, but that affecting the body 
is seen also in adults. 

Treatment for Ringworm. — 1. For ringworm of the body, 
the best application is tincture of iodine. This should be painted 
over the spots with a brush every morning until it produces a 
little soreness, when it may be discontinued for a day or two. 
If this is not sufficiently strong to destroy the growth, a small 
quantity of blistering fluid may be applied to it. Sulphur oint- 
ment is also a useful application. 

2. For ringworm of the head more severe measures are 
required. The hair round each patch should be cut short, so 
that the affected spot may be got at more easily; if crusts have 
formed, they must be softened with bread-and-water poultices 
and removed. The broken-off hairs should be pulled out with 
a small pair of forceps, and a ring of healthy hairs treated in 
the same way. The disease may now, in many cases, be cured 
by painting with the liniment of iodine or with blistering fluid. 
It this is unsuccessful, the spots should have a lotion composed 
of salicylic acid, ten grains to an ounce of chloroform or ether, 
well rubbed in with a piece of linen every morning. 

Animal Parasites: the Itch-Insect, Lice.— The itch or 
scabies is produced by a little insect called the sarcoptes hominis 
or acarus scabiei. 

Treatment. — The ointment used to destroy these insects is 
formed of four drachms of sulphur ointment to one ounce of lard 
or vaseline, and it is employed in the following way: The 
patient gets into a hot bath and soaks the whole body in it for 
some time, using plenty of soft soap; having dried the skin, the 
ointment is rubbed very thoroughly into all the parts affected 
by the disease, using the ointment freely, and leaving it on until 
the following morning, when it may be removed by another 
bath. Clean clothes should be put on, and all those previously 
worn thoroughly disinfected by boiling or baking. Any sores 
produced by scratching will heal rapidly if covered by boracic 
acid ointment. 

Many other animal parasites besides the itch-insect live and 
flourish on the human skin, especially in those persons who 
are not too fond of soap and water. 

The most troublesome lice are those that affect the head. 
The first step in the treatment is to kill the insects, the second 
to remove the nits before they are hatched, and the third to heal 
the irritation and sores of the scalp. With boys, the simplest 
thing to do is to cut the hair short, and then use a fine-tooth 
comb. 

A preparation of mercury should be employed, called the 
white precipitate ointment. This should be well smeared on to 



SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 421 

the skin of the head at night, kept on for some hours, and then 
be followed by thorough washing with soap and water. The 
sores may be healed by thorough cleanliness and the applica- 
tion of the ointment of boracic acid. 

The other most common form of ftediculus is called the body 
louse, but really lives more in the clothing than on the skin. It 
can soon be got rid of by a good bath with plenty of soap, and 
thorough disinfection of the clothes by boiling or baking. 

Hair Restorers— Baldness.— The following is a useful pre- 
scription: 

Tincture of Spanish Fly, 2 ounces. 

Bay Rum, 1 ounce. 

Rose Water, 4 ounces. 

Boiling Water, x /z pint. 
This should be well rubbed into the skin of the scalp (not the 
hair) night and morning with a piece of flannel or small sponge. 
Small sponges fixed upon a handle are sold for this purpose. 
The hair should not be brushed too vigorously, as this tends to 
pull out the hairs already loosened, which might otherwise 
have been saved. 

Chicken-Pox. — Chicken-pox [varicella) is probably the mild- 
est of all the infectious diseases. It is almost peculiar to child- 
hood, for although it may affect adults, it very seldom 
does so. 

The treatment of chicken-pox consists in keeping the little 
patient in bed, or, during mild attacks, in a warm room, giving 
only a light diet and applying a simple ointment, such as the 
boracic acid ointment, to the spots, and guarding them from 
friction and scratching. The debility left by the disease requires 
good food. 

Measles. — Measles {?norbilli) is one of the most common of 
the infectious diseases, and very few persons reach adult life 
without having suffered from it. It is chiefly met with during 
childhood, simply because it is so very contagious that it is 
almost impossible to keep children from being infected. Adults 
are just as liable to it if they have not become protected by 
having previously had an attack. 

Measles is not uncommonly taken a second time. The dis- 
ease gives protection against another attack for a while, but the 
effect passes off more rapidly than in many of the other infec- 
tious fevers. 

The rash usually reaches its height on about the fifth or sixth 
day, and disappears first on the face and afterwards on the 
body, and is quite gone by the seventh or eighth day. In many 
cases a slight scurfiness follows the rash, especially on the face. 

All the other symptoms, including the fever, pass off with 
the eruption. 

There may be difficulty in distinguishing measles from sev- 



422 SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 

eral other diseases. The most difficult is German measles, but 
indigestion eruptions and the rashes of scarlet fever and small- 
pox are sometimes mistaken for that of measles. 

In German measles the rash comes out earlier (on the first or 
second day), and does not last so long. The symptoms of cold 
in the head are slighter, the fever is absent or very insignificant, 
the eruption is seldom in the form of crescents, and is often 
accompanied with much itching. However, none of these are 
sufficiently distinctive in some cases, and it is then always 
wisest to treat the case as one of true measles. 

The eruptions caused by stomach trouble follow some error 
of diet, appear all over the body at once, last an indefinite 
time, run an irregular course, and are not accompanied by the 
symptoms of catarrh or with fever. 

The smallpox spots are hard, and like shot in the skin, and 
there are special symptoms of that disease present, such as 
backache. Scarlet fever has more severe throat symptoms, the 
eruption is brighter in color, consists of fine dots, and com- 
mences on the neck and chest. 

The treatment for a simple case is an easy matter. The 
child should be put to bed in an airy, warm, well-ventilated 
room. The room should be darkened, if the eyes are much 
affected, and a steam-kettle employed if the cough gives much 
trouble. Great cleanliness should be observed, and all dis- 
charges, whether from eyes, nose or mouth, washed away with 
warm water. 

The diet must consist chiefly of milk, with barley or soda- 
water, gruel and light milk puddings. Thirst may be relieved 
with lemonade, barley water, black currant tea, etc. The skin 
should be sponged over daily with warm water containing vine- 
gar or sanitas to relieve the itching and bring out the rash. 

The best medicine to reduce the fever and bring out the 
eruption is the tincture of aconite. One drop of the tincture, or 
a tabloid containing this dose, may be given every two hours for 
half a dozen doses, and then at longer intervals, to a child one 
year old, and proportionately larger doses for older children. 
When complications arise, it is of even greater importance to 
get the skin to act freely; and it is sometimes necessary to give 
the child a hot bath, and then rapidly dry him and wrap him 
up in a blanket. 

Uncomplicated measles require no treatment except to palli- 
ate symptoms. The child should be kept in a room that has a 
uniform temperature of about seventy degrees. Currents of air 
and sudden reduction of temperature are dangerous. The diet 
should be milk and mostly liquid. The cough ordinarily 
requires treatment. Flaxseed tea, infusion of slippery-elm bark 
or solution of gum arabic are useful; to make them more palat- 
able lemon -juice may be added. 



SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 423 

The following mixtures, given occasionally, relieves the sever- 
ity and diminishes the frequency of the cough: 

9 . Tinct. opii. camphorat l /z ounce. 

Syr. scillae X A ounce. 

Syr. ipecac %. ounce. 

Spts. ether, nitr 4 drachms. 

Misce. Dose, one teaspoonful to a child of five years, 
repeated every two to five hours, according to circumstances. 

The chest should be covered with oil silk or cotton. If the 
eruption is tardy in its appearance or indistinct, it is well to pro- 
duce moderate counter-irritation, with camphorated oil, to which 
one-fourth part of turpentine is added. 

Scarlet Fever. — Scarlet fever is one of the most serious dis- 
eases of childhood. This fever, although always present 
among us to some extent, occurs also in epidemics, and for some 
unknown reason these are most common during the autumn 
months. 

Persons of all ages are liable to take scarlet fever, but chil- 
dren between the fourth and seventh years are most susceptible 
to the disease. 

Symptoms. — The onset of the disease is usually sudden, and 
the first symptoms are vomiting, shivering and sore throat. 
Whenever these three symptoms come on together suddenly, 
our suspicions should be aroused, especially if, on taking the 
temperature, we find it high. Loss of appetite, headache and 
occasional diarrhea are common early symptoms. 

By carefully isolating the patient and waiting for twenty-four 
hours, the characteristic eruption will have appeared. This 
first occurs about the chest and neck, then rapidly on the hands, 
arms, thighs and lower part of the abdomen, and becomes gen- 
eral in twenty-four hours, reaching its height in two or three 
days. The appearance of the rash should be known by all, as 
its early recognition is of great importance and not a matter of 
any particular difficulty in the majority of cases. When first it 
appears it is faint, but on closer examination can be seen to be 
made up of a number of small red spots, each situated at the 
opening for a hair. These are rapidly surrounded by rings of 
redness, which spread and unite with one another, so that from 
a little distance the skin looks uniformly red. The appearance 
it gives is somewhat similar to the so-called • 'goose's skin.** 
The vivid scarlet color disappears upon pressure with the finger, 
but soon returns. It reaches its height in two or three days, and 
by the end of a week or ten days has disappeared. As it fades 
away it is followed by "peeling" — a separation of the surf ace 
layers of cells, as a result of the acute inflammation of the skin. 
This, first seen on the chest and neck, spreads over the body 
and limbs, and remains last on the palms of the hands and soles 
of the feet, in which situations it may continue for a long time; 
it is here also that the skin comes off in largest and thickest 
pieces, on account of the greater thickness of the skin. If any 



424 SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 

doubt exists, these are the spots which should be carefully 
examined for "peeling." It may be found to be still present 
even weeks after the disease has passed off. This is a point of 
great importance when we remember that infection continues so 
long as there is any sign of peeling. 

Sore Throat is Always Present. The tonsils, palate and the 
parts visible on examining the throat are red, swollen and cov- 
ered with thick secretion, which often collects in patches on the 
tonsils; there is a good deal of pain in swallowing, and tender- 
ness in the taeck, from enlarged glands. The tongue, at first 
covered with thick, whity-brown fur, becomes by the fourth or 
fifth day bright red and rough-looking, from which appearance 
it has received the name of "strawberry tongue." Thirst is 
often a troublesome symptom, and the urine is scanty, high-col- 
ored and contains albumen. 

The severity and length of attack of scarlet fever vary enor- 
mously. 

Rheumatic affections are not uncommon, and may be accom- 
panied by heart disease, but the most common complication is 
inflammation of the kidneys. 

Scarlatinal Nephritis comes on during convalescence, while 
"peeling" is going on, some time during the second or third 
weeks of the illness, and is just as likely, if not more so, to fol- 
low slight cases as severe ones. It may occur in some patients 
in spite of the utmost care, but is often due to slight chill, or 
exposure to cold, which under other circumstances would have 
been quite unimportant; about six out of every hundred cases 
are followed by this trouble. 

The early symptoms of kidney trouble are only recognized 
by an examination of the urine, and it is customary, on this 
account, for the doctor to examine the water every two or three 
days. 

Treatment for Scarlet Fever. — As soon as scarlet fever is 
even suspected the patient must be shut up in a room isolated 
from the house as thoroughly as possible, preferably on the top 
floor. No one but the nurse must ever be allowed to enter; all 
woolen goods, and as much furniture as possible, must be 
removed, and the carbolic sheet and other antiseptic precau- 
tions adopted. All other children who have been in the patient's 
company should be sent to another house where there are no 
children; but not too far from home, in case they get the dis- 
ease. 

The patient should be put to bed and kept there for three 
weeks, or until the skin has peeled. In mild cases this may seem 
a long time, but it is far better to be too careful than not careful 
enough, for a very slight exposure may bring on troublesome 
complications. 

The room should be well warmed and ventilated, and every 
precaution taken to thoroughly disinfect all articles before they 



SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 425 

are talcen from the room, and to burn all rags upon which any 
of the discharges have been wiped. 

Food must be light and simple. A little beef-tea may be 
allowed. 

Medicines are not of much use in scarlet fever. No drug is 
known that will cure or even check the course of the disease. 
The effort should be to keep down the bad symptoms. If a high 
fever shows itself, a mixture may be given: Aconite, one drop, or 
a tabloid, may be given to a child of two or three years, every 
two hours, for from four to six doses, and then at longer periods 
until the temperature falls. It is a great comfort to the patient 
to have a daily sponge with warm water containing a little 
carbolic acid. As a precaution against the diffusion of the par- 
ticles from the skin, after the sponging the skin should be well 
greased with ointment made according to the following formula: 
Lanoline, four drachms; solution of carbolic acid in water 
(1 to 40), four drachms. 

This is antiseptic and cooling. If the smell of carbolic acid 
is objectionable, it may be replaced by a drachm of eucalyptus. 

The patient should be dressed in a complete change of clean 
clothes, and may then be allowed to mingle in the company of 
other people without danger of spreading the infection. 

Treatment for Other Symptoms in Scarlet Feyer. — 1. For 

the sore throat nothing is more comforting than sucking pieces of 
ice or sipping iced milk. A great deal of trouble is always 
experienced with young children in applying anything to the 
throat, but in older children and adults drugs may be applied 
with the throat spray or a brush, or by inhalations. Boracic 
acid, fifteen grains; sanitas, twelve or fifteen drops; or perman- 
ganate of potash, two or three of the two-grain tabloids, mixed 
with an ounce of water, are used for these purposes, and also 
for syringing the nose to remove the thick discharge. The 
tabloids of chlorate of potash and borax, or inhalations of steam, 
also relieve the pain of the throat. Externally a warm compress 
or hot poultices are useful. 

2. For earache place a few drops of warm camphorated oil 
in the ear, to which a drop or two of laudanum may be added, 
and apply hot fomentations or poultices. 

3. For rheumatism use stimulating liniments and warmth, 
and wrap up the painful parts in cotton-wool. To guard against 

4. Inflammation of the kidneys, the first point is to guard 
against cold. The skin should be kept acting well by warm 
sponging, the bowels regular by mild aperients, and when he is 
up the patient should be warmly clad with flannel next the skin. 
If the disease comes on in spite of precautions, the proper 
treatment would be that of acute nephritis. 

Quarantine. — It is necessary to maintain strict precau- 
tions and isolation for six weeks even in mild cases: and even 
after this time has elapsed it is dangerous to allow the patient 
freedom if there is any "peeling" visible on any part of the body ; 



426 SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 

or if there is sore throat or any discharge from ears, nose or 
wound left by an abscess of the glands. Undoubtedly, we 
should not err if we were to extend the period of quarantine to 
two months, for the disease is very serious, and the infective 
particles have great vitality. No person who has been exposed 
to the infection can be considered safe until fourteen days have 
elapsed from the time of the exposure. 

Smallpox. — Smallpox (variola) can nowadays be looked 
upon with little dread. The disease is robbed of all the horrors 
that used to be attached to it, and this has been brought about 
by the wonderful discovery of vaccination. 

Treatment for Smallpox. — Isolation and antiseptic precau- 
tions are essential. The patient should be put to bed in a room 
kept fresh and warm; he should have light food and be kept 
scrupulously clean. He should have some cooling mixture, 
plenty of simple drinks, some mild aperient if necessary, use 
warm drinks and black currant jelly for the throat, and the 
spots should be covered with a simple ointment, as lanoline, or 
with glycerine, one part to two of rose-water, to prevent pitting. 

No person who has not been vaccinated should be allowed 
to enter the sick-room, or the disease is almost certain to be 
taken, and there are strong reasons in favor of all adults being 
revaccinated before exposing themselves to infection; probably 
no one who has been successfully revaccinated would ever be 
attacked by smallpox. 

About Vaccination. — Whenever smallpox breaks out in a 
neighborhood, it is a wise precaution for all those who will be 
exposed to the infection, and especially those who are in attend- 
ance upon the sick, to be revaccinated unloss they have within 
recent years successfully been operated upon. A question 
of great importance is what date after exposure to the smallpox 
poison is the latest at which vaccination will prevent infection. 
As the spots of a first vaccination reach their full development 
on the ninth or tenth day, and the incubation period of small- 
pox is usually twelve days, vaccination will have a beneficial 
effect if performed on the second or third day after exposure to 
the poison, but in those who have been previously vaccinated, 
the spots attain their maturity earlier — namely, on the seventh 
or eighth day — so that a secondary vaccination would still be 
useful if performed on the fourth or fifth day after exposure. 
If, however, the operation is put off to a later date, no good will 
be obtained from it. No one who has had smallpox is free 
from infection until every scab has fallen off; and those who 
have been exposed should be kept in quarantine for about eight- 
een days, when they can be declared fit to associate with 
others, if no symptoms appear. 

Exterior Treatment of Smallpox.— To relieve the edema 
of the face and eyelids, hot water compresses, changed at fre- 
quent intervals, should be applied. If the smarting pain over 



SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 



427 



the surface of the body be present, apply cold vaseline. For 
the throat symptoms, gargles are employed, such as flaxseed 




THE DOCTOR CALLED OUT. 
Faithful and fearless in the face of danger. 

tea, solutions of potassium chlorate, borax and alum. Small 
pieces of cracked ice held in contact with the mucous mem* 



428 SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 

brane are very grateful. For the conjunctivitis, in most cases 
a weak solution of alum is good. If there is much prostration 
and restlessness, stimulants should be administered. When the 
pain from distention of the vesicles on the hands and feet is 
intense, much relief will be obtained by soaking the parts in hot 
water for ten or fifteen minutes, followed by puncture of the 
vesicles. To relieve the burning and itching of the skin when 
the pustule is ruptured, the carbolized baths, followed by the 
free use of vaseline, will give much relief. In cases where the 
scabs on the face and nose are unusually abundant, and tend to 
prolong and increase the ulceration, they should be softened 
with hot water and vaseline and removed; after which direct 
application to the bottom of the ulcer should be made with the 
following: 

$ . Iodof ormi 35 grains. 

Bals. tolutn 20 drachms. 

The doctor better attend to the medical prescriptions. 

Whooping Cough. — Whooping cough {pertussis) is one of the 
most infectious, and for that reason one of the commonest, of 
the specific fevers. It derives its name from the peculiar noisy 
crouping cough which forms its most prominent feature. It 
occurs in epidemics which spread rapidly and widely, but is 
also present at all times in crowded districts in a certain num- 
ber of isolated cases. 

The following mixture will be found useful; it wiil cause 
perspiration and expectoration: 

(One dose for child.) 
Solution of Acetate of Ammonia, 10 drops. 
Ipecacuanha Wine, 2 drops. 
Nitre, 2 grains. 
Tincture of Lemon, 5 drops. 
Syrup of Lemon, 10 drops. 
Water to the drachm. 
To be given every four hours for a child one year old. More 
frequently or in larger doses to older children. 

Mumps. — Mumps {J>ar otitis) is an inflammation of the salivary 
glands. The disease is infectious, and will rapidly spread among 
children. It affects most frequently those between six and 
twelve years of age; but all persons, at any rate up to the age of 
thirty, are liable to take it. 

The chief, if not only, means of infection is by inhaling the 
breath of the infected person. 

Treatment. — Although in most cases bed is not necessary, 
the patient must be kept in a warm room and isolated from 
others. Chills are dangerous, and may bring about metastasis. 
The food must be light and such as will require no mastication 
— such as milk, bread and milk, beef -tea, eggs, etc. 

The swollen face only requires to be kept carefully covered 
up with a layer of cotton-wool and a bandage, or with flannel. 



SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 429 

If the pain is severe, hot fomentations should be applied, a little 
belladonna rubbed in gently. 

Diphtheria. — Diphtheria has always been regarded as a truly 
terrible disease, and although in the present day we are begin- 
ning to look upon it with less dread on account of some wonder- 
ful discoveries which have been made of late years, we must still 
consider it an affection accompanied with great danger. It is 
highly infectious; it is transmitted from one patient to another, 
can be carried from those affected to others, on the hands or 
clothes of any who enter the sick-room, and it can be trans- 
mitted from animals to man. 

Symptoms of Diphtheria.— The symptoms of diphtheria come 
on gradually with fever and sore throat; there may be some shiv- 
ering and chilliness, a feeling of being ill and heavy, and a rise 
of temperature. If the throat be looked at early, the tonsils and 
neighboring parts are seen to be red and swollen, and very sooa 
these become covered with patches of whitish-gray or yellowish 
material, which forms the diphtheritic membrane; these gradu- 
ally spread and unite with one another, and may after a time 
form a continuous layer over all the parts at the back of the 
throat. The membrane is firmly attached, and can not be 
removed with a brush; if, however, it is torn off it leaves a raw, 
bleeding surface, which is rapidly covered up again by fresh 
growth 

If it spreads into the larynx and windpipe, it interferes with 
the breathing by gradually closing up the narrow chink between 
the vocal cords; the symptoms are very severe, and the illness 
is one of the most pitiable to witness. It is the commonest 
form of diphtheria in children, and, because the passage for the 
air is naturally much smaller than in adults, the difficulty ef 
breathing soon becomes a very prominent symptom. The diffi- 
culty in breathing gets worse, and, especially at night, the child 
is liable to violent attacks due to spasm, in which he wakes up 
struggling for breath and clutches at his throat as if to remove 
the obstacle. 

A very serious symptom of diphtheria is the great tendency 
there is for extreme weakness and exhaustion to set in, and for 
the child to die, in spite of every attention, and without any 
other severe symptom being present. This weakness is specially 
likely to affect the heart, and is one of the chief causes of death. 

It is not uncommon for children to cough up large pieces of 
membrane, mixed with discharge, which resemble tough, wet 
washleather. This is usually followed by relief to the breath- 
ing, but more may be formed in the course of a few hours. 

The Complications of Diphtheria, although not so numerous 
as those which occur in scarlet fever, are both troublesome and 
dangerous. Bronchitis and inflammation of the lungs may come 
on as a consequence of the spread of the disease downwards. 

Albumen in the Urine occurs, to some extent, in almost all 



430 SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 

cases of this affection. It comes on some time between the third 
and eighth days, and it is always important to examine the 
water every day or two, by boiling it, to see if any albumen is 
present. This is usually k done by the doctor, but is a simple 
process, and can be carried out by the person in attendance. 
Speaking roughly, the more albumen there is present the worse 
is the case, 

Paralysis is the most frequent complication or, more cor- 
rectly, consequence of diphtheria. The most common time for 
its appearance is two or three weeks after the patient has 
apparently quite recovered, and it is just as likely to follow the 
slight as the most severe attacks. The patient may find that he 
has a good deal of difficulty in swallowing, and, if he does not 
da so with gr*at care, that fluids or pieces of food "go the wrong 
way," and pass into the windpipe, setting up violent attacks of 
cough; or they may pass upwards into the nose and escape from 
the nostrils; at the same time he speaks "through the nose" and 
in a thick, indistinct way. These symptoms are caused by 
paralysis of the palate and neighboring parts. 

Various muscles of the body may be paralyzed. In most 
cases paralysis disappears in a few weeks. Watchfulness, but 
no anxiety, is necessary on the part of parents. 

Treatment fw Diphtheria.— No attempt should be made to 
treat diphtheria without medical advice. As soon as you recog- 
nize the disease, send for the doctor. First of all, without 
doubt or hesitancy, and without controversy with the doctor or 
anyone else, if possible, use the 

Antltatfai Treatment.— Diphtheria has been robbed of many 
of its horrors by using antitoxin. It consists in the injection 
under the skin of a fluid called antitoxin, which is the fluid part 
or serum of the blood of an animal (the horse) affected by diph- 
theria. Its action is to destroy the poisons produced in the 
blood of the affected person. Two or three injections, perhaps, 
may be necessary. Immediate relief usually follows its use. 
No evil effects have yet been seen from its use. 

A Disinfectant for Diphtheria.— Carbolic acid, one part in 
one hundred of water, may be used as a spray. Chlorine pre- 
pared in the following way is a valuable disinfecting agent, and 
may be used as a gargle or a spray: 

Chlorate of Potash, 10 grains. 
Pure Hydrochloric Acid, 20 drops. 
Mix, and add water to one-half pint, and make a free chlor- 
ine gargle. 

Quarantine.— The patient must be kept in durance for at 
least three weeks in mild cases, and longer in severe ones, and 
should not be allowed to associate with others until all sore 
throat, discharge from the throat, eyes, hose or ears, and albu- 
minuria have disappeared. Probably a safe limit for quarantine 



SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 431 

in those who have been exposed to infection would be about 
twelve days. 

The first thing to be done is to instantly isolate the patient. 
Put him to bed in a large, airy room at the top of the house, fix 
up the carbolic sheet over the door, aud carry out all the pre- 
cautions for disinfection. 

Everyone except the attendants should be keot away from 
the room, and all children should be sent from the house, 
remembering, however, that they may already have taken the 
infection, and may shortly sicken with the disease. 

Typhoid Fever. — Typhoid fever (enteric fever) was for many 
years confused with typhus fever, but it is now recognized as 
being quite a distinct disease. This fever can not be looked 
upon as infectious, but is contagious— that is, it can spread 
from one person to another, or occur in regular epidemic form, 
but to infect the body the poison must be taken directly into the 
system — must be sown on the soil where it is to grow. 

The contagion is produced by the typhoid germ itself. Every 
case must be distinctly caused by the poison produced by 
another. The poison is given off from the body in the stools. 
It may be taken in the sick-room through want of cleanliness, 
the motions being allowed to remain in vessels without being 
thoroughly disinfected, or by the clothes or hands becoming 
soiled with them. As has been said, an epidemic may be traced 
to the occurrence of a single case in a district, by which the dis- 
ease has been carried from a distance. The motions insuffic- 
iently disinfected are thrown down the house drains and enter a 
cesspool; from this the poison germs gradually soak through the 
soil into a neighboring well, and all who drink of this polluted 
water may fall victims to the disease. 

Typhoid fever is an acute infectious febrile disease, due to a 
specific poison, the germ of which is known as the bacillus of 
Eberth. 

The poison is contained in the discharges of patients suffer- 
ing with the disease, but not in the fresh feces. 

The disease can be carried on the clothes or hands, through 
carelessness, from the patient to others. The fact that the 
stools when first passed are not nearly so dangerous as they 
become after a time is very important when considering pre- 
ventive treatment. 

Symptoms of Typhoid Fever.— The symptoms come on grad- 
ually and insidiously. The patient feels weak, ill and miserable; 
loses appetite; complains of headache across the forehead, and 
is feverish. He sleeps badly, has bad dreams, and is heavy and 
weary during the day. 

The fever then appears usually preceded by a chill or chilly 
sensation; the tongue is coated; appetite gone; the bowels are 
slightly constipated and the abdomen is a little swollen, giving a 
hollow sound when tapped on with the finger; there is tender- 
ness on pressure over the groins, and in a few days diarrhea 



432 SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 

usually sets in and is a constant symptom throughout the dis- 
ease. 

Eruptions of the Skin in Typhoid Fever.— About the eleventh 
day, or thereabouts, the typhoid eruptions may be discovered 
if carefully looked for. The spots chiefly occur on the chest, 
abdomen an 1 back. They are small, rose-red and slightly 
raised pimples, about the size of a small split pea; upon pres- 
sure with the finger they disappear, but soon return. Only a 
few occur at first, perhaps half a dozen, and if these are care- 
fully marked, by making a ring round each with ink or a colored 
peseil, more will be found on the next day, and more still on 
tke day after. This appearance in crops is very characteristic; 
each individual spot lasts for two or three days and then fades 
away, and spots in various stages are therefore present at the 
same time. The number of spots may only be about fifty dur- 
ing the whole course of the illness, and the spots themselves are 
not very distinct, so that the eruption may be altogether over- 
looked, unless careful search is made for it. 

The Motions in Typhoid Ferer.— Although constipation may 
be present at first, diarrhea is usually a marked symptom of 
typhoid fever, and often becomes severe at this time — that is, 
during the second week of the illness. The bowels become 
loose, and act three, four or a dozen times in the twenty -four 
hours. The appearance of the motions is peculiar, and unlike 
those of any other disease; they are liquid and of a pale yellow 
color, and really very closely resemble pea soup. If they stand 
for a short time they separate into two parts — a dark brown fluid 
and a light yellow powdery sediment. Such stools, in an other- 
wise obscure case, are sufficient to make us certain that it is 
typhoid fever. Other symptoms of the affection of the bowels 
are swelling of the abdomen, pain and greatly increased tender- 
ness in the right and lower part, and a sensation of gurgling in 
the same place upon pressure with the hand. 

In mild cases improvement may now begin, but in most the 
symptoms get worse. The temperature remains very high, the 
tongue gets dry, red and cracked; the patient becomes exhausted 
and prostrate. He sinks down into the bed and passes into a 
heavy, half unconscious or delirious condition. Blood may be 
passed mixed with the motions. 

In favorable cases convalescence begins during the third or 
fourth week of the illness. The fever and feverish symptoms 
pass off gradually; the mind clears; the appetite improves; the 
diarrhea ceases; the tongue clears and the strength returns. 

The Trouhle is in the Bowels. — In 'typhoid fever there is 
always inflammation, ulceration and destruction of the glands 
which are situated in the mucous lining of the bowels, especially 
that part which is situated on the right side and lower portion 
of the abdomen. In many cases this produces the troublesome 
diarrhea, and as the disease passes off the sore places heal up 
and leave no permanent mischief; but if the ulceration involves 



SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 433i 

a blood-vessel by eating through its coats, very severe and dan- 
gerous hemorrhage may occur. Such an accident may come on 
without any apparent cause, or may be set up by some unsuit- 
able article of food or by any sudden exertion. If the bleeding 
is free, the patient suddenly becomes pale and faint, the pulse 
rapid and weak, and the temperature falls. These symptoms 
are shortly followed by a discharge of blood from the bowel, 
sometimes liquid and red; at others it is mixed with the motions, 
and black, sticky and offensive. 

Inflammation of the Lungs is another dangerous complica- 
tion, and is most common in the late stages of the illness, when 
the patient is suffering from the exhaustion and great debility 
of so severe and prolonged a disease. It is not easy to recog- 
nize, and, unless a physician is in constant attendance, might 
very likely be overlooked and cause a fatal termination to the 
case. 

Treatment of Typhoid Fever.— When once settled in bed, the 
patient should not be allowed to get out again for any reason. 
Merely standing is dangerous. The bedpan and urinal should 
be used from the first. 

Disinfectants. — A disinfectant should be placed in the bed- 
pan before use, and more should be poured over the motions 
afterward, before they are emptied. The whole body should be 
sponged every morning and evening with warm or cold water, 
as the patient chooses. The hands and the face may be 
sponged more frequently. Good nursing is of the very great- 
est importance in this disease. The most minute particulars 
must be attended to, the patient kept absolutely quiet, free from 
worry and scrupulously clean, all of which is hard work, and 
will require at least two attendants. 

Dieting for Typhoid Fever.— Many deaths are caused by 
giving solid food contrary to orders, through mistaken kindness 
or ignorance. The pip of an orange or grape, or small portion 
of indigestible food, may, by irritating the sore patches in th« 
bowels, cause perforation and peritonitis, which will involve a 
very serious illness, if not rapid death. Milk is the most gener* 
ally useful article for fluid diet; it must be regarded as a food 
and not only a drink. Life can be maintained by it alone, and 
many cases of typhoid are treated throughout with milk only. 
Under these circumstances, however, it must be given in large 

?[uantities; in adults from four to five pints a day, and in a child 
rom one and one-half pints to one quart. 

Beef-tea and clear broths are permitted, and the milk will 
then have to be lessened in amount. > They should be arranged 
alternately, each being given every six hours. In great exhaus- 
tion concentrated meat extracts are necessary, a teaspoonfui at 
a time given frequently. To quench thirst, any simple drink 
may be administered, and prove more refreshing when iced— 
*.£". water, toast water, barley water, etc. — but these should 



- 



434 SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS^ UH 

never interfere with the taking of nourishment. The motions 
must be carefully watched, and if curds of milk appear in them 
it must be given less frequently or in smaller amount, and a 
tablespoonful of lime-water added to each half pint. Beef -tea 
and meat extracts are liable to excite diarrhea, especially if 
given at all freely. 

Food During Convalescence. — Peptonized milk is valuable 
and easily digested. The time will come as the patient grows 
better when it will be necessary to improve the diet and give 
solids, and the rule is that no solid food should be given until 
the temperature has remained at the natural level for a whole 
week; and even then it must be given carefully, and if the tem- 
perature rises again, or any adverse symptoms arise, stop it at 
once. The first change should be made by giving eggs beaten 
up in the milk or beef-tea; then bread-crumbs, well pounded, 
may be introduced; arrowroot, jelly, soft milky pudding, or, as 
a great luxury, a cup of weak tea. Unfortunately, fresh fruits, 
which would be so acceptable to the hot and thirsty patient, are 
seldom admissible, as they are liable to set up diarrhea; the 
fruity part of grapes or oranges, with all skin, pips or rind and 
indigestible pulp carefully removed, may be cautiously tried. 
Stimulants are not usually required in the first stages, but 
towards the end of a month's illness they may be called for, 
but should only be given in moderate quantities. 

Preventive Treatment.— Drainage and ventilation, water- 
closets, traps and water supply must receive attention. No 
water should be used for drinking or cooking that could possibly 
be contaminated, without being boiled and filtered; all milk 
must be boiled also. 

Medical Treatment of Typhoid Fever.— The physician 
should, of course, have charge of a case of typhoid fever. But 
a few suggestions may be in place. 

The Antiseptic Treatment has superseded all other methods 
of treatment of typhoid fever. The alimentary canal is a per- 
fect hot-bed of bacterial organisms. These are continually pro- 
ducing poisons, which are absorbed and cause many of the symp- 
toms of the^ disease. 

The antiseptic treatment will keep the bacterial growths in 
small numbers and a low state of vitality, and the bacterial 
poisons are very much lessened and consequently are not pres- 
ent to be absorbed. 

Many antiseptics are employed in the treatment of typhoid 
fever. Chlorin stands at the head. The dose of the chlorin 
solution for an adult is a tablespoonful in half a tumblerful of 
water every two hours. This quantity may be increased or 
decreased as necessary, the main point being to give enough to 
make the stools smell strongly of chlorin, to insure its thorough 
action upon the intestinal coats and contents. The mouth should 



SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 435 

be rinsed after the medicine is taken, to prevent injury to the 
teeth. 

The medicine should be administered until the temperature 
has been normal four or five days. The duration of the dis- 
ease is distinctly^ shortened, and convalescence is more rapid. 

At the beginning of the treatment give a thorough purge; giye 
a powder containing one grain of calomel and two of bicarbon- 
ate of soda every hour until the desired result is secured; the 
object being to remove fecal masses and all fermenting sub- 
stances. 

If the symptoms grow serious, the following solution may be 
given: 

9 . Strychniae 1 grain. 

Acidi nitrici dil .....1 drachm. 

Tincture opii 2 drachms. 

Aquae q. s. ad. 4 ounces. 

M. Sig. One teaspoonful in sweetened water every three, 
four or six hours, according to the urgency of the symptoms. 

If the abdomen remain very tympanitic and the intestinal 
evacuations too frequent, a dose of the turpentine and lauda- 
num emulsion may be given between the doses of the strychnia 
solution until those symptoms are sufficiently restrained. 

Next in value to the chlorin treatment is the following. On 
the appearance of earliest symptoms of typhoid fever begin 
the treatment with the following tablets, each containing: 

3 . Podophyllum resin 1-960 grain. 

Mer^urous chloride, mild 1-16 grain. 

Guaiacol carbonate 1-16 grain. 

Menthol 1-16 grain. 

Eucalyptol q. s. 

One tablet of this formula should be given every fifteen min- 
utes during the first twenty -four hours, and increase the dose if 
necessary during the second twenty -four, until during this and 
the succeeding twenty -four hours not less than five or six free 
evacuations of the bowels are secured during each of these 
periods. 

Typhus Fever.— Typhus fever is an infectious disease which 
occurs among the poor, dirty, ill-fed inhabitants of large towns 
far more frequently than among the rich and well-to-do. Over- 
crowding and starvation are its two great predisposing causes. 
It affects persons of all ages. 

It is very infectious under certain conditions, and causes 
severe epidemics in crowded districts: but the infection is some- 
what peculiar: Within a few feet of the patient the danger of 
taking the poison is very great; at a distance of a few yards 
there is very little fear of doing so. The breath and sweat are 
very offensive; doubtless the poison comes from the breath. 

Symptoms. — The patient feels 01, weak and miserable; gees 
about his duties in a listless and heavy way; his thoughts are 
confused and wandering, and he can not follow any definite 



436 SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 

train of thought. From the second to the fourth day the symp< 
toms become too bad for him any longer to get about, and he is 
forced to go to bed. From this to the end of the first week the 

Bash Comes Out most distinct on the abdomen and chest. It 
is first of a dull mottling or patchy discoloration of the skin, 
quickly followed by dusky red spots, somewhat similar to those 
of measles. Distinct at first, they gradually fade. 

The Most Important Complication is inflammation of the 
lungs, which is very fatal. During the third week convales- 
cence proceeds and all the symptoms decrease. But it is sel- 
dom before the end of a month that the patient has regained his 
strength, for the exhaustion and debility produced are extreme. 

Treatment. — Isolation is essential, in as well ventilated and 
airy a room as possible. The attendants should be those who 
are protected from infection by a previous attack, and anyone 
else entering the room should keep at a good distance from the 

gatient. All carpets, curtains and unnecessary furniture should 
e removed. Disinfectants must be used freely in the room, and 
when the case is over the bedding, clothing and furniture should 
be thoroughly disinfected, and the whole room purified. 

The Biet should be light and fluid while the fever lasts. 
Plenty of simple drinks may be allowed to relieve the thirst, and 
as the patient is half unconscious and will never ask for food, 
the greatest care should be taken that it is given sufficiently fre- 
quently and freely to maintain the strength. The fever may 
©e relieved by some simple fever mixture as the following: 
Solution of Acetate of Ammonia, 1 drachm. 
Citrate of Potash, 20 grains. 
Syrup of Orange, l /z drachm. 
Water to the ounce. 
To be given every three hours. 

Constipation must be relieved by enemata. See to it that 
the patient is roused at regular intervals to pass water. If 
inflammation of the lungs arises, shown by difficulty of breath* 
ing and blueness, five drops of ipecacuanha wine should be 
added to the mixture. 

During convalescence the food must be increased, and tonics, 
especially quinine, given. 

Influenza.— Influenza (epidemic catarrhal fever) might be 
very properly called a truly epidemic disease. It has been 
known for many years, but has probably never, until the last 
few years, occupied public attention so widely or been a subject 
of such very general interest. 

The cause of the disease has been and still remains a mys- 
tery. Its origin is so obscure; it sweeps over countries, conti- 
nents, ©r even the whole world with such rapidity; ft affects all 
persons — young and old, rich and poor, healthy and diseased; 
its visits are irregular and indefinite in their intervals and warn- 



SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 437 

ings; its departure is so rapid and complete, that the mind is 
simply baffled in any attempt to understand and explain it. 

It has been proved to be quite independent of climate or 
season, drainage, public hygiene, or the usual sanitary evils so 
important in other infectious fevers. There are many reasons 
for doubting the contagiousness of influenza. The disease 
breaks out simultaneously in many places widely apart. 

Symptoms of Influenza. — At one time the respiratory organs 
have been chiefly attacked; at another, the digestive organs or 
the nervous system. Sore throats,' coughs, aching rheumatic 
pains, severe vomiting and excessive prostration have all been 
prominent symptoms at different times. The illness begins 
suddenly with chilliness, shivering, cold down the back, fol- 
lowed by flushes of heat, dryness of the skin and fever. Pains 
are felt in the head, chest and limbs; the eyes feel hot and ache, 
and the patient complains of great lassitude and weakness. 
The old-fashioned influenza cold, with free discharge from the 
nose, frequent sneezing and watering of the eyes, sometimes 
occurs, but is not at all an essential part of the illness. Sore 
throat is common, with a dry, irritative cough, followed later by 
free expectoration of thick phlegm, ending, perhaps, in an 
acute attack of bronchitis. When the digestive organs are 
involved, there is great loss of appetite, nausea, troublesome 
vomiting, constipated bowels or diarrhea, and occasionally slight 
jaundice, ringing in the ears, restlessness and inability to 
sleep. 

The Treatment in a mild case is simple. Go to bed at once 
in a well-aired, warm room, cover yourself up well, take plenty 
of warm drinks and light food, get the bowels well opened, and 
keep the skin acting with a dose of the following fever mixture; 

(This is one dose.) 
Sweet Spirits of Nitre, 20 drops. 
Solution of Acetate of Ammonia, 2 drachms. 
Syrup of Lemon, %, drachm. 
Water to the ounce. 
To be taken every four hours until the temperature falls to 
nearly normal; a teaspoonful to be given to children under five 
years of age. 

If the pains in the limbs are very severe, add to the mixture 
seven grains of salicylate of soda for each dose; if the cough is 
troublesome, five drops of ipecacuanha wine added in the same 
way will be found useful. 

A flannel nightdress is an advantage, as free perspirations 
are common, and the treatment advised will also act in this way; 
linen clothes are likely to cause chill if soaked in perspiration. 
As convalescence is established, the food must be more nutri- 
tious and larger in quantity; tonics, such as bark and ammonia 
(Pr. No. 5, list A), or quinine and iron (Pr. No. 6, list A) are also 
necessary, and very often a change of air should be taken tp 
complete the cure. 

27 



438 SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 

An attack of influenza may be treated without the advice of 
a medical man. 

Cerebro-Spinal Fever. — Cerebro-spinal fever is an infectious 
fever. It occurs in epidemics. The most important part of the 
disease is an inflammation of the membranes of the brain and 
spinal cord. 

Symptoms. — The disease sets in with a general feeling of 
illness, accompanied with fever, headache and pains all over 
the body, or with more severe symptoms referable to the nerv- 
ous system — such as intense headache and giddiness, violent 
muscular spasms and persistent vomiting. The patient soon 
becomes restless, irritable and delirious; at times he screams out 
from the acute pain caused by the contraction of the muscles of 
the neck. Different kinds of eruptions appear on the body dur- 
ing the progress of the disease. 

Treatment. — A liniment, consisting of equal parts of cam- 
phorated oil and turpentine, briskly applied by friction up and 
down the spine until redness is produced, will cause some 
alleviation of the suffering; a strip of flannel saturated with tur- 
pentine, placed over the spine, from the neck to the sacrum, 
and a hot smoothing iron run up and down it, every three hours, 
may be used with good results, in cases of total unconscious- 
ness. 

In the beginning the following prescription should be used: 

3 . Bromide potassium 5 drachms. 

Aquae 4 ounces. 

M. Sig. Teaspoonful every two hours to a child of four 
years; for adults, more in proportion to age. 

If convulsions occur one teaspoonful of the above should be 
given every fifteen minutes until they cease. 

The following mixture should also be given: 

3 . Fl. ext. ergot 5 drachms. 

Simple elixir q. s. 4 ounces. 

M. Sig. Teaspoonful every three hours to a child of eight 
or ten years. 

The diet from the beginning to the end of the malady should 
be the most nutritious, and such as is easily digested; it is neces- 
sary to give it in a liquid form. If there be excessive vomiting 
after forty-eight hours, iced milk and lime-water may be admin- 
istered, and the patient given small pieces of cracked ice to 
swallow. Opium is one of our most valuable remedies in the 
treatment of this disease, but should never be given without the 
advice of a physician. A great deal depends upon good nursing. 
In cases of cerebro-spinal fever the patient should be placed 
under the care of a good physician as soon as possible. 

Cholera. — Asiatic cholera, according to recent investigations, 
is an affection owing its origin to the presence in the system of 
a peculiar microscopical germ. It is an epidemic disease, char- 
acterized by violent vomiting; by frequent purging of a colorless 



SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 439 

fluid having the appearance of "rice water;" and by collapse, in 
which state there is loss of pulse, oppression in breathing, sup- 
pression of urine, cold perspiration, blue and shrunken skin, and 
extreme depression of all the vital functions. It terminates in 
death (sometimes in a few hours); in reaction and a recovery of 
health, and in various grave conditions which arise as complica- 
tions during the stage of reaction. 

Cholera Germ. — That cholera had its origin in some mate- 
rial, specific cause had for a long time been held by all the 
leading investigators; but not until a comparatively recent 
period (1884) has the fact been established that the pestilence 
was caused by the presence in the system of a minute germ, 
one so small as only to be discerned under the most powerful 
microscope. 

Cholera Has Its Origin in impure or bad drinking water, 
bad drainage, impaired health, fear or fright, and the miseries 
of poverty, squalor and filthy surroundings. Foul water, how- 
ever, will not of itself produce cholera; it must first be polluted 
by the presence of the germ. A crop can not be produced from 
a soil, be it ever so rich, if the seed has not been planted. 
Neither will a crop be produced, even if the seed has been 
planted, unless the soil be good. Hence, the individual or the 
city surrounded by thoroughly wholesome influences, subjected 
to good sanitary regulations, and sustained by the best hygienic 
measures, need have but little fear of cholera, as all these con- 
ditions are unfavorable to the support of the cholera germ. 

Symptoms of Cholera. — If taken in time, many cases of 
cholera are capable of successful treatment, which, if allowed 
to get well under way, resist the most powerful remedies known 
to the profession. 

Those who die of cholera present a mottled appearance of the 
skin, the limbs are livid and shrunken, the mucous surface of the 
stomach and intestines is injected and swollen, the muscles of 
the body are sometimes contracted, and the death chill comes 
on more rapidly than is usual after death from other diseases. 

Treatment. — General sanitary rules should not only be 
observed, but every household should be put in order for the 
unwelcome visitor by preventive precautions. Drains should be 
thoroughly examined, and the least imperfection in their con- 
struction promptly removed. The cellar, the yard, the out- 
buildings, the alley, the chicken-houses, the pig-pens, all the 
surroundings of the dwelling-house, and the house itself from 
basement to garret should be gone over, cleaned, purified and 
disinfected. Everything objectionable, and which by decom- 
position might pollute the air, should be speedily banished from 
the premises. Cleanliness, sunshine and a plentiful use of dis- 
infectants will surely keep the foe away, as has been repeatedly 
proven. Clean or pure drinking water is especially desirable in 



440 SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 

cholera times. No well should be used if in proximity to cess- 
pools, drains or sewers. 

Diarrheas, especially those of a watery nature, must not be 
neglected for an instant during a cholera season. It must not 
be forgotten that cholera is frequently introduced by a diarrhea, 
which, if treated at once, might be followed by a complete pre- 
vention of serious symptoms. 

Chloral in combination with morphine, is the favorite rem- 
edy with some physicians. The most effective method of 
administration is by hypodermic injection. Chloral, three 
drachms; morphine, four grains; cherry laurel water, one ounce; 
dose, from fifteen to thirty drops injected beneath the skin. 

Chloroform in doses of a few drops frequently repeated, is 
sometimes used with highly beneficial results. It will sometimes 
allay the vomiting and diarrhea, relieve the cramps, and restore 
the body to its natural warmth. 

Ague. — Ague, or intermittent fever, is produced by the poison 
of malaria; this is due to a vegetable organism or bacillus, which 
is produced in certain places as the result of climatic and local 
conditions. 

These districts are particularly common in tropical coun- 
tries, but are also found in temperate places. 

Symptoms of Malaria. — The symptoms produced by malaria 
are various. Some of the most important are a class of fevers 
to which many names have been given, such as ague, intermit- 
tent fever, malaria, or paroxysmal fever. The one feature 
peculiar to this trouble is the regularity with which the fever 
and the ague return, and the firm hold they have on the person 
who has once fallen a victim. The attacks come on in three 
forms: every twenty -four hours, every forty-eight hours or every 
seventy hours. 

A fit of ague is usually preceded by some warning symptoms. 
The patient complains of a feeling of chilliness down the back, 
which rapidly spreads all over the body. His teeth chatter, his 
breathing and pulse are quick; pains are felt all over the body 
and in the head; altogether he feels miserable. 

Treatment for Ague. — During the attacks there is little to be 
done. No drug is known that will cut short or in any way alter 
their course; they must, therefore, be allowed to run through 
their several stages. 

Quinine is the one drug which will drive out the poison, and 
must be given freely. The time of its administration is of impor- 
tance, and the routine treatment should be as follows: When 
the sweating stage is fully established a dose of ten grains of 
sulphate of quinine should be given dissolved in a few drops of 
dilute sulphuric acid and a tablespoonful of water, or two five- 
grain tabloids may be used instead; from four to six hours after- 
wards this dose should be repeated, and if the attacks are 
severe a third dose mav be required before the time at which 



SKIN DISEASES AND FEVERS 441 

the next attack is expected. These measures may prevent the 
next attack coming on; if it does not, the treatment must be 
repeated. 

Rules Governing the Administration of Quinine.— The 

best results are ordinarily obtained by giving from fifteen to 
twenty grains when the temperature begins to fall. Good results 
may be obtained by giving ten-grain doses, three, four or even six 
hours apart, during the decline. 

If the paroxysms take place early in the day, so that the 
temperature begins to fall early in the afternoon, the full dose 
may be taken that day. But if the attacks come later, one dose 
may be taken in the decline, the next on the following morning. 
If the paroxysms come later in the afternoon or evening, the full 
dose (twenty grains) should be taken on an empty stomach next 
morning. If the next paroxysm is missed, the quinine should 
be withheld. If, however, there is any rise of temperature, ten 
grains should be given. After the last paroxysm no quinine 
should be given until the seventh day. To simplify the above 
statement, the following method may be used for the routine 
treatment of simple cases: 

First day in the decline, 15 to 20 grains of quinine. 

Second day, if necessary, 10 to 15 grains. 

Third, fourth, fifth and sixth days, no quinine. 

Seventh day, 20 grains. 

Eighth to fourteenth day, no quinine. 

Fifteenth day, 20 grains. 

Sixteenth to twenty-first day, no quinine. 

Twenty-second day, 20 grains. 

If fever occurs after this period a full dose should be given 
and the treatment continued. 

After the paroxysms have been broken the patient's strength 
should be restored as soon as possible. Light stimulants may 
be taken at meal-time and the bowels should be regulated. Bit- 
ter tonics are always indicated. The following mixture is one 
of the best: 

§. Quininae sulphat. 40 grains. 

Acid hydrochlor dil 5 drachms. 

Fluid ext. taraxaci 2% ounces. 

Elix. calisayae q. s. ad. 6 ounces. 

M. Sig. Large teaspoonful in a tablespoonful of water, 
after meals, three times a day. 



CHAPTER XXIX 
TREATMENT OF VENEREAL DISEASES 



SPERMATORRHEA 

Treatment.— The first thing to be done is to remove, if pos° 
sible, whatever cause there may be; and in the second place our 
best efforts must be directed toward building up the general 
health, which will be found invariably to be reduced. If the 
patient is troubled with constipation, piles, gravel, worms or any 
of those affections which are a source of irritation to the gen- 
itals, a cure must be made in that direction before anything can 
be done for the spermatorrhea. Indeed, a very simple course of 
treatment may cure a most aggravated case, for in the removal 
of the cause often the disease itself is cured. A patient afflicted 
in this manner must make up his mind that whether he is cured 
or not depends almost altogether on what he is able to do for 
himself. If he can leave off all bad habits, take no stimulants 
either in the form of food or drink, attend carefully to his diet, 
avoid constipation, avoid everything of an exciting nature, he 
will, especially if he be a young man, have very little trouble 
with spermatorrhea. 

Use of Medicines, — So far as concerns the use of medicines, 
people are liable to expect much more from them than what they 
usually derive. Individuals with this affection are very fortu- 
nate if they are cured by the use of medicines alone; and as for 
being cured at all, there is no medicine in the world, nor any 
course of treatment known to man that will cure, or even 
improve, the patient's condition, so long as the exciting cause 
remains. We give the following prescription as very useful 
where there is sexual debility and nocturnal emissions, either 
from weakness in the organs or general debility: Bromide of 
potassium, one ounce; tincture of iron, one ounce; water, three 
ounces; dose, one to two teaspoonfuls after each meal and at 
bed-time; it should be taken in a little water. This is also a 
very valuable prescription for seminal emissions: Tincture of 
chloride of iron and fluid extract of ergot, each three ounces; 
dose, a teaspoonful in water after each meal. 

Diet and Hygienic Treatment.— In the course of the treat- 
ment, if there is much burning in passing the urine, a mucous 
discharge and redness at the opening of the urethra, the 
patient must be put upon a milk diet, for a time at least; avoid- 
ing fat meats, he may partake of fruits of almost every kind; he 

442 



TREATMENT OF VENEREAL DISEASES 443 

may also eat plentifully of potatoes, which, besides being very 
nutritious, seem to have a particularly benign effect upon the 
irritable urinary passages. 

Much attention must be paid to cleanliness: the body should 
be bathed even." day, and the genitals should be bathed in cold 
water both night and morning. As constipation frequently 
accompanies spermatorrhea, laxatives are often an essential 
part of the treatment. 

A cold bath should be taken just before retiring, the water 
being poured along the spine from a height, for three to ten 
minutes. The bladder should be thoroughly emptied, and a 
position on the back avoided, as this posture allows the urine to 
accumulate and press upon that portion of the bladder which is 
most sensitive. It is sometimes necessary, when one can not 
break himself from assuming such a position during sleep, to 
wear a plate with a projecting piece, fastened on the back with 
a strap or belt, or what is equally good, to tie a towel around 
the body with a hard knot in it just over the spine. 

GONORRHEA 

Treatment. — If a patient wishes to get rid of his gonorrhea, 
it is of the first importance that he live, for a time at least, an 
abstemious and continent life. He must drink no alcoholic 
stimulants of any kind during treatment. Malt liquors, beer 
and ale are especially pernicious. It is found that these sub- 
stances tend to create in the urine sharp crystals of uric acid; 
they strongly acidify the urine, which condition, in itself, may 
inflame the urethra. 

It is also advisable, during the height of the disease, to 
abstain from coffee, highly-seasoned food, salt meats and aspar- 
agus. If there is the sensitiveness in the testes, a suspending 
bandage should be worn, and over-fatigue should be avoided, 
as well as violent exercise either in work or play. 

Blindness from Gonorrheal Discharges.— It is customary 
with physicians, on seeing a case of gonorrhea early in the 
acute stage, to first give an alkali in order that the urine may 
be rendered bland and unirritating. If it is thought necessary 
to take an alkali, the citrate of potash will be found as effective 
as any, and it may be prescribed in doses of from ten to twenty 
grains, three or four times a day. If there is much scalding on 
making water, it is well to drink freelv of flaxseed tea. The 
medicine most commonly employed in the acute stage, is balsam 
copaiba; it is better to reserve the use of injections until the 
acute symptoms have somewhat subsided. Before describing 
the usual method of treatment and the medicines most fre- 
quently relied upon to effect a rapid cure, there is a warning 
which we wish to impress deeply on the mind of the reader: 
Care sh ways be taken not to get any of 'the discharge into the 

eyes. Blindness has occurred many times from this cause. 



444 TREATMENT OF VENEREAL DISEASES 

Some Medical Prescriptions for Gonorrhea.— The highest 
authorities regard balsam of copaiba as the most valuable med- 
icine of all those used for internal treatment, though there are 
great objections to it in some cases, from the fact that it can not 
be tolerated by some stomachs. If not used with prudence it 
also produces a peculiar skin eruption. The other remedies 
used internally are cubebs, oil of yellow sandal-wood, sweet 
spirits of nitre, buchu, colchicum, turpentine and cantharides. 
Turpentine and tincture of cantharides are more especially 
adapted to the chronic stage. 

The following is a formula from Professor Bumstead, which 
has given more satisfaction in our own practice than any we 
have ever made use of in constitutional treatment: Balsam of 
copaiba and sweet spirits of nitre, each one ounce; liquor potas- 
sae, two drachms; extract of licorice, one-half ounce; mix well 
together, and add oil of checkerberry, sixteen drops, and syrup 
of acacia, six ounces; dose, a tablespoonful after eating. Both 
copaiba and oil of sandal-wood are put up in capsules, which 
may be had at any of the drug stores. 

Chordee frequently gives much trouble, and, as far as known, 
there are no medicines which effectually remove it in all cases. 
The patient sh